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THE 

HISTORIANS   OF   SCOTLAND. 

VOL.   VI. 


Edinburgh  :  Printed  by  Thomas  and  Archibald  Constable, 

FOR 

EDMONSTON  AND  DOUGLAS. 

LONDON HAMILTON,  ADAMS,  AND  CO. 

CAMBRIDGE MACMILLAN  AND  CO. 

GLASGOW JAMES  MACLEHOSK. 


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EDMONSTON  &    DOUGLAS.  EDINBURGH. 


THE 


IISTOBIANS  OF  SCOTLAND 


VOL.  VI. 


jLife  of  ^>aittt  Columba, 


EDINBURGH 


\    Xrt 
EDMONSTON   AND    DOUGLAS     V/   \<\ 


1874. 


V 


of 

aint    Columba, 


FOUNDER    OF    HY. 


WRITTEN    BY    ADAMNAN, 

NINTH  ABBOT  OF  THAT  MONASTERY. 


EDITED  BY 


WILLIAM    BEEVES,    D.  D.,    M.  B.  I.  A., 

RECTOR  OF  TYXAX,  AND  CANON  OF  ARMAGH. 


EDINBURGH 

EDMONSTON   AND   DOUGLAS 

1874. 


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PRELIMINARY   NOTICE. 

THE  Life  of  St.  Columba  by  Adamnan  has  always 
excited  much  interest,  from  the  undoubted  authenticity 
of  the  Biography,  the  early  period  in  which  it  was 
compiled,  and  its  connexion  with  the  foundation  of 
the  ecclesiastical  establishment  at  lona,  and  the  intro 
duction  of  Christianity  into  the  north  of  Scotland  ; 
but  until  the  appearance,  in  1856,  of  Dr.  Reeves's 
edition  of  the  Life,  its  real  character,  and  that  of  the 
establishment  at  lona,  was  little  understood,  and  its 
history  perverted  to  suit  the  purposes  of  a  polemical 
controversy.  The  accuracy  of  learning  and  the 
thorough  research  displayed  in  Dr.  Reeves's  edition 
has  now  placed  the  subject  beyond  the  reach  of  con 
troversy,  and  his  truly  admirable  edition  is  accom 
panied  by  a  wealth  of  illustration  almost  unrivalled. 
His  work,  however,  was  printed  for  the  Irish  Archaeo 
logical  Society  and  for  the  Bannatyne  Club,  and  is 
accessible  only  to  the  members  of  these  bodies.  It  is 


viii  PRELIMINARY   NOTICE. 

therefore  with  much  pleasure  that  the  Publishers  of 
the  Series  of  Scottish  Historians  are  enabled,  by  Dr. 
Reeves's  permission,  to  present  this  work  to  the  sub 
scribers  of  that  Series. 

Dr.  Reeves  has  permitted  them,  in  order  to  adapt 
the  work  more  to  the  general  reader,  to  add  an 
English  translation,  and  to  re-arrange  the  matter 
contained  in  his  learned  and  exhaustive  Notes. 

The  principal  alteration  in  the  latter  is  to  throw 
the  elaborate  Additional  Notes  added  to  the  Life  in 
an  Appendix  into  the  form  of  an  Introduction,  and  to 
transfer  the  numerous  footnotes  from  the  bottom  of 
the  page  to  the  end  of  the  Latin  text. 

The  Eight  Reverend  the  BISHOP  OF  BRECHIN  has, 
at  the  Publishers'  request,  kindly  superintended  the 
preparation  of  the  translation,  and  Mr.  W.  F.  SKENE 
is  responsible  for  the  re-arrangement  of  the  matter 
contained  in  the  Notes. 

EDINBURGH,  December  1874. 


TABLE   OF  CONTENTS. 


I'AGK 


PREFACE,       .  .    xix 

INTRODUCTION,    ....  .  xxxiii 

1.  Chronological  Summary  of  St.  Columba's  Life,  .         xxxiii 

2.  Battles  with  which  St.  Columba  was  connected,          .     xli 

3.  St.  Columba's  Churches, xlix 

4.  St.  Columba's  Twelve  Disciples,        ....  Ixxi 

5.  The  year  of  St.  Columba's  Death,     .         .         .  Ixxvi 

6.  The  Relics  of  St.  Columba,       .  .         .          Ixxix 

7.  The  Monastery  of  Hy, c 

8.  The  Topography  of  Hy,  ....  cxxvii 

9.  Chronicle  of  Hy,     .         .         .         .         .         .  cxlvi 

TRANSLATION  OF  THE  LIFE  OF  ST.  COLUMBA  :— 
PREFACE,       ...  .....      1 

SECOND  PREFACE, 2 

BOOK   I. 
OF  HIS  PROPHETIC  REVELATIONS. 

CHAPTER  I. — A  brief  narrative  of  his  wonderful  Miracles,  .  4 
CHAPTER  II.— Of  St.  Fintan  the  Abbot,  son  of  Tailchan, 

and  how  St.  Columba  prophesied  of  him,  ...  7 
CHAPTER  III. — His  Prophecy  regarding  Ernene,  son  of 

Crasen, 9 

CHAPTER  IV. — How  he  announced  beforehand  the  arrival 

of  Cainnech,        .         .         .         .          .         .         .          .10 

CHAPTER  V. — Of  the  danger  of  St.  Colman,  of  the  tribe 

Mocusailni,  made  known  to  St.  Columba,       .         .         .11 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER  VI.— His  Prophecies  regarding  Cormac,  grandson 

ofLethan, 

CHAPTER  VII.— Of  the  Battles, 

CHAPTER  VIII.— Of  the  Kings, 

CHAPTER  IX. — Of  the  two  boys  who  died  at  the  end  of  a 

week,  according  to  his  word,         .... 
CHAPTER  X. — Of  Colca,  son  of  Aid  Draigniche,  and  of  a 

certain  hidden  sin  of  his  Mother, 
CHAPTER  XI. — Prophecy   of  St.    Columba   regarding  the 

sign  of  the  same  man's  death,       ..... 
CHAPTER  XII. — Of  Laisran  the  gardener, 
CHAPTER  XIII. — How  he  prophesied  of  a  large  Whale, 
CHAPTER  XIV. — Of  a  certain  Baitan,  who  sailed  with  others 

to  a  desert  in  the  ocean,       ...... 

CHAPTER  XV. — Of  a  certain  Neman,  an  unreal  penitent, 

who  afterwards,  according  to  the  Saint's  word,  ate  the 

flesh  of  a  stolen  mare,  ...... 

CHAPTER  XVI. — Of  that  unhappy  man  who  sinned  with 

his  Mother, 

CHAPTER  XVII. — Of  the  vowel  letter  I,  which  alone  was 

wanting  in  the  Psalter, 

CHAPTER  XVIII.— Of  the  Book  which  fell  into  the  water- 
vessel,        ......... 

CHAPTER  XIX. — Of  the  Inkhorn  overturned,     . 

CHAPTER  XX. — Of  the  arrival  of  one  Aidan,  which  broke 

the  fast, 

CHAPTER  XXI. — Of  a  poor  man  who  shouted  at  the  Sound 

when  about  to  die,       ....... 

CHAPTER  XXIL— Of  the  city  of  the  Roman  jurisdiction,  on 

which  fire  fell  from  heaven,  ..... 

CHAPTER  XXIII.— Of  Laisran,  son  of  Feradach,  and  how 

he  tried  the  monks  in  their  labour,        .... 
CHAPTER  XXIV.— Of  Fechna  Bine,          . 
CHAPTER  XXV.— Of  Cailtan  the  monk, 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS.  xi 

PAGE 

CHAPTER  XXVI. — Of  two  Strangers,  .  .  .  .24 
CHAPTER  XXVII. — Of  Artbranan,  the  old  man  whom  he 

baptized  in  the  Scian  island,  .  .  .  .  .25 
CHAPTER  XXVIII.— Of  the  removal  of  the  Boat  across  the 

loch  of  Loch-dise,         .         .         .         .         .         .         .25 

CHAPTER  XXIX. — Of  Gallan,  son  of  Fachtna,  whom  the 

demons  carried  off, 26 

CHAPTER  XXX.— Of  Lugud  Clodus,  ;.  .  .  .28 
CHAPTER  XXXI.— Of  Enan,  the  son  of  Gruth,  .  29 

CHAPTER  XXXII. — Of  the  Priest  who  was  in  Treoit,  .  29 
CHAPTER  XXXIII.— Of  Ere  the  robber,  .  .  30 

CHAPTER  XXXIV.— Of  Cronan  the  poet,  -  .  .  .30 
CHAPTER  XXXV.— Prophecy  of  the  Saint  regarding  Eonan, 

son  of  Aid,  son  of  Colca,  and  Colman  the  Hound,  son  of 

Ailen,  31 


BOOK  II. 
ON  HIS  MIRACULOUS  POWERS. 

CHAPTER  I. — Of  the  Wine  which  was  made  from  water,     .     38 

CHAPTER  II. — Of  the  very  bitter  fruits  of  a  tree  changed 
into  sweet  by  the  blessing  of  the  Saint,  .  .  .39 

CHAPTER  III. — Of  the  land  which  was  ploughed  and  sown 
after  midsummer,  and  yielded  a  ripe  harvest  in  the  begin 
ning  of  the  month  of  August,  .  .  .  .  .39 

CHAPTER  IV. — On  a  Pestilential  Cloud,  and  the  cure  of 
those  sick  from  it,  .  .  .  .  .  .40 

CHAPTER  V. — Of  Maugina,  a  holy  virgin,  and  the  healing 
of  her  broken  thigh, 41 

CHAPTER  VI. — Of  the  healing  the  diseases  of  many  people 
at  the  Ridge  of  Cete,  by  the  touch  of  the  hem  of  his 
garment, 42 

CHAPTER  VII.— Of  a  lump  of  salt  blessed  by  the  Saint 
which  could  not  be  consumed  by  the  fire,  .  .  .42 


i  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER  VIII. — Of  the  volumes  of  books  in  the  Saint's 
handwriting,  which  could  in  no  way  be  destroyed  by 
water,  .  .  .  .  •  •  • 

CHAPTER  IX. — Of  water  drawn  from  the  hard  rock  by  the 
Saint's  prayers,  . 

CHAPTER  X. — Of  the  fountain  of  water  which  the  Saint 
blessed  and  healed  beyond  the  Dorsal  Eidge  of  Britain, . 

CHAPTER  XI. — Of  the  Saint's  danger  at  sea,  and  the 
mighty  tempest  changed  at  once  into  a  calm  ',by  his 
prayers,  . 

CHAPTER  XII. — Of  another  similar  peril  at  sea,  and  how 
Saint  Cainnech  prayed  for  him  and  his  companions, 

CHAPTER  XIII. — Of  the  Staff  of  St.  Cainnech  forgotten  in 
the  harbour,  ..... 

CHAPTER  XIV. — Of  Baithene  and  Columban,  the  son  of 
Beogna,  who  asked  of  the  Saint  that  he  would  grant 
them  on  the  same  day  a  favourable  wind,  though  they 
were  to  sail  in  different  directions,  .... 

CHAPTER  XV. — Of  the  driving  out  of  a  demon  that  lurked 
in  a  milk-pail,  .  .  . 

CHAPTER  XVI. — Concerning  a  vessel  which  a  certain 
sorcerer  by  diabolical  art  filled  with  milk  taken  from  a 
bull,  and  how,  at  the  Saint's  prayer,  that  which  seemed 
to  be  milk  was  changed  into  its  own  proper  nature  of 
blood, 

CHAPTER  XVII. — Of  Lugne  Mocumin,  whom  the  Saint, 
by  touch  of  his  fingers  and  prayer,  cured  of  a  flow  of 
blood  which  frequently  poured  from  his  nostrils,  . 

CHAPTER  XVIII. — Of  a  large  salmon  found  in  a  river 
according  to  the  Saint's  word, 

CHAPTER  XIX. — Of  two  fishes  found,  by  his  prophecy,  in 
the  river  which  is  called  Boo, 

CHAPTER  XX. — Regarding  a  certain  peasant  who  was  called 
Nesan  the  Crooked,  .  .  ... 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS.  xill 

PA(JK 

CHAPTER  XXI. — Of  a  certain  rich  and  very  greedy  man, 
named  Uigen,  ....  .50 

CHAPTERTXXII. — Of  Columban,  a  man  of  equally  humble 
condition,  whose  cattle,  when  they  were  few,  the  holy 
man  blessed  :  and  after  his  blessing  they  increased  to  the 
number  of  a  hundred,  .  .  .  .  .  .51 

CHAPTER  XXIII.— Of  the  death  of  Johan,  son  of  Conall, 
on  the  very  day  he  threw  dishonour  upon  and  contemned 
the  Saint,  .  .  ...  .  ...  .  .  .  .  51 

CHAPTER  XXIV. — Of  the  death  of  one  Feradach,  a  dis 
honest  man,  foretold  by  the  Saint,  *  .52 

CHAPTER  XXV. — Concerning  another  persecutor,  whose 
name  in  Latin  is  Manus  Dextera,  .  .  .  .  53 

CHAPTER  XXVI. — Another  oppressor  of  the  innocent,  who, 
in  the  province  of  the  Lagenians,  fell  down  dead,  like 
Ananias  before  Peter,  the  same  moment  that  he  was 
terribly  reproved  by  the  Saint,  .  .  .  .  .54 

CHAPTER  XXVII. — Of  the  death  of  a  wild  boar,  which 
was  caused  to  fall  prostrate  at  some  distance  from  the 
Saint  by  the  sign  of  the  Lord's  Cross,  .  .  .  .55 

CHAPTER  XXVIII. — Of  an  Aquatic  Monster  which,  by  his 
prayer  and  the  raising  of  his  hand  against  it,  was  driven 
back  and  prevented  from  hurting  Lugne,  who  was  swim 
ming  near  it,  .  .  .  .  .  .  .55 

CHAPTER  XXIX. — Of  the  Reptiles  and  Serpents  of  the 
louan  island,  which,  from  the  day  the  Saint  blessed  it, 
were  able  to  hurt  neither  man  nor  beast,  .  .  .56 

CHAPTER  XXX. — Of  the  Spear  signed  by  him,  which, 
though  driven  with  all  one's  force,  could  never  after 
hurt  any  living  creature,  .  .  .  .  .  .57 

CHAPTER  XXXI. — Of  the  cure  of  Diormit  when  sick,         .     57 

CHAPTER  XXXII. — Of  the  cure  of  Finten,  the  son  of  Aid, 
when  at  the  point  of  death,  .  .  .  .  .58 

CHAPTER   XXXIII. — Of  the    boy   whom   the   holy   man 


XIV  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

raised  from  the  dead,  in  the  name  of  the  Lord  Jesus 
Christ,  in  the  country  of  the  Picts,  .  .  .  *•  .  58 

CHAPTER  XXXIV.— Of  his  contest  with  the  Druid  Broichan 
for  his  detention  of  a  female  slave  :  and  of  the  stone 
which  the  Saint  blessed,  and  which  floated  in  water  like 
an  apple,  .  ..  ...  .  .*  .  .  .59 

CHAPTER  XXXV. — Of  the  manner  in  which  the  blessed 
man  overcame  Broichan  the  Druid,  and  of  the  contrary 
wind,  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  ;>  .  61 

CHAPTER  XXXVI. — Of  the  sudden  opening  of  the  door  of 
the  royal  fortress  of  its  own  accord,  .  .  .  .62 

CHAPTER  XXXVII. — Of  a  similar  unclosing  of  the  Church 
of  the  Field  of  the  Two  Streams,  .  .  .  .  62 

CHAPTER  XXXVIII. — Concerning  a  certain  peasant  in 
poverty,  and  begging,  for  whom  St.  Columba  made  and 
blessed  a  stake  for  killing  wild  beasts,  .  .  .  .63 

CHAPTER  XXXIX. — Concerning  a  leathern  vessel  for  hold 
ing  milk  which  was  carried  from  its  place,  and  brought 
back  again  to  land  by  the  tide,  .  ;  .  .64 

CHAPTER  XL. — The  Saint's  prophecy  regarding  Libran,  of 
the  Rush-ground,  '.  .  .  .  <  .  .  .65 

CHAPTER  XLI. — Of  a  certain  woman  who  was  relieved 
in  great  and  extremely  difficult  pains  of  childbirth,  .  69 

CHAPTER  XLII. — Of  the  wife  of  Lugne  the  pilot,  who 
hated  him,  :  .  •  •  -  ,  .  .  „  '  •  .  .  ,  .  70 

CHAPTER  XLIII. — The  prophecy  of  St.  Columba  regarding 
Cormac,  the  grandson  of  Lethan,  and  his  voyages, .  .71 

CHAPTER  XLIV. — Of  the  venerable  man's  drive  in  a  chariot 
without  the  protection  of  the  proper  linch-pins,  .  .73 

CHAPTER  XLV. — Of  the  rain  which,  after  several  months 
of  drought,  was  poured  by  God's  gift  upon  the  thirsty 
ground  in  honour  of  the  blessed  man,  .  '.  .-  .  74 

CHAPTER  XL VI. — A  miracle  which  we  are  now  by  God's 
favour  going  to  relate,  as  it  happened  in  our  own  day,  and 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS.  XV 

PAGE 

before  our  own  eyes.  Of  the  unfavourable  winds  which, 
through  the  prayers  of  the  venerable  man,  were  changed 
into  propitious  breezes,  .  .74 

CHAPTER  XLVIL— Of  the  Plague,   .  .         .     76 

BOOK  III. 
THE  APPARITIONS  OF  ANGELS. 

CHAPTER  I. — Of  the  apparition  of  angels  which  were  shown 
either  to  others  regarding  the  blessed  man,  or  to  him 
regarding  others,  v.  .  '  :.  ...  .  78 

CHAPTER  II. — Of  the  angel  of  the  Lord  who  appeared 
in  dreams  to  his  mother  after  his  conception  in  the 
womb,  '.  .  .  .  i  .  '  .  .  78 

CHAPTER  III. — Of  the  ray  of  light  seen  upon  the  boy's  face 
as  he  lay  asleep,  .  .  •  .  .  .  .  .  79 

CHAPTER  IV. — Of  the  apparition  of  holy  angels  whom  St. 
Brenden  saw  accompanying  the  blessed  man  through  the 
plain,  .  .  .  '  .•'.  .  •  .79 

CHAPTER  V. — Of  the  angel  of  the  Lord  whom  St.  Finnic 
saw  accompanying  the  blessed  man  in  his  journey,  .  80 

CHAPTER  VI. — Of  the  angel  of  the  Lord  who  appeared  in 
a  vision  to  St.  Columba  while  he  remained  in  Hinba 
Island,  and  was  sent  to  him  in  order  that  he  might 
ordain  Aidan  king,  .  .  ...  .  .81 

CHAPTER  VII. — Of  the  apparition  of  angels  carrying  to 
heaven  the  soul  of  one  Brito,  .  .  .  .  .82 

CHAPTER  VIII. — Of  the  vision  of  angels  vouchsafed  to  the 
same  holy  man  as  they  were  bearing  to  heaven  the  soul 
of  one  Diormit, 82 

CHAPTER  IX. — Of  the  brave  fight  of  the  angels  against 
the  demons,  and  how  they  opportunely  assisted  the  Saint 
in  the  same  conflict,  .  .  .  .  .  .  .83 

CHAPTER  X. — Of  the  apparition  of  angels  whom  the  man 


XVI  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS. 

PACK 

of  God  saw  carrying  to  heaven  the  soul  of  a  certain 
person,  a  blacksmith  by  trade,  named  Columb,  and  sur- 
named  Coilrigin,  .  .  .  .  .  .84 

CHAPTER  XL — Of  a  similar  vision  of  angels  whom  the 
blessed  man  beheld  carrying  to  heaven  the  soul  of  a 
certain  virtuous  woman,  .  .  .  .  .  .84 

CHAPTER  XII. — Of  the  apparition  of  holy  angels  whom  St. 
Columba  beheld  meeting  in  its  passage  the  soul  of  the 
blessed  Brenden,  the  founder  of  that  monastery  which 
in  the  Scotic  language  is  called  Birra,  .  .  *  .  .85 

CHAPTER  XIII. — Of  the  vision  of  holy  angels  who  carried 
off  to  heaven  the  soul  of  the  Bishop  St.  Columban 
Moculoigse,  .  .  .  ,  «.  «  •  .85 

CHAPTER  XIV. — Of  the  apparition  of  angels  who  came 
down  to  meet  the  souls  of  the  monks  of  St.  Comgell,  .  86 

CHAPTER  XV. — Of  the  apparition  of  angels  who  came  to 
meet  Emchath's  soul,  .  .  .  •  ..  .  .  .87 

CHAPTER  XVI.— Of  the  angel  of  the  Lord  that  came  so 
quickly  and  opportunely  to  the  relief  of  the  brother  who 
fell  from  the  top  of  the  round  monastery  in  the  Oak- 
wood  Plain,  .  .  .  .  .  »  .  .87 

CHAPTER  XVII.— Of  the  multitude  of  holy  angels  that  were 
seen  to  come  down  from  heaven  to  meet  the  blessed  man,  88 

CHAPTER  XVIII.— Of  the  pillar  of  fire  seen  to  burn  upon 
the  Saint's  head,  .  ...  .  .  .  89 

CHAPTER  XIX. — Of  the  descent  or  visit  of  the  Holy  Spirit, 
which  continued  upon  the  venerable  man  for  three  whole 
days  and  as  many  nights,  in  the  same  island,  .  .90 

CHAPTER  XX. — Of  the  bright  angelic  light  which  Virgnous, 
— a  youth  of  good  dispositions,  and  afterwards,  under 
God,  superior  of  this  Church,  in  which  I,  though  un 
worthy,  now  serve, — saw  coming  down  on  St.  Columba 
in  the  church,  on  a  winter's  night,  when  the  brothers 
were  at  rest  in  their  beds,  .  .  90 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS.  XV11 

PAGE 

CHAPTER  XXI. — Of  another  vision  of  almost  equal  bril 
liancy,  .  .  .91 

CHAPTER  XXII. — Of  another  like  apparition  of  divine 
light,  .  .92 

CHAPTER  XXIII. — Of  another  apparition  of  angels  given  to 
the  holy  man,  who  saw  them  coming  forth  to  meet  his 
holy  soul  as  if  about  to  depart  from  the  body,  .  .  93  ' 

CHAPTER  XXIV. — Of  the  departure  of  our  patron,  St. 
Columba,  to  the  Lord,  .  .94 

TEXT   OF   THE  ( LIFE   OF   ST.  COLUMBA,   WITH   THE 

VARIANT  READINGS  OF  THE  DIFFERENT  MSS.,  .  .103 

NOTES  AND  ILLUSTRATIONS  :— 

Notes  to  Preface,         .         .         .         .         .  .223 

Notes  to  Introduction,  V         .  224 

Notes  to  the  Life,        .         .         .         .         .         .         .248 

APPENDIX :- 

I.— Identification  of  Localities,     .         ,         »  .  .303 

II. — Explanation  of  Names  on  the  Map  of  lona,  .  .329 

III. — Chronicon  Hyense,         .         .         .         .  .334 

IV. — Notes  on  the  History  of  the  Ruins  at  lona,  .  .   342 

V. — Records  relating  to  lona  from  the  Vatican,  .  .353 

INDEX,    ...  .  .  .  359 

MAP  OF  ION  A,  to  face  Title. 


PREFACE. 


BEFORE  St.  Columba  was  long  in  the  grave,  it  is  likely  that 
some  member  of  the  brotherhood  set  himself  to  collect  his 
patron's  acts,  and  to  record  such  events  of  his  life  as  were 
suited  to  the  taste  of  the  day,  or  were  calculated  to  promote 
the  veneration  of  his  memory.  In  furtherance  of  this  design, 
he  probably  turned  his  attention  rather  to  the  marvels  than  the 
sober  realities  of  the  Saint's  life,  and  consulted  more  for  the 
excitement  of  admiration  in  a  simple  and  credulous  age,  than 
for  the  supply  of  historical  materials  to  meet  the  stern  demands 
of  remote  posterity.  When  Adamnan,  a  century  after  St. 
Columba's  death,  in  compliance  with  his  brethren's  urgent  re 
quest,  drew  up  the  memoir  which  has  immortalized  both  the 
subject  and  the  writer,  his  information  was  derived,  as  he  him 
self  states,  in  part  from  written,  in  part  from  oral,  authorities. 
In  the  latter  respect,  he  was  quite  near  enough  to  the  fountain- 
head,  both  in  time  and  place,  to  draw  from  authentic  sources, 
for  in  his  boyhood  he  had  frequent  opportunities  of  conversing 
with  those  who  had  seen  St.  Columba,  and  he  was  now  writing 
almost  on  the  very  spot  where  his  great  predecessor  had  indited 
his  last  words,  and  surrounded  by  objects  every  one  of  which 
was  fresh  with  the  impress  of  some  interesting  association.  As 
regarded  his  documentary  materials,  he  had  before  him  the 
account  of  Cummene  the  Fair,  whom  he  cites  by  name,  and 
whose  entire  narrative  he  has  transferred,  almost  verbatim,  into 
his  own  compilation,  where  it  is  for  the  most  part  incorporated 
with  the  Third  Book.  He  had  also  another  memoir,  on  the 
authority  of  which  he  relates  an  occurrence  not  recorded  in 


XX  PREFACE. 

Cummene's  pages.  Besides  these  compositions,  which  were 
written  in  Latin,  there  existed  in  our  author's  day  certain  poems 
on  the  praises  of  Columba,  in  the  Scotic  tongue,  among  which 
was  probably  the  celebrated  Amhra,  or  panegyric,  which  was 
written  by  a  contemporary  of  the  Saint.  Baithene  Mor,  who 
enjoyed  St.  Columba's  friendship,  is  said  to  have  commemorated 
some  particulars  of  his  life,  and  poems  ascribed  to  Baithene  are 
more  than  once  referred  to  by  O'Donnell.  Metrical  composi 
tions  bearing  the  name  of  St.  Mura  are  also  cited  by  the  same 
compiler,  who  adduces  them  as  his  authority,  in  part,  for  the 
history  of  St.  Columba's  infancy.  Thus  furnished  with  record 
and  tradition,  and  quickened,  moreover,  with  zeal  for  the  honour 
of  a  kinsman  after  the  flesh,  the  ninth  abbot  of  Hy  became  the 
biographer  of  the  first,  and  produced  a  work,  which,  though  not 
ostensibly  historical,  and  professing  to  treat  of  an  individual,  is 
"  the  most  authentic  voucher  now  remaining  of  several  other 
important  particulars  of  the  sacred  and  civil  history  of  the 
Scots  and  Picts," l  and  is  pronounced  by  a  writer  not  over-given 
to  eulogy  to  be  "  the  most  complete  piece  of  such  biography  that 
all  Europe  can  boast  of,  not  only  at  so  early  a  period,  but  even 
through  the  whole  middle  ages."2  Our  author  is  indeed  as  free 
from  the  defects  of  hagiology  as  any  ancient  writer  in  this  de 
partment  of  literature,  but  it  must  ever  be  subject  of  regret  that 
he  chose  an  individual  instead  of  a  society  as  his  subject,  and 
reckoned  the  history  of  his  Church  a  secondary  consideration 
to  the  reputation  of  his  Patron.  If  Bede  had  contented  himself 
with  being  the  biographer  of  St.  Cuthbert,  instead  of  the  histo 
rian  of  England,  would  he  be  now  par  excellence  the  Venerable  ? 
If  Adamnan  had  extended  to  history  the  style  and  power  of 
description  which  appear  in  his  tract  on  the  Holy  Places,  with 
the  experience,  the  feeling,  and  the  piety,  which  characterize 
his  Life  of  St.  Columba,  the  voice  of  Christendom  would  have 
borrowed  the  word  from  his  countryman,  and  irreversibly  have 

1  Tnnes,  Civil  and  Eccl.  Hist.,  p.  145. 

-  Pinkerton,  Enquiry,  Pref.,  vol.  i.  p.  xlviii. 


PREFACE.  XXI 

coupled  his  name  with  the  title  of  Admirable.  Even  in  the 
limited  sphere  which  he  chose,  he  soon  acquired,  to  use  a 
modern  expression,  a  European  celebrity,  and  the  numerous 
copies  of  his  writings  which  are  found  scattered  over  the  Con 
tinent  show  in  what  esteem  he  was  held  abroad.  It  was  there 
fore  more  rhetorical  than  just  in  a  late  historian  of  the  English 
Church,  to  create  a  silent  sister  beside  the  vocal  Lindisfarne, 
and  state  that  "  splendid  as  is  the  fame  of  lona,  the  names  of 
almost  all  its  literary  men  have  perished."  x  Surely  Adamnan 
and  Cummene  are  more  than  names,  and  if  names  be  wanting, 
the  Chronicle  of  Hy  is  not  so  barren  as  to  suggest  the  old 
lament — 

"  Omnes  illacrymabiles 

Urgentur,  ignotique  longa 

Nocte." 

Adamnan's  life  of  St.  Columba  has  obtained  due  publicity 
in  print,  yet  has  always  appeared  in  such  a  form  as  to  render 
it  more  a  subject  of  research  than  of  ordinary  study.  It  was 
first  printed  by  Henry  Canisius,  in  the  fifth  volume  of  his 
Antiqiice  Lectiones,  on  the  authority  of  a  manuscript  preserved 
in  the  monastery  of  Windberg  in  Bavaria.  Twenty  years 
afterwards,  Thomas  Messingham,  an  Irish  priest,  reprinted  the 
tract  from  Canisius,  in  his  Florilegium,  adding  titles  to  the 
chapters,  and  appending  a  few  marginal  glosses,  together  with 
testimonies  of  Adamnan,  at  the  beginning,  and  of  St.  Columba, 
at  the  end,  of  the  Life. 

About  the  same  time,  Stephen  White,  a  learned  Jesuit,  a 
native  of  Clonmel,  discovered,  while  in  search  of  Irish  manu 
scripts  on  the  Continent,  a  venerable  copy  of  Adamnan  in  the 
Benedictine  monastery  of  Eeichenau,  and  the  transcript  which 
he  made  supplied  the  text  of  the  fourth  Life  of  St.  Columba  in 
Colgan's  Trias  Thaumaturga,  published  in  1647.  The  editor  of 
the  work  prefixes  numbers  to  the  chapters,  which  are  not  in  the 
original,  and  errs  wherever  White  has  made  an  omission  or 

1  Carwithen,  Hist,  of  the  Church,  v.  i.  p.  6. 


xxn  PREFACE. 


alteration  in  the  text,  but  in  other  respects  is  remarkably  faith 
ful.  The  notes  display  considerable  learning  and  vast  acquaint 
ance  with  the  ecclesiastical  records  of  his  country,  but  his 
conjectural  emendations  are  often  peculiarly  unhappy,  and  his 
constant  endeavour  to  find  a  place  in  the  Irish  Calendar  for 
Adamnan's  worthies  sometimes  tempts  him  into  misspent  labour. 
Stephen  White  furnished  a  copy  to  the  Bollandists  also, 
from  which  the  text  was  again  printed,  in  1698,  under  the 
editorial  care  of  Francis  Baert,  but  in  a  less  faithful  form  than 
the  previous  one.  The  editor  took  many  liberties  with  the 
copy,  changing  the  division  of  the  chapters,  introducing  new 
titles,  displacing  the  original  ones,  and  occasionally  altering  the 
text.  The  notes  which  he  has  added  are  principally  from 
Colgan,  and  are  neither  as  rich  nor  erudite  as  his  materials 
might  have  led  one  to  expect. 

The  next  publication  of  the  Life  was  the  reprint  of  Canisius's 
Lectiones  in  Basnage's  Thesaurus,  in  the  first  volume  of  which 
it  is  reproduced  in  its  earlier  defective  form. 

Lastly,  it  appeared,  in  1789,  in  Pinkerton's  Collection,  a  work 
of  much  smaller  dimensions,  and  which  might  have  had  a  wide 
circulation  but  for  a  whim  of  the  editor,  who  limited  the  im 
pression  to  a  hundred  copies.     The  text  of  Adamnan  in  this 
work  professes  to  follow  a  manuscript  preserved  in  the  British 
Museum ;  but  the  editor,  who  made  the  text  of  Canisius  the 
basis  of  his  collation,  has  very  often  neglected  his  professed 
exemplar,  and  fallen  in  with  the  old  readings  of  the  Windberg, 
instead  of  the  British,  manuscript.     On  the  whole,  the  text  is 
certainly  an  improvement  on  that  in  the  Canisian  family,  but  is 
greatly  inferior  to  Colgan's,  with  which  the  editor  seems  to  have 
been  unacquainted,  for  he  supplies  the  deficiency  at  the  com 
mencement  of  the  British  manuscript  from  Canisius's  meagre 
authority,  and,  when  he  might  have  drawn  from  Colgan's  rich 
store,  he  adds  a  few  foot-notes,  which  do  more  to  prove  the 
editorial  incompetency  of  the  commentator  than  to  illustrate 
the  text  of  his  author. 


PREFACE.  xxiii 

All  who  have  compared  the  text  of  Adamnan  as  given  by 
Canisius  or  his  copyists,  with  that  in  Colgan,  the  Bollandists, 
or  Pinkerton,  have  observed  a  great  difference  in  their  length. 
Ussher  noticed  the  brevity  of  Canisius's  compared  with  the 
Cotton  and  Keichenau  MSS. ;  so  did  Colgan  and  Pinkerton ; 
and  Dr.  Lanigan  has  gone  so  far  as  to  state  it  to  be  his  opinion 
that  the  shorter  text  was  the  genuine  production  of  Adamnan, 
and  that  the  longer  one  owed  its  difference  to  a  later  hand.  In 
deciding,  therefore,  between  the  recensions,  the  question  is  one 
of  abridgment  or  interpolation.  A  strong  presumption  in  favour 
of  the  longer  text  arises  from  the  fact  that  it  is  found  in  the 
oldest  and  most  respectable  manuscript,  as  well  as  in  two  others 
of  totally  independent  authority,  one  of  which  professes  to  follow 
a  Scotch  transcript.  To  which  may  be  added,  that  Fordun  and 
O'Donnell  used  and  received  the  longer  text,  as  is  proved  by 
their  citing  passages  which  do  not  exist  in  the  shorter.  The 
style  of  Adamnan  is  apparent  in  these  extra  portions,  and  the 
arrangement  of  the  chapters  in  the  longer  text  agrees  better 
with  the  character  of  his  other  work.  This  view  is  confirmed 
by  the  consideration  that  the  shorter  text  owes  its  peculiar 
character,  at  least  as  far  as  regards  the  absence  of  titles  and  the 
fewness  of  proper  names,  to  an  assignable  cause,  namely,  the 
convenience  of  congregational  reading,  as  expressed  in  St.  Bene 
dict's  Eule :  "  Ideo  omni  tempore,  sive  jejunii  sive  prandii,  mox 
ut  surrexerint  a  ccena,  sedeant  omnes  in  unum,  et  legat  unus 
Collationes,  vel  Vitas  Patrum,  aut  certe  aliquid  quod  sedificet 
audientes  "  (cap.  42).  It  is  reasonable  to  suppose  that  the  in 
terruption  of  the  narrative  by  titles,  or  the  encumbering  of  it 
with  proper  names,  would  be  avoided  as  opposed  to  the  pur 
pose  of  edification ;  hence,  considering  the  longer  memoir  to 
be  the  genuine  one,  it  is  easy  to  imagine  the  creation  of  an 
abbreviated  text,  and  this  revision  becoming  the  favourite  one 
for  conventual  reading. 

But  the  shorter  text  possesses  internal  evidence  that  such  a 
reduction  has  taken  place.  The  second  Preface  declares  the 


PREFACE. 

author's  intention  to  give  at  the  outset  of  his  memoir  a  summary 
of  the  wonders  contained  in  it,  which  was  to  serve  as  a  foretaste 
for  those  whose  eagerness  to  learn  something  of  the  Saint  would 
not  wait  for  the  patient  perusal  of  the  whole.     Now,  this  promise 
is  fulfilled  in  the  first  chapter  of  the  longer  text,  but  is  left  un 
accomplished  in  the  shorter.    Again,  the  thirty-second  chapter  of 
the  First  Book  (p.  139)  places  St.  Columba  "in  Scotiensium  paulo 
superius  memorata  regione,"  and  then  goes  on  to  speak  of  Trioit, 
a  place  now  known  as  Trevet,  in  the  county  of  Meath.     In  the 
longer  text  the  chapter  but  one  preceding  relates  St.  Columba's 
doings  in  the  Campus  Breg,  the  old  name  of  East  Meath,  and 
thus  the  reference  above   mentioned  is  easy  and  intelligible. 
But  in  the  shorter  text,  where  the  said  passage  also  occurs,  six 
of  the  antecedent  chapters,  as  given  in  the  longer,  are  omitted, 
and  the  place  which  is  last  mentioned  is  Skye,  and  further  back, 
for  several  chapters,  the  scene  is  laid  in  Hy.     It  is  evident, 
therefore,  that  the  true  correlative  to  supra  memorata  does  not 
exist  in  the  shorter  text,  and,  as  a  necessary  consequence,  that 
it  is  mutilated.     Moreover,  as  regards  the  tituli,  they  form  an 
integral  part  of  each  chapter,  for  the  names  which  occur  in  them 
are  often  not  repeated,  though  referred  to,  in  the  substance  of 
the  chapter,  so  that  their  removal,  as  in  the  Bollandist  edition, 
from  their  proper  places  to  the  beginning  of  the  books,  that 
they  may  not  break  the  thread  of  the  story,  illustrates  the 
principle  upon  which  they  were  entirely  omitted  in  the  manu 
scripts  ;  and  occasionally  renders  the  insertion  of  some  words 
in  the  text  necessary,  in  order  to  complete  the  construction. 
Thus,  at  p.  145,  all  the  copies  have  supra  memorata  muni- 
tione,  but  there  is  no  antecedent  mention  of  a  munitio  except  in 
the  titulus,  which  speaks  De  hello  in  munitione  Cethirni,  the 
absence  of  which  evidently  bears  witness  against  the  integrity 
of  the  shorter  text,  and,  in  the  Bollandists,  demanded  a  note  of 
explanation.     The  very  title  of  Canisius's  manuscript,  Incipit 
prima  Prcefatio  Apologiaque  Adamnani  Abbatis  sancti  scriptoris, 
indicates  a  later  hand  ;  as  the  Bollandist  editor  observes,  "  quis 


PREFACE.  XXV 

enim  seipsuni  sanctum  vocet  ? "  Accordingly,  in  giving  the 
preference  to  the  Keichenau  manuscript,  he  comes  to  the  con 
clusion  that  the  "  Windbergense  MS.  videatur  ex  hoc  desump- 
tum,  pluribus  rebus,  tsedio  forsitan  vocum  barbaricarum,  vel 
librarii  incuria,  prsetermissis." l 

Of  the  seven  manuscripts  which  furnish  the  various  readings 
in  the  present  work,  three  contain  the  longer,  and  four  the 
shorter  text. 

These  are  under  the  several  signatures  which  are  employed 
to  represent  them. 

I.  Codex  A.     A  MS.  of  the  beginning  of  the  eighth  century, 
formerly  belonging  to  Eeichenau,  but  now  preserved  in  the 
Public  Library  of  Schaffhausen. 

II.  Codex  B.     A  vellum  MS.  of  the  middle  of  the  fifteenth 
century,  preserved  in  the  British  Museum,  Bill.  Reg.,  8  D.  ix. 

III.  Codex  C.     The  Canisian  text,  which  was  published  in 
1604  "  ex    Membranis    MS.,    Monasterii    Windbergensis    in 
Bauaria."    It  belongs  to  the  shorter  recension. 

IV.  Codex  D.     The  second  tract  (fol.  39  aa  to  51  la),  in  a 
large  vellum  MS.  of  the  thirteenth  century,  preserved  in  Primate 
Marsh's  library,  Dublin,  vulgarly,  though  erroneously,  called 
the  Book  of  Kilkenny,  and  marked  v.  3,  4.     Its  text  is  of  the 
shorter  recension. 

V.  Codex  F.    A  vellum  MS.  in  4to,  Ssec.  x.,  consisting  of  fifty 
leaves.     It  formerly  belonged  to  the  Church  of  Freisingen, 
situate  at  the  junction  of  the  Moosach  and  Isar,  in  Bavaria ; 
under  the  number  141,  and  is  now  in  the  Eoyal  Library  of 
Munich,  6341.     It  is  the  most  respectable  MS.  of  the  shorter 
recension. 

VI.  Codex  S.     A  small  quarto  MS.  on  vellum,  of  the  early 
part  of  the  ninth  century,  preserved  in  the  library  of  St.  Gall, 
No.  555.     It  consists  of  eighty-three  folios,  and  contains  the 
text  of  the  shorter  recension. 


1  Act.  SS.  Jim.,  torn.  ii.  pp.  190  6,  198  a. 
I 


XXVI  PREFACE. 

VII.  Codex  Cottonianus.  This  copy  of  the  Life  is  contained 
in  a  large  folio  volume,  which  formerly  belonged  to  Sir  Kobert 
Cotton,  and  is  now  to  be  found  in  the  British  Museum,  under 
the  mark  Bill.  Cotton.  Tiberius,  D.  Hi.  It  is  a  vellum  MS.  in 
double  columns,  written  in  a  fine  large  hand  of  the  latter  part 
of  the  twelfth  century.1 

Besides  these  seven  manuscripts,  which  furnish  the  various 
readings  of  this  edition,  there  are  reported  to  be  in  existence 
the  following : — 

1.  At  Admont,  a  cathedral  town  of  Styria,  in  the  circle  of 
Judenburg,  and  valley  of  the  Enns  river,  a  manuscript  Vita  8. 
Columbce  presbyteri  et  confessoris,  beginning  "  Sanctus   igitur 
Columba  nobilibus  fuerat  oriundus  natalibus,  patrem  habens 
Fedilmitum  filium  Fergusa." 

2.  Heiligenkreutz  (Holy  Cross),  in  Austria,  is  reported  as  having 
a  Vita  S.  Columbce.     There  are  eight  places  of  the  name  in  the 
Austrian  empire ;  but  of  the  two  which  are  in  the  archduchy 
of  Austria,  this  is  probably  the  Cistercian  monastery,  in  the 
district  of  the  Vienna  forest. 

3.  Salmansweiler,  a   Cistercian  monastery,   one  mile   from 
Ueberliugen,  on  the  north  side  of  the  Lake  of  Constance,   is 
reported  to  have  Adamannus  Abbas  de  Vita  S.  Columle  con- 


4.  Tegernsee,  a  monastery  of  Bavaria,  between  the  rivers  Isar 
and  Inn,  and  the  lakes  of  Schlier  and  Tegern,  is  said  to  have  j 
Vita,  Columbi  Confessoris ;   Saec.  xiii.     This,  however,  as  well  ! 
as  No.  2,  may  be  by  Cummene. 

5.  In  the  Codex  Salmanticensis,  belonging  to  the  library  of 
the  Dukes  of  Burgundy  at  Brussels,  is  a  fragment  of  a  Life  of 
St.  Columba,  differing  very  little  from  Adamnan's.     Owing  to 
the  loss   of  several  folios,  the  greater  part  of  this  tract  is 
wanting,   and   what  remains,  beginning  at  iii.   18  of  Adam- 

1  For  an  elaborate  account  of  these  manuscripts  the  reader  is  referred  to 
Dr.  Eeeves's  Preface  in  the  original  work,  pp.  xiii-xxxi.,  from  which  part  of 
the  Preface  this  account  of  the  seven  MSS.  is  abridged. — W.  F.  S. 


PREFACE.  XXV11 

nan,  is  printed  by  Colgan  as   the   second  part  of  his    Vita 
Secunda. 

The  other  Lives  of  St.  Columba  are  the  following : — 

I.  That  by  Cummene,  already  mentioned. 

II.  The  first  part  of  Colgan's  Vita  Secunda,  which  he  found 
in  the  Salamanca  MS.,   and   erroneously  supposed  to  be  by 
Cumineus.     It  is  a  succinct   and  chronological  digest  of  the 
principal  recorded  events  of  the  Saint's  life,  and  supplies  from 

,  the  old  Irish  Life  some  particulars  not  recorded  by  Adamnan. 

III.  A  Life  by  John  of  Tinrnouth,  pirated  by  Capgrave,  and 
reprinted  by  Colgan  with  notes,  in  the  Trias,  where  it  appears 
as  the  Vita  Tertia.     It  is  principally  compiled  from  Adamnan, 
and   ends  with  the  monition :  "  Est   autem   sciendum  quod 
Hibernia  proprie  Scotorum  est  patria :  antiquitus  igitur  Scotia 
pro  Hibernia  saepius  scribi  solet  sicut  hie  in  vita  sancti  Columbe 
diligenter  intuentibus  apparet.     Et  etiam  venerabilis  Beda  de 
gestis  Anglorum  multis  in  locis  Hiberniam  exprimere  volens, 
Scotiam  scripsit." 

IV.  The  office  in  the  Breviary  of  Aberdeen,  containing  nine 
short  lessons,  borrowed,  in  an  abridged  form,  from  Adamnan. 

V.  An  abridgment  of  Adamnan,  printed  by  Benedict  Gonon 
under  the  title   Vita  S.  Columbce,  sive  Columbani,  Presbyteri  et 
Confessoris  (qui  alius  est  cb  S.  Columbano  Luxoviensi  ablate)  ex 
ilia  prolixa  quam  scripsit  Adamannus  abbas  Insulce  Huensis  in 
Scotia.    It  occupies  three  folio  pages,  double  columns,  and  is 
accompanied  by  three  trifling  notulse. 

VI.  An  ancient  Irish  memoir,  frequently  referred  to  in  the 
following  pages  as  the  old  Irish  Life.     It  is  a  composition  pro 
bably  as  old  as  the  tenth  century,  and  was  originally  compiled, 
to  be  read  as  a  discourse  on  St.  Columba's  festival,  on  the  text 
Exi  de  terra  tua  et  de  cognatione  tua,  et  de  domo  patris  tui,  et 
vade  in  terram  quam  tibi  monstravero.     This  curious  relic  of 
Irish  preaching  is  preserved  in  four  manuscripts : — 1.  The 
Leabhar  Breac,  or  Speckled  Book  of  Mac  Egan,  in  the  library  of 
the  Eoyal  Irish  Academy  (fol.  15  a  I).     2.  The  Book  of  Lismore 


XXV111  PREFACE. 

(fol.  49  6  a)}  of  which  the  original  is  in  the  possession  of  his 
Grace  the  Duke  of  Devonshire,  and  a  beautiful  copy  in  the 
Koyal  Irish  Academy.  3.  A  quarto  vellum  MS.,  formerly 
belonging  to  the  Highland  Society  of  Scotland,  and  now 
deposited  in  the  Advocates'  Library,  Edinburgh.  It  is  a  thin 
fasciculus  without  covers,  probably  of  the  twelfth  century,  and 
written  in  double  columns.  The  Life  begins  in  fol.  7,  and  is 
continued  to  the  end,  namely,  1 4  &.  It  modernizes  all  the  old 
words  and  constructions  of  the  earlier  copies,  and  subjoins  the 
account  of  St.  Columba's  proceedings  at  the  convention  of 
Drumceatt,  taken  from  one  of  the  prefaces  to  the  Amhra  Cho- 
luim-cille.  This  MS.  may  be  the  one  of  those  mentioned  by 
Martin,  circ.  1700  :  "  The  Life  of  Columbus,  written  in  the  Irish 
Character,  is  in  the  Custody  of  John  Mack  Neil,  in  the  Isle  of 
Barray ;  another  Copy  of  it  is  kept  by  Mack-Donald  of  Ben- 
lecula."  A  facsimile  of  some  lines  has  been  engraved  in  one  of 
the  Highland  Society's  publications.  4.  MS.  Eoyal  Library, 
Paris,  Ancien  Fond.,  No.  8175.  It  forms  fol.  53  aa  to  fol.  56  llt 
of  a  small  folio  parchment  volume  found  by  the  Eevolutionary 
Commissioners,  during  the  Eepublic,  in  a  private  house  in  Paris, 
and  by  them  presented  to  the  library. 

This  ancient  Life,  evidently  held  in  great  esteem,  furnished 
O'Donnell  with  a  considerable  portion  of  his  narrative,  and  he 
has  transferred  the  whole  into  his  collection.  Ussher  was  ac 
quainted  with  it,  as  is  shown  by  his  reference :  "  Ut  habet 
anonymus,  qui  acta  ipsius  Hibernico  idiomate  descripsit ;"  but 
Colgan  does  not  seem  to  have  been  aware  of  its  existence,  and 
the  Irish  Life  which  he  cites  is  always  that  of  O'Donnell. 

VII.  The  latest  and  much  the  most  copious  collection  of  the 
Saint's  acts  is  that  by  Manus  O'Donnell,  chief  of  Tir-Connell, 
which  professes  to  be,  and  is,  a  chronological  digest  of  all  the 
existing  records  concerning  the  patron  of  his  family.  His  frame 
work  consists  of  Adamnan  and  the  old  Irish  Life ;  into  this  he 
has  worked: — 1.  The  historical  allusions  found  in  the  volume 
of  poems  ascribed  to  St.  Columba ;  2.  The  substance  of  the 


PREFACE.  XXIX 

preface  to  the  Amhra  Choluim-cille ;  3.  Extracts  from  the 
prefaces  to  the  Latin  hymns  ascribed  to  St.  Columba,  and  from 
the  hymns  themselves,  as  preserved  in  the  Liber  Hymnorum ; 

4.  Some  notes  from  the  comments  on  the  Feilire  of  Aengus ; 

5.  The  matter  in  the  poems  on  Cormac  Ua  Liathain ;  6.  Passages 
from  the  lives  of  contemporary  saints,  especially  St.  Mochonna, 
or  Machar,  of  Aberdeen ;  7.  The  alleged  prophecies  of  Berchan 
of  Clonsast ;  8.  Some  legendary  poems  on  the  wanderings  of 
certain  Columbian  monks,  which  far  outdo  St,  Brendan's  Navi 
gation  in  wildness  of  incident.    O'Donnell's  statement  is  :  "  Be 
it  known  to  the  readers  of  the  Life,  that  it  was  buried  in  oblivion 
for  a  long  time,  and  that  there  was  not  to  be  found  but  a  frag 
ment  of  the  book  which  holy  Adamnan  compiled  of  it  in  Latin, 
and  another  small  portion  in  Irish,  compiled  by  the  Irish  poets 
in  a  very  difficult  dialect ;  and  the  remainder  in  legends  scat 
tered  throughout  the  old  books  of  Erin."    These  materials,  with 
one  or  two  trifling  exceptions,  all  exist  at  the  present  day,  and 
have  more  or  less  been  consulted  for  the  present  work.     It 
would  be  quite  possible  for  a  good  scholar  and  patient  investi 
gator,  endowed  with  an  inventive  wit  and  a  copious  style,  to 
compile  from  materials  existing  in  the  year  of  grace  1856,1  a 
narrative  to  the  full  as  circumstantial,  as  diffuse,  and  as  marvel 
lous,  as  that  contained  in  the  great  volume  of  O'Donnell,  and 
much  more  correct.    It  would,  however,  labour  under  one  great 
defect, — the  Irish  would  not  be  as  good.     When  and  where  this 
work  was  compiled,  and  at  what  cost,  the  following  declaration 
of  the  noble  author  will  set  forth  :  "  Be  it  known  to  the  readers 
of  this  Life,  that  it  was  Manus,  the  son  of  Hugh,  son  of  Hugh 
Eoe,  son  of  Mall  Garve,  son  of  Torlogh  of  the  Wine,  O'Donnell, 
that  ordered  the  part  of  this  Life  which  was  in  Latin  to  be  put 
into  Gaelic;  and  who  ordered  the  part  that  was  in  difficult 
Gaelic  to  be  modified,  so  that  it  might  be  clear  and  compre 
hensible  to  every  one ;  and  who  gathered  and  put  together  the 

1  When  this  Preface  was  written.— W.  F.  S. 


XXX  PREFACE. 

parts  of  it  that  were  scattered  through  the  old  books  of  Erin  ; 
and  who  dictated  it  out  of  his  own  mouth,  with  great  labour, 
and  a  great  expenditure  of  time  in  studying  how  he  should 
arrange  all  its  parts  in  their  proper  places,  as  they  are  left  here 
in  writing  by  us  ;  and  in  love  and  friendship  for  his  illustrious 
Saint,  Relative,  and  Patron,  to  whom  he  was  devoutly  attached. 
It  was  in  the  castle  of  Port-na-tri-namad  that  this  Life  was 
indited,  when  were  fulfilled  12  years,  and  20,  and  500,  and 
1000  of  the  age  of  the  Lord." 

This  work  exists  in  all  its  original  dimensions,  beauty,  and 
material  excellence,  in  a  large  folio  of  vellum,  written  in  double 
columns,  in  a  fine  bold  Irish  hand,  and  is  preserved  in  the 
Bodleian  Library  at  Oxford,  where  it  was  deposited,  together 
with  the  other  Irish  manuscripts  of  Mr.  Eawlinson,  having 
previously  cost  that  gentleman,  at  the  sale  of  the  Chandos 
collection  in  176|-,  the  formidable  sum  of  twenty-three  shil 
lings  !  Colgan  published  a  copious  abstract  of  this  compilation 
in  Latin,  preserving  the  principal  particulars  of  the  narrative, 
but  omitting  the  outrageously  fabulous  portions,  as  well  as 
those  which  were  not  in  accordance  with  his  ecclesiastical  feel 
ings,  and  divided  the  whole  into  three  books,  agreeing  with  the 
three  chief  eras  of  the  Saint's  life  : — 1 .  From  his  birth  to  the 
battle  of  Cooldrevny.  2.  From  that  event,  as  the  cause  of  his 
departure  from  Ireland,  to  his  temporary  return  to  attend  the 
convention  of  Drumceatt.  3.  From  the  convention  of  Drum- 
ceatt  to  his  death.  This  compilation  is  important  as  a  depository 
of  all  the  existing  traditions  concerning  St.  Columba,  but  it 
throws  no  real  light  on  Adamnan,  either  in  solving  a  difficulty 
or  identifying  a  place;  and  its  great  prolixity  only  serves  to 
show  how  much  superior  Adamnan's  memoir  is  to  any  other 
record  professing  to  be  an  account  of  the  Saint's  life ;  and,  after 
all,  how  little  historical  matter  has  been  added  to  that  work  by 
the  utmost  endeavours  of  those  best  qualified  to  succeed  in  the 
attempt !  To  Adamnan  is,  indeed,  owing  the  historic  precision, 
and  the  intelligible  operation,  which  characterize  the  second 


PREFACE.  XXxi 

stage  of  the  ancient  Irish  Church.  In  the  absence  of  his 
memoir,  the  Life  of  St.  Columba  would  degenerate  into  the 
foggy,  unreal  species  of  narrative  which  belongs  to  the  Lives 
of  his  contemporaries,  and  we  should  be  entirely  in  the  dark  on 
many  points  of  discipline  and  belief,  concerning  which  we  have 
now  a  considerable  amount  of  satisfactory  information. 

Adamnan's  memoir  is,  therefore,  to  be  prized  as  an  inestimable 
literary  relic  of  the  Irish  Church :  perhaps,  with  all  its  defects, 
the  most  valuable  monument  of  that  institution  which  has 
escaped  the  ravages  of  time.  The  editor,  at  least,  felt  it  to  be 
so  :  and  has  therefore  taken  great  pains,  in  the  midst  of  many 
difficulties  and  discouragements,  to  call  into  his  service  all  the 
means  of  illustration  which  books,  places,  and  men  could 
afford.1 

BALLYMENA, 
November  25th,  1856. 


1  The  few  concluding  sentences  of  this  Preface  are  omitted,  as  more  appro 
priate  to  the  origiual  edition. — W.  F.  S. 


INTRODUCTION, 

i. 

ST.  COLUMBA  was  born  at  Gartan,  a  wild  district  in  the  CHRONO- 
county  of  Donegal,  on  the  very  day  that  St.  Buite,  the  founder  g°^^Y 
of  Monasterboice,  departed  this  life.  Thus  the  7th  of  December  OF  SAINT 
is  determined  for  an  event,  the  date  of  which  might  otherwise  T.?^™BAS 
have  been  unrecorded;  and  the  Irish  Calendars,  in  noticing 
it,  present  at  that  day  the  anomaly  of  a  secular  commemora 
tion.  Authorities  vary  as  to  the  year,  ranging  from  518  to 
523;  but  calculation  from  Adamnan's  data  gives  521  as  that 
most  likely  to  be  the  true  period. 

Fedhlimidh,  the  father  of  Columba,  belonged  to  the  clan 
which  occupied,  and  gave  name  to,  the  territory  surrounding 
Gartan,  and  was,  moreover,  a  member  of  the  reigning  families 
of  Ireland  and  British  Dalriada.  Eithne,  the  mother  of 
Columba,  was  of  Leinster  extraction,  and  descended  from  an 
illustrious  provincial  king.  Thus  the  nobility  of  two  races  was 
combined  in  their  son,  and,  no  doubt,  contributed  to  the 
extended  influence  which  he  acquired,  when  education,  piety, 
and  zeal  were  superadded  to  his  honourable  antecedents. 

He  was  baptized  by  the  presbyter  Cruithnechan,  under  the 
name  Colum,  to  which  the  addition  of  cille,  signifying  "of 
the  church,"  was  subsequently  made,  in  reference  to  his  dili 
gent  attendance  at  the  church  of  his  youthful  sojourn.  The 
tradition  of  the  country  is,  that  he  was  baptized  at  Tulach- 
Dubhglaise,  now  called  Temple-Douglas,  a  place  about  half- 


XXxiv  INTRODUCTION. 

way  between  Gartan  and  Letterkenny,  where  there  is  a  cemetery  { 
of  considerable  extent,  containing  the  roofless  walls  of  a  large  I 
chapel,  and,  at  a  short  distance  on  the  north-east,  within  the  j 
enclosure,  a  square,  elevated  space,  which  appears  to  have  been  ; 
artificially  formed,  and  to  be  the  spot  which  in  O'Donnell's  j 
time  was  coupled  with  the  memory  of  the  Saint. 

The  place  where  St.  Columba  is  said  to  have  spent  the  ; 
principal  portion  of  his  boyhood  was  Doire-Eithne,  a  hamlet  in  | 
the  same  territory,  which  afterwards  exchanged  this  name,  j 
signifying,  Eoboretum  Eithnece,  for  Cill-mac-Nenain,  in  com 
memoration,  it  is  supposed,  of  the  "  Sons  of  Enan,"  whose 
mother  was  one  of  St.  Columba's  sisters.  The  absence  of  any 
mention  of  this  place  in  the  ancient  Irish  Life,  coupled  with 
the  fact  that  this  .parish  was  the  original  seat  of  the  O'Donnells, 
might  suggest  the  conjecture,  that  it  was  introduced  into  the 
biography  of  the  Saint  as  an  expedient  of  a  later  age  to  add 
lustre  to  the  chiefs  of  Tirconnell,  by  associating  the  history  of 
their  patron  with  the  origin  of  their  race,  were  it  not  that  there 
is  evidence  of  a  very  early  relation  between  St.  Columba's 
family  and  the  place,  in  the  circumstance  that  the  O'Freels, 
who  were  the  ancient  herenachs  of  the  church  lands  there, 
were  descended,  not  from  Dalach,  the  forefather  of  the  O'Don 
nells,  but  from  Eoghan,  the  brother  of  St.  Columba.  The  name 
Cill-mac-Nenain,  also,  as  explained  above,  indicates  a  like 
connexion. 

The  youth  Columba,  when  arrived  at  sufficient  age,  left  the 
scene  of  his  fosterage,  and,  travelling  southwards,  came  to 
Moville,  at  the  head  of  Strangford  Lough,  where  he  became  a 
pupil  of  the  famous  bishop,  St.  Finnian.  Here  he  was  ordained 
deacon ;  and  to  the  period  of  his  sojourn  in  this  monastery  is 
referable  the  anecdote  which  is  told  by  Adarnnan  in  the  open 
ing  chapter  of  the  second  book. 

From  Moville,  St.  Columba  proceeded  further  southwards, 
and,  arriving  in  Leinster,  placed  himself  under  the  instruction 
of  an  aged  bard  called  Gemman.  At  this  stage  of  the  Saint's 


INTRODUCTION.  XXXV 

. 

life,  he   being    still  a   deacon,   occurred    an   incident  which 
Adamnan  records  in  the  course  of  his  narrative  (B.  n.  c.  26). 

Leaving  Gemman,  he  entered  the  monastic  seminary  of 
Clonard,  over  which  St.  Finnian,  the  founder,  then  presided. 
Here  St.  Columba  is  said  to  have  been  numbered  with  a  class 
of  students  who  afterwards  attained  great  celebrity  as  fathers 
of  the  Irish  Church.  St.  Finnian  does  not  appear  to  have 
been  a  bishop,  and  when  Columba  was  subsequently  judged 
worthy  of  admission  to  superior  orders,  he  was  sent  to  Etchen, 
the  bishop  of  Clonfad,  by  whom  he  was  ordained  a  priest. 

According  to  the  Irish  memoirs,  St.  Columba  left  St.  Finnian, 
and  entered  the  monastery  of  Mobhi  Clarainech,  whose  estab 
lishment  at  Glas  Naoidhen,  now  Glasnevin,  near  Dublin, 
consisted  of  a  group  of  huts  or  cells,  and  an  oratory,  situate  on 
either  bank  of  the  Finglass.  Here  also  are  said  to  have  been, 
at  the  same  time,  SS.  Comgall,  Ciaran,  and  Cainnech,  who  had 
been  his  companions  at  Clonard.  A  violent  distemper,  how 
ever,  which  appeared  in  the  neighbourhood  about  544,  broke 
up  the  community,  and  Columba  returned  to  the  north.  On 
his  way  he  crossed  the  Bior,  now  called  the  Moyola  water,  a 
small  river  which  runs  into  Lough  Neagh  on  the  north-west, 
and,  in  doing  so,  prayed,  it  is  said,  that  this  might  be  the 
northern  limit  to  the  spread  of  the  disease.  Mobhi  died  in 
545,  and  in  the  following  year,  according  to  the  Annals  of 
Ulster,  the  church  of  Derry  was  founded  by  St.  Columba,  he 
being  then  twenty-five  years  of  age.  In  549  his  former 
teacher,  St.  Finnian  of  Clonard,  was  removed  from  this  life. 

About  the  year  553,  he  founded  the  monastery  of  Durrow, 
of  which,  as  his  chief  institution  in  Ireland,  Bede  makes 
special  mention.  We  have  no  means  of  ascertaining  the  dates 
of  his  other  churches  ;  and  all  we  can  do  with  any  probability 
is  to  allow  generally  the  fifteen  years'  interval  between  546 
and  562  for  their  foundation. 

In  561  was  fought  the  battle  of  Cooldrevny,  which  is  believed 
to  have  been,  in  a  great  measure,  brought  about  at  St.  Columba's 


XXXVI  INTRODUCTION. 

instigation.  A  synod,  which  Adamnan  states  (B.  ill.  c.  4)  was 
assembled  to  excommunicate  St.  Columba,  met  at  Teltown,  in 
Meath,  probably  at  the  instance  of  the  sovereign  who  was 
worsted  in  the  battle;  for  Teltown  was  in  the  heart  of  his 
patrimonial  territory,  and  was  one  of  his  royal  seats.  The 
assembly,  however,  was  not  unanimous,  and  St.  Brendan  of  Birr 
protested  against  the  sentence.  St.  Finnian  of  Moville,  also, 
soon  after  testified  his  sense  of  veneration  for  the  accused,  who 
had  been  once  his  pupil  (B.  m.  c.  5). 

Whether  the  censure  which  was  expressed  against  St. 
Columba  by  the  majority  of  the  clergy  had,  or  could  have  had, 
any  influence  on  his  after  course,  is  difficult  to  determine. 
Irish  accounts  say  that  St.  Molaisi  of  Devenish,  or  of  Inish- 
murry,  was  the  arbiter  of  his  future  lot,  who  imposed  upon  him 
the  penance  of  perpetual  exile  from  his  native  country.  But 
this  seems  to  be  a  legendary  creation  of  a  later  age,  when 
missionary  enterprise  was  less  characteristic  of  Irish  ecclesi 
astics  than  in  St.  Columba's  day.  In  removing  to  Hy,  he  did 
no  more  than  Donnan,  Maelrubha,  and  Moluoc  voluntarily 
performed,  and  Cainnech  wished  to  do.  Scotland  was  then  a 
wide  field  for  clerical  exertion,  and  St.  Columba's  permanent 
establishment  in  one  of  its  outposts,  within  a  day's  sail  of  his 
native  province,  entailed  very  little  more  self-denial  than  was 
required  for  the  repeated  and,  perhaps,  protracted  visits  of  St. 
Finbar,  St.  Comgall,  St.  Brendan,  the  two  Fillans,  St.  Eonan, 
St.  Flannan,  and  many  others.  It  was  a  more  decided,  and 
therefore  a  more  successful  course  than  theirs;  but  it  was 
equally  voluntary :  at  least,  there  is  high  authority  for  sup 
posing  it  to  have  been  such.  "  Pro  Christo  peregrinari  volens, 
enavigavit,"  the  common  formula  of  missionary  enterprise,  is 
Adamnan's  statement  of  his  motive  (Pref.  2) :  with  which  Bede's 
expression,  "  ex  quo  ipse  prsedicaturus  abiit "  (Hist.  EC.  iii.  4), 
is  in  perfect  keeping.  That  he  returned  more  than  once,  and 
took  an  active  part  in  civil  and  religious  transactions,  is  demon 
strable  from  Adamnan.  How  much  oftener  he  revisited  Ireland 


INTRODUCTION.  XXXV11 

is  not  recorded ;  but  these  two  instances  are  quite  sufficient  to 
disprove  the  perpetuity  of  his  retirement.  That  he  was  not 
banished  by  secular  influence  is  clear  even  from  the  legend  which 
represents  his  dismissal  as  an  ecclesiastical  penalty.  Early  in 
the  next  century,  St.  Carthach,  or  Mochuda,  was  driven  by  the 
secular  arm  from  his  flourishing  monastery  of  Kahen ;  but  then 
he  only  changed  his  province,  and  established  himself  at  Lismore. 
In  doing  so,  however,  he  took  his  fraternity  with  him,  and  gave 
up  all  connexion  with  Eahen.  But  St.  Columba,  when  he 
departed,  severed  no  ties,  surrendered  no  jurisdiction ;  his  con 
gregations  remained  in  their  various  settlements,  still  subject 
to  his  authority,  and  he  took  with  him  no  more  than  the  pre 
scriptive  attendance  of  a  missionary  leader. 

Durrow,  his  principal  Irish  monastery,  lay  close  to  the  terri 
tory  of  the  prince  whose  displeasure  he  is  supposed  to  have  in 
curred,  yet  it  remained  undisturbed  ;  and  when,  at  a  later  time, 
he  revisited  Ireland  to  adjust  the  affairs  of  this  house,  it  seemed 
a  fitting  occasion  for  him  to  traverse  Meath,  and  visit  Clonmac- 
nois,  the  chief  foundation  of  his  alleged  persecutor,  and  the 
religious  centre  of  his  family.  Surely,  if  the  Northern  Hy  Neill 
had  defeated  King  Diarmait,  they  could  easily  have  sheltered 
their  kinsman. 

In  563,  St.  Columba,  now  in  his  forty- second  year,  passed 
over  with  twelve  attendants  to  the  west  of  Scotland,  possibly 
on  the  invitation  of  the  provincial  king,  to  whom  he  was  allied 
by  blood.  Adamnan  relates  some  particulars  of  an  interview 
which  they  had  this  same  year  (B.  i.  c.  7) ;  and  the  Irish  Annals 
record  the  donation  of  Hy,  as  the  result  of  King  Conall's  approval. 
At  this  time  the  island  of  Hy  seems  to  have  been  on  the  con 
fines  of  the  Pictish  and  Scotic  jurisdiction,  so  that  while  its 
tenure  was  in  a  measure  subject  to  the  consent  of  either  people, 
it  formed  a  most  convenient  centre  for  religious  intercourse  with 
both.  The  Scots  were  already  Christians  in  name ;  the  Picts 
were  not.  Hence  the  conversion  of  the  latter  formed  a  grand 
project  for  the  exercise  of  missionary  exertion,  and  St.  Columba 


xxxvm  INTRODUCTION. 

at  once  applied  himself  to  the  task.  He  visited  the  king  at  his 
fortress ;  and  having  surmounted  the  difficulties  which  at  first 
lay  in  his  way,  he  won  his  esteem,  overcame  the  opposition  of 
his  ministers,  and  eventually  succeeded  in  planting  Christianity 
on  a  permanent  footing  in  their  province.  The  possession  of 
Hy  was  formally  granted,  or  substantially  confirmed,  by  this 
sovereign  also  ;  and  the  combined  consent  to  the  occupation  of 
it  by  St.  Columba  seems  to  have  materially  contributed  to  its 
stability  as  a  monastic  institution.  St.  Columba  afterwards 
paid  several  visits  to  the  king,  whose  friendship  and  co-opera 
tion  continued  unchanged  till  his  death. 

In  573,  St.  Brendan,  of  Birr,  the  friend  and  admirer  of  St. 
Columba,  died,  and  a  festival  was  instituted  at  Hy  by  St. 
Columba  in  commemoration  of  his  day. 

Of  the  places  where  St.  Columba  founded  churches  in  Scotland, 
Adamnan  has  preserved  some  names,  as  Etliica  insula,  Elena, 
Himla,  Scia,  but  he  has  given  no  dates,  so  that  their  origin 
must  be  collectively  referred  to  the  period  of  thirty-four  years, 
ending  in  597,  during  which  the  Saint  was  an  insulanus  miles. 

Conall,  the  lord  of  Dalriada,  died  in  574,  whereupon  his  cousin, 
Aidan,  assumed  the  sovereignty,  and  was  formally  inaugurated 
by  St.  Columba  in  the  monastery  of  Hy.  Next  year  they  both 
attended  the  convention  of  Druinceatt,  where  the  claims  of  the 
Irish  king  to  the  homage  of  British  Dalriada  were  abandoned, 
and  the  independence  of  that  province  declared. 

St.  Brendan,  of  Clonfert,  who  had  been  a  frequent  visitor  of 
the  western  isles,  and  on  one  occasion  had  been  a  guest  of  St. 
Columba  in  Himba,  died  in  577;  and  St.  Finnian  of  Moville, 
also  one  of  our  Saint's  preceptors,  was  removed  by  death  in  579. 
About  the  same  time  a  question  arose  between  St.  Columba  and 
St.  Comgall,  concerning  a  church  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Cole- 
raine,  which  was  taken  up  by  their  respective  races,  and  engaged 
them  in  sanguinary  strife.  In  587  another  battle  was  fought, 
namely,  at  Cuilfedha,  near  Clonard,  in  which  engagement  also 
St.  Columba  is  said  to  have  been  an  interested  party. 


INTRODUCTION.  XXXIX 

In  judging  of  the  martial  propensities  of  St.  Columba,  it  will 
always  be  necessary  to  bear  in  mind  the  complexion  of  the 
times  in  which  he  was  born,  and  the  peculiar  condition  of 
society  in  his  day,  which  required  even  women  to  enter 
battle,  and  justified  ecclesiastics  in  the  occasional  exercise  of 
warfare.  Moreover,  if  we  may  judge  from  the  biographical 
records  which  have  descended  to  us,  primitive  Irish  ecclesiastics, 
and  especially  the  superior  class,  commonly  known  as  saints, 
were  very  impatient  of  contradiction,  and  very  resentful  of 
injury.  Excommunication,  fasting  against,  and  cursing,  were 

1  in  frequent  employment,  and  inanimate,  as  well  as  animate 
objects,  are  represented  as  the  subjects  of  their  maledictions. 
St.  Columba,  who  seems  to  have  inherited  the  high  bearing  of 
his  race,  was  not  disposed  to  receive  injuries,  or  even  affronts, 
in  silence.  Adamnan  relates  how  he  pursued  a  plunderer  with 
curses,  following  the  retiring  boat  into  the  sea,  until  the  water 

!  reached  to  his  knees.  We  have  an  account  also  of  his  cursing 
a  miser  who  neglected  to  extend  hospitality  to  him.  [  On  another 
occasion,  in  Himba,  he  excommunicated  some  plunderers  of  the 
church ;  and  one  of  them  afterwards  perished  in  combat,  being 
transfixed  by  a  spear  which  was  discharged  in  St.  Columba's 
name.  Possibly  some  current  stories  of  the  Saint's  imperious 
and  vindictive  temper  may  have  suggested  to  Venerable  Bede 
the  qualified  approbation  "  qualiscumque  fuerit  ipse,  nos  hoc  de 
illo  certum  tenemus,  quia  reliquit  successores  magna  continentia 
ac  divino  amore  regularique  institutione  insignes." 1  With  the 
profound  respect  in  which  his  memory  was  held,  there  seems 
to  have  been  always  associated  a  considerable  degree  of  awe. 
Hence,  perhaps,  the  repulsive  form  in  which  he  was  supposed  to 
have  presented  himself  to  Alexander  n.  in  1249.  Fordun  (Bower) 
tells  a  story  of  some  English  pirates,  who  stripped  the  church  of 
uEmonia  or  Inchcolum,  and  on  their  return,  being  upset,  went 
down  like  lead  to  the  bottom  ;  upon  which  he  observes :  "  Qua 

1  Beda,  Hist.  Eccl.,  iii.  4. 


xl  INTRODUCTION. 

de  re  versum  est  in  Anglia  proverbium ;  Sanctum  viz.  Colum- 
bam  in  suos  malefactores  vindicem  fore  satis  et  ultorem.  Et 
ideo,  ut  non  reticeam  quid  de  eo  dicatur,  apud  eos  vulgariter 
Sanct  Quhalme  nuncupatur." x 

St.  Columba  visited  Ireland  subsequently  to  June  585,  and 
from  Durrow  proceeded  westwards  to  Clonmacnois,  where  he 
was  received  with  the  warmest  tokens  of  affection  and  respect. 

In  593  he  seems  to  have  been  visited  with  sickness,  and  to 
have  been  brought  near  death.  Such,  at  least,  may  be  supposed 
to  be  the  moral  of  his  alleged  declaration  concerning  the  angels 
who  were  sent  to  conduct  his  soul  to  paradise,  and  whose  ser 
vices  were  postponed  for  four  years.  At  length,  however,  the 
day  came,  and  just  after  midnight,  between  Saturday  the  8th, 
and  Sunday  the  9th  of  June,  in  the  year  597,  while  on  his  knees  at 
the  altar,  without  ache  or  struggle,  his  spirit  gently  took  its  flight. 

Of  his  various  qualities,  both  mental  and  bodily,  Adamnan 
gives  a  brief  but  expressive  summary.  Writing  was  an  employ 
ment  to  which  he  was  much  devoted.  Adamnan  makes  special 
mention  of  books  written  by  his  hand;  but  from  the  way  in 
which  they  are  introduced,  one  would  be  disposed  to  conclude 
that  the  exercise  consisted  in  transcription  rather  than  composi 
tion.  Three  Latin  hymns  of  considerable  beauty  are  attributed 
to  him,  and  in  the  ancient  Liber  Hymnorum,  where  they  are 
preserved,  each  is  accompanied  by  a  preface  describing  the 
occasion  on  which  it  was  written.  His  alleged  Irish  composi 
tions  are  also  poems :  some  specimens  of  which  will  be  found 
in  the  original  edition,  pp.  264-277,  285-289.  There  are  also 
in  print  his  "  Farewel  to  Aran,"  a  poem  of  twenty-two  stanzas;2 
and  another  poem  of  seventeen  stanzas,  which  he  is  supposed  to 
have  written  on  the  occasion  of  his  flight  from  King  Diarmait.3 
Besides  these,  there  is  a  collection  of  some  fifteen  poems,  bearing 
his  name,  in  one  of  the  O'Clery  MSS.  preserved  in  the  Burgundian 

1  Scotichron.,  xiii.  37. 

2  Transactions  of  the  Gaelic  Society,  pp.  180-189. 

3  Misc.  Ir.  Ar.  Soc.,  pp.  3-15. 


INTRODUCTION.  xli 

Library  at  Brussels.  But  much  the  largest  collection  is  contained 
in  an  oblong  manuscript  of  the  Bodleian  library  at  Oxford,  Laud 
615,  which  embraces  everything  in  the  shape  of  poem  or  fragment 
that  could  be  called  Columba's,  which  industry  was  able  to  scrape 
together  at  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  century.  Many  of  the 
poems  are  ancient,  but  in  the  whole  collection  there  is  probably 
not  one  of  Columcille's  composition.  Among  them  are  his 
alleged  prophecies,  the  genuineness  of  which  even  Colgan  called 
in  question.  Copies  of  some  of  these  compositions  have  been 
preserved  in  Ireland,  and  from  a  modernized,  interpolated,  and 
often  garbled  version  of  them,  a  collection  of  "  the  Prophecies 
of  St.  Columbkille"  has  been  lately  published  in  Dublin  (in  1856). 
But  it  is  to  be  regretted  that  the  editor,  not  content  with 
medieval  forgeries,  has  lent  his  name,  and,  what  is  worse,  has 
degraded  that  of  St.  Columba,  to  the  propagation  of  a  silly 
imposture,  which  does  not  possess  even  an  antiquity  of  ten 
years  to  take  off  the  gloss  of  its  barefaced  pretensions. 


II. 

The  belief  was  current  among  the  Irish  at  a  very  early    BATTLES 
period,  that  the  withdrawal  of  St.  Columba  to  Britain  was  a     SAINT 
sort  of  penance,  which  was,  with  his  own  consent,  imposed  COLUMBA 
upon  him  in  consequence  of  his  having  fomented  domestic  CONNECTED 
feuds  that  resulted  in  sanguinary   engagements.      And  the 
opinion  derives  considerable  support,  at  least  as  regards  the 
battle  of  Cul-dreimhne,  from  the  mention  of  it  by  Adamnan, 
who  in  two  instances  makes  it  a  kind  of  Hegira  in  the  Saint's 
life.     The  following  narrative  from  Keating's  History  affords 
the  simplest  statement  of  the  prevalent  belief : — 

"  Now  this  is  the  cause  why  Molaise  sentenced  Columcille  to  go 
into  Alba,  because  it  came  of  him  to  occasion  three  battles  in  Erin, 
viz.,  the  battle  of  Cul  Dreimhne,  the  battle  of  Eathan,  and  the 
battle  of  Cuil  Feadha.  The  cause  of  the  battle  of  Cul  Feadha, 
according  to  the  old  book  called  the  Leabar  Uidhre  of  Ciaran, 
Diarmuid,  son  of  Fergus  Cerrbhoil,  king  of  Ireland,  made  the  Feast 
of  Tara,  and  a  noble  man  was  killed  at  that  feast  by  Curnan,  son  of 


xlii  INTRODUCTION. 

Aodh,  son  of  Eochuidh  Tiorm-carna ;  wherefore  Diarmuid  killed 
him  in  revenge  for  that,  because  he  committed  murder  at  the  feast 
of  Tara,  against  law  and  the  sanctuary  of  the  feast ;  and  before  Cur- 
nan  was  put  to  death  he  fled  to  the  protection  of  Columcille,  and 
notwithstanding  the  protection  of  Columcille  he  was  killed  by 
Diarmuid.  And  from  that  it  arose  that  Columcille  mustered  the 
Clanna  Neill  of  the  North,  because  his  own  protection  and  the 
protection  of  the  sons  of  Earc  was  violated  :  whereupon  the  battle 
of  Cuile  Dreimhne  was  gained  over  Diarmuid  and  over  the  Con- 
naghtmen,  so  that  they  were  defeated  through  the  prayer  of 
Columcille. 

"  The  Black  Book  of  Molaga  assigns  another  cause  why  the 
battle  of  Cul  Dreimhne  was  fought,  viz.,  in  consequence  of  the  false 
judgment  which  Diarmuid  gave  against  Columcille  when  he  wrote 
the  gospel  out  of  the  book  of  Finnian  without  his  knowledge. 
Finnian  said  that  it  was  to  himself  belonged  the  son-book  [copy] 
which  was  written  from  his  book,  and  they  both  selected  Diar 
muid  as  judge  between  them.  This  is  the  decision  that  Diarmuid 
made  :  that  to  every  book  belongs  its  son-book  [copy],  as  to  every 
cow  belongs  her  calf.  So  that  this  is  one  of  the  two  causes  why 
the  battle  of  Cuile  Dreimhne  was  fought. 

"  This  was  the  cause  which  brought  Columcille  to  be  induced  to 
fight  the  battle  of  Cuil  Rathan  against  the  Dal  n-Araidhe,  and 
against  the  Ultonians,  viz.,  in  consequence  of  the  controversy  that 
took  place  between  Colum  and  Comgall,  because  they  took  part 
against  Colum  in  that  controversy. 

"  This  was  the  cause  that  occasioned  the  fighting  of  the  battle 
of  Cuil  Feadha  against  Colman  Mac  Diarmada,  viz.,  in  revenge  for 
his  having  been  outraged  in  the  case  of  Baodan,  son  of  Ninneadh 
(king  of  Erin),  who  was  killed  by  Cuimin,  son  of  Colman,  at  Leim- 
an-eich,  in  violation  of  the  sanctuary  of  Colum." l 

The  book  which  St.  Columba  is  supposed  to  have  transcribed 
from  St.  Finnian's  original  is  not  a  manuscript  of  the  Gospels, 
as  stated  in  the  above  extract,  but  the  copy  of  the  Psalms, 
which  forms,  with  its  silver  case,  the  ancient  reliquary  called 
the  Cathach,  of  which  O'Donnell  gives  us  this  curious  account : 

"  Now  The  CatJiach  is  the  name  of  the  book  on  account  of  which 
the  battle  was  fought,  and  it  is  the  chief  relic  of  Colum-cille  in  the 
territory  of  Cinel  Conaill  Gulban ;  and  it  is  covered  with  silver 
under  gold ;  and  it  is  not  lawful  to  open  it ;  and  if  it  be  sent 

1  For  the  original  Irish  of  this  and  other  passages  given  in  the  translation 
only,  see  Dr.  Reeves's  Additional  Notes  to  the  original  Edition. — W.  F.  S. 


INTRODUCTION.  xliii 

thrice,  right-wise,  around  the  army  of  the  Cinell  Conaill,  when 
they  are  going  to  battle,  they  will  return  safe  with  victory :  and  it 
is  on  the  breast  of  a  cowarb  or  a  cleric,  who  is  to  the  best  of  his 
power  free  from  mortal  sin,  that  the  Cathach  should  be,  when 
brought  round  the  army." 

The  record  of  the  battle  in  the  Annals  of  the  Four  Masters, 
at  the  year  555,  is  as  follows  : — 

"  The  seventeenth  year  of  Diarmaid.  The  battle  of  Cul-Dreimhne 
was  gained  against  Diarmaid,  son  of  Cearbhall,  by  Fearghus  and 
Domhnall,  the  two  sons  of  Muircheartach,  son  of  Earca ;  by  Ain- 
mire,  son  of  Sedna  ;  and  by  Nainnidh,  son  of  Duach ;  and  by  Aedh, 
son  of  Eochaidh  Tirmcharna,  king  of  Connaught.  It  was  in  re 
venge  of  the  killing  of  Curnan,  son  of  Aedh,  son  of  Eochaidh  Tirm 
charna,  while  under  the  protection  of  Colum-cille,  that  the  Clanna 
Neill  of  the  North  and  the  Connaughtmen  gave  this  battle  of  Cul- 
Dreimhne  to  King  Diarmaid  ;  and  also  on  account  of  the  false 
sentence  which  Diarmaid  passed  against  Colum-cille  about  a  book 
of  Finnen,  which  Colum  had  transcribed  without  the  knowledge  of 
Finnen,  when  they  left  it  to  the  award  of  Diarmaid,  who  pro 
nounced  the  celebrated  decision,  To  every  cow  belongs  its  calf"  etc. 

It  is  to  be  observed  that  the  Annals  both  of  Tighernach  and 
Ulster  attribute  the  success  of  the  Northerns  to  St.  Columba's 
intercession  :  per  orationem  Cohdm-cille  dicentis,  etc.,  while 
the  Four  Masters,  with  their  usual  caution,  merely  state  that 
Colam  cille  do  raidh,  "  Colum-cille  said,"  adding,  from  Tigher 
nach,  the  verses  which  were  supposed  to  have  produced  so 
marvellous  a  result. 

Diarmait,  who  was  now  on  the  throne,  was  the  head  of  the 
Southern  branch  of  the  Hy-Neill  race ;  and  the  chiefs  of  the 
two  main  sections  of  the  Northern  branch,  namely,  the  Cinel 
Eoghain  and  Cinel  Conaill,  had  already  distinguished  them 
selves  by  military  enterprise,  for  in  543  the  very  same  indi 
viduals  won  the  battle  of  Sligo,  and  slew  Eoghan  Beul,  king  of 
Connaught;  and  again,  in  549,  the  Cinel-Eoghain  brothers  slew 
Ailill  Inbanna,  the  succeeding  king  of  Connaught,  at  the  battle 
of  Cuil-Conaire  in  Carra,  in  the  county  of  Mayo.  They  now 
espoused  the  cause  of  the  Connacian  chief,  and  it  may  be  that 
some  affront  offered  to  their  kinsman  Columba,  seconded  by 
his  instigation,  produced  the  battle  of  Cul-Dreimhne,  which, 


xliv  INTRODUCTION. 

like  that  of  Sligo,  was  fought  on  Connacian  ground,  but  near 
the  boundary  between  it  and  Ulster.  The  relation  of  the 
parties  who  engaged  in  this  strife  will  be  most  readily  under 
stood  from  the  following  genealogical  view : — 

EOCHAIDH  MUIGHMEADHOIN 


NIALL  NAOIGHIALLACH 

1 

BR 
DUACH 
EOGHAI* 
.IMIDH    MUIRI 

AN 
lALLACB 

SRIABH 
:DHACH 

GUS 

RMCHARN 
554. 

CONALL  CRIMTHANN 
FERGUS  CERRBHAL 

EOG 

ob.  *• 

MUIRE: 
mar.  tc 

HAN    MUIRC 
Mac 

assa? 

:AN      DOMHJ 
587.       ob.  5( 

INK 

622. 

HAN 

165. 

5HACH 

Erca. 

3RTACH                     SEl 

,  Erca 
s.  534. 

CONALL  GULBAN 
slain  464. 

FERGUS  or  DUACH 

DlARMAIT      iLLAl 

assass.  565. 

COLMAN  BEG    LIBI 
slain  587.      slain 

CUMINE         CUM 

slain 

)NA       NlNl 

flor 

riDH    FEDHI 
563. 

ALL   FERGUS   AINMIRE    BAEDAN      COLUMBA           FER 
56.                      slain  569.   slain  586. 

'AEDH                                     EOCHAIDH  Ti 
slain  598.                                                    ob. 

AEDH 
slain  577. 


CURNA.N 
slain  a  boy,  560. 


The  promoter  of  this  sanguinary  contest  became  now,  according 
to  O'Donnell's  authorities,  the  subject  of  ecclesiastical  censure : 

"  Post  hsec  in  Synodo  sanctorum  Hiberniae  gravis  querela  contra 
Sanctum  Columbam,  tanquam  authorem  tarn  multi  sanguinis  effusi, 
instituta  est.  Unde  communi  decreto  censuerunt  ipsum  debere  tot 
animas,  a  gentilitate  conversas,  Christo  lucrari,  quot  in  isto  praelio 
interierunt."1 

This  sentence  was  the  result,  it  is  stated,  of  a  decision,  "  ut 
factum  suum  temeritatis  speciem  praferens,  solemni  pcenitentia 
ad  S.  Molassii  arbitrium  expiaret."  This  arbitrator  was  St. 
Molash  of  Daimh-inis  (now  Devenish),  whose  sentence  is  thus 
given  in  his  Life  : 

"  Sanctus  vero  Columba  visitavit  S.  Lasrianum  confessorem  suum 
post  bellum  de  Culdremne,  petens  ab  eo  salubre  consilium ;  quo 
scilicet  modo  post  necem  multorum  occisorum,  benevolentiam  Dei 
ac  remissionem  peccatorum  obtinere  mereretur.  Beatus  igitur 
Lasrianus  divinarum  scripturarum  scrutator,  imperavit  ut  tot 
animas  a  poenis  liberaret,  quot  ammarum  causa  perditionis  exti- 
terat ;  et  cum  hoc  ei  praecepit,  ut  perpetuo  moraretur  extra  Hiber- 
niam  in  exilio." — c.  28.2 

1  Colgan,  Acta  SS.,  p.  fi45.  2  Colgan,  Tr.  Th.,  p.  410  a. 


INTRODUCTION.  xlv 

The  remorse  of  St.  Columba  for  the  expenditure  of  human 
life  in  the  battle  is  thus  expressed  in  the  Life  of  St.  Abban : — 

"Alio  quoque  tempore  S.  Columba  cum  pluribus  discipulis 
venit  ad  sanctum  Patrem  :  qui,  cum  devotione  magna  ab  eo 
susciperetur,  dixit  ei ;  Ideo  nunc  ad  te  venimus,  ut  ores  pro  ani- 
mabus  illorum,  qui  occisi  fuerunt  in  bello  commisso,  nuper  nobis 
suadentibus  causa  Ecclesise.  Scimus  enim  quod  per  tuam  inter- 
cessionem  Dei  misericordiam  consequentur.  Rogamus  etiam,  quod 
ab  Angelo,  qui  tecum  quotidie  loquitur,  quseras  super  hoc  Dei 
voluntatem.  Cumque  sanctus  senior  instantius  ab  eis  pulsaretur, 
respondit ;  propitius  sit  eis  Deus,  et  ego  libenter  pro  eis  orabo. 
Accessit  igitur  vir  sanctus  ad  secretum  locum,  in  quo  consueverat 
Deum  orare,  et  Angelum  Dei  videre,  et  audire.  Ubi  cum  se  toto 
conamine  in  oratione  dedisset,  S.  Columba  volens  sanctum  Patrem 
orantem  videre,  et  audire  quid  Angelus  ei  loqueretur,  post  eum 
abiit,  callide  observando.  Cum  igitur  S.  Abbanus  sic  orasset,  ecce 
Angelus  Domini  dicit  ei ;  Sufficit  Abbane  quod  fecisti,  quia  Deus 
tibi  petitionem  tuam  donavit.  Qui  respondit ;  tantum  nunc  petivi 
a  Domino  requiem  animabus  illis,  quarum  curam  habet  S.  Columba. 
Et  Angelus  ait ;  Requiem  habebunt."1 

But  Columba  himself,  according  to  O'Donnell,  declared  his 
determination  to  become  a  voluntary  exile,  accusing  himself 
for  the  disastrous  consequences  not  only  of  Culdremhne,  but 
also  of  two  other  battles  which  had  been  caused  by  his  means. 
He  is  represented  as  saying  to  his  kinsmen, — 

"  Mihi,  juxta  quod  ab  Angelo  prsemonitus  sum,  ex  Hibernia 
migrandum  est,  et  dum  vixero  exulandum,  quod  mei  causa  plurimi 
per  vos  extincti  sint,  turn  in  hoc  ultimo  prselio  ;  turn  etiam  in 
prseliis  de  Cuilfedha  et  Cuilrathain  olim  initis  :  in  quorum  altero 
Colmanum  Magnum  filium  Diermitii,  cujus  films  Cumineus  Boeta- 
num  filium  Ninnedii,  Hibernise  Regem,  mea  protectione  innixum 
in  loco  qui  Leim-aneich  dicitur,  interemerat ;  fudistis  :  in  altero 
Fiacnium  filium  Boadani,  suosque  confcederatos  nepotes  Roderici." 2 

Of  the  other  battles  here  spoken  of,  mention  has  been  already 
made  in  the  extract  from  Keating ;  but  the  fullest  notice  is 
that  contained  in  the  argument  of  the  hymn  beginning  Altus 
Prosator,  which  is  attributed  to  St.  Columba,  and  which  is  said 
to  have  been  composed  as  a  religious  exercise  after  his  trans- 


1  Colgan,  Acta  S3.,  p.  624.  »  Colgan,  Tr.  Th.,  p.  409  b. 


xlvi  INTliODUCTIOX. 

"  *  Causa  quare  voluit  Deum  laudare/  i.e.  to  beseech  forgiveness 
for  the  three  battles  which  he  had  caused  in  Erin,  viz.,  the  battle 
of  Cul-Eathain,  between  him  and  Comgall,  contending  for  a  church, 
viz.,  Eoss-Torathair  ;  and  the  battle  of  Bealachfheda  of  the  weir  of 
Clonard ;  and  the  battle  of  Cul-Dremhne  in  Connacht :  and  it  was 
against  Diarmait  mac  Cerball  he  fought  them  both." 

As  the  battle  of  Cul-Dremhne  arose  in  part  from  a  religious 
dispute  with  St.  Finnian,  so  that  of  Cul-Eathain  or  Coleraine  is 
described  as  the  result  of  a  quarrel  with  St.  Comgall  of  Bangor. 
The  modem  name  of  Eos-Torathair  is  not  known,  but  the  place 
was  somewhere  near  Coleraine ;  and  it  is  very  possible  that 
some  collision  did  take  place  between  the  saints  about  jurisdic 
tion,  as  St.  Comgall's  abbey  church  of  Camus  was  situate  close 
to  Coleraine,  and  St.  Columba  is  recorded  to  have  been  occa 
sionally  in  that  neighbourhood.  Besides,  the  territory  west  of 
Coleraine  was  the  debateable  ground  between  the  Dal-Araidhe, 
St.  Comgall's  kinsmen,  and  the  Hy-Neill  of  St.  Columba's 
tribe.  Fiachna,  son  of  Baedan,  with  his  men  of  the  Clanna- 
Eudhraighe,  are  described  as  the  belligerents  on  the  Dalaradian 
side.  Now  this  Fiachna  was  lord  of  Dalaradia,  and  is  spoken 
of  in  the  Life  of  Comgall  as  residing  at  Eath-mor  in  Moylinny, 
and  a  devoted  friend  of  the  Saint.  He  was  an  enterprising 
chief,  and  in  573  won  the  battle  of  Tola  in  the  King's  County. 
In  589  he  became  king  of  Uladh ;  and  in  594  won  the  battle  of 
Edan-mor  from  the  Ciannachta  of  Meath.  In  597  he  won  the 
battle  of  Sliabh  Cua  in  Waterford ;  and  in  602  that  of  Cuil-caol 
in  Down.  In  623  he  took  Eath-Guala  in  Uladh;  and  fell  at 
the  battle  of  Leth-Midhin  in  626.  Now,  supposing  that  he  had 
taken  part  in  the  battle  of  Cul-rathain  before  St.  Columba's  de 
parture,  that  is,  the  year  563,  a  period  of  63  [years]  would  have 
intervened  between  that  and  his  last  achievement,  a  suspicious 
interval  in  a  warrior's  life.  That  the  battle  of  Cul-rathain, 
though  not  recorded  in  the  Annals,  was  fought, — that  he  was  a 
leader  therein, — and  that  it  took  place  in  consequence  of  the 
jealousies  of  the  Dalaradians  and  the  Hy  Neill,  quickened  into 
action  by  the  influence  of  their  respective  arch-ecclesiastics,  is 


INTRODUCTION.  xlvii 

extremely  probable :  only  it  was  a  military  event  which  fol 
lowed,  not  preceded,  St.  Columba's  settlement  in  Hy. 

The  third  battle,  that  of  Cul-fedha  or  Bealach-fedha,  was 
fought  in  587,  and  is  thus  recorded  by  Tighernach : — 

"  Battle  of  Bealach  Dathi,  in  quo  cecidit  Colman  Beg,  son  of 
Diarmaid,  ut  alii  dicunt,  csesis  v.  millibus  per  prophetiam  of  Colam 
cille.  Aedh,  son  of  Ainmire,  was  victor.  Unde  dictum  est : 

Broken  was,  as  has  been  told, 
For  Colum's  sake  in  the  famous  battle, 
The  bestower  of  jewels  by  liberal  distribution, 
By  the  Conallians  and  Eugenians." 

This  battle,  as  well  as  that  of  Cul-Dremhne,  was  between  the 
Northern  and  Southern  branches  of  the  Hy  Neill.  It  was 
fought  by  Aedh,  son  of  Ainmire,  to  avenge  the  death  of  Baedan, 

;  son  of  Mnnidh,  monarch  of  Ireland,  who  had  been  slain  by 
Cumine,  son  of  Colman  Beg,  and  his  second  cousin  Cumine,  son 
of  Libran,  at  Leim-in-eich,  under  the  instigation  of  Colman  Beg. 
How  far  St.  Columba  participated  in  this  transaction  is  not 
recorded,  but  that  he  was  deeply  interested  in  it  appears  evident 

|  from  the  words  of  Tighernach,  a  sentiment  which  the  Four 
Masters  studiously  suppress.  The  relation  which  existed 

|   between  the  leaders  in  this  battle,  and  between  them  and  St. 

;  Columba,  will  be  seen  at  a  glance  in  the  genealogical  table 
above. 

Thus  we  find  St.  Columba  directly  or  indirectly  concerned 
in  three  battles,  the  earliest  of  which  occurred  the  year  but  one 
before  his  retirement  to  Britain,  and  the  others  at  later  periods, 
one  of  them  after  he  had  been  twenty-four  years  in  the  abbacy 
of  Hy.  The  first  his  biographers  and  panegyrists  acknowledge 
to  have  been  the  grand  error  of  his  life,  for  which  he  paid  the 
penalty  of  pilgrimage  ;  but  to  save  his  character  after  he  became 
the  apostle  of  the  Northern  Picts,  and  the  religious  exemplar  of 
the  Albanian  Scots,  the  device  is  resorted  to  of  antedating  the 
other  occurrences  in  which  the  failing  of  his  nature  betrayed 
itself ;  and  whereas  his  participation  in  these  evils  could  not  be 


xlviii  INTRODUCTION. 

denied,  it  was  thrust  back  into  the  irresponsible  part  of  his  life, 
rather  than  allow  it  to  be  numbered  among  the  acts  of  his 
maturity.  That  Columba,  closely  allied  to  the  principals  in 
these  deeds  of  strife,  and  within  one  step  himself  of  the  object 
they  were  contending  for,  should  look  on  with  indifference,  is 
not  to  be  expected, — especially  in  an  age  of  revolution,  and 
among  a  people  whose  constitution  and  national  construction 
rendered  civil  faction  almost  inseparable  from  their  existence. 
It  was  not  until  804,  that  the  monastic  communities  of  Ireland 
were  formally  exempted  from  military  service;  and  the  en 
deavours  of  Fothadh  the  Canonist,  in  procuring  this  enactment 
from  Aedh  Oirdnidhe,  the  monarch  of  Ireland,  form  the  subject 
of  panegyric  and  special  mention  in  the  Annals.  That,  even 
among  themselves,  the  members  of  powerful  communities  were 
not  insensible  to  the  spirit  of  faction,  appears  from  numerous 
entries  in  the  ancient  Annals.  Of  these,  two — of  which  one 
relates  to  a  Columbian  house — may  here  be  adduced  as  exam 
ples  :  A.D.  673,  "  A  battle  was  fought  at  Argamoyn  between  the 
fraternities  of  Clonmacnois  and  Durrow,  where  Dermod  Duff, 
son  of  Donnell,  was  killed,  and  Diglac,  son  of  Dubliss,  with  200 
men  of  the  fraternity  of  Durrow.  Bresal,  son  of  Murchadh, 
with  the  fraternity  of  Clonmacnois,  was  victor."  A.D.  816,  "A 
battle  was  fought  by  Cathal,  son  of  Dunlang,  and  the  fraternity 
of  Tigh-Munna  [Taghmon]  against  the  fraternity  of  Ferns,  in 
which  400  were  slain.  Maelduin,  son  of  Cennfaeladh,  abbot  of 
Kaphoe,  of  the  fraternity  of  Colum-cille,  was  slain.  The  fra 
ternity  of  Colum-cille  went  to  Tara  to  curse  [king]  Aedh."  The 
same  principle  which  caused  St.  Columba's  panegyrists  to  repre 
sent  his  battles  as  delinquencies  of  his  youth,  operated  with 
the  Four  Masters,  when  compiling  their  comprehensive  Annals 
from  earlier  authorities,  in  dealing  with  these  oft-recurring 
monastic  encounters,  and  as  there  was  no  opening  for  a  transfer 
of  the  blame,  they  suppressed  the  mention  of  them. 


INTRODUCTION.  xllX 


III 

In  the  second  Preface  St.  Columba  is  styled  "  monasteriorum  SAINT 
pater  et  fundator,"  in  reference  to  the  numerous  churches  which  CHURCHES' 
were  founded,  either  by  his  disciples  or  by  himself  directly. 
Again,  in  ii.  47  (p.  191),  mention  is  made  of  his  "monasteriaintra 
utrorumque  populorum  [sc.  Pictorum  et  Scotorum  Britannise] 
terminos  fundata."  In  the  old  Irish  Life  the  number  of  his 
churches  is  stated  as  very  great,  Tri  ced  do  roraind  cen  mannair, 
"three  hundred  he  marked  out,  without  defect;"  an  amount 
which,  even  after  the  most  liberal  allowances  for  poetry,  round 
numbers,  and  panegyric,  will  leave  a  very  considerable  residuum. 
<*  The  following  is  a  catalogue  of  Irish  churches,  either  which 
were  founded;  by  him,  or  in  which  his  memory  was  specially 
venerated ;  but  it  by  no  means  pretends  to  be  a  complete 
enumeration : — 

1 .  DURROW. — Anciently  Eos  grencha.  It  is  called  in  Adamnan 
by  its  Irish  name  Dair-mag,  but  more  frequently  by  a  Latin 
equivalent,  Roboreti  Campus,  Rdboris  Campus,  Roboreus  Campus. 
For  the  history  of  its  foundation,  see  Orig.  Ed.,  p.  23,  Note  b.  It 
was  among  the  earliest  and  most  important,  but  not  the  most  en 
during,  of  St.  Columba's  foundations  in  Ireland.  The  old  Irish 
Life  calls  it  redes,  "  abbey  church,"  and  mentions  the  name  of 
Colman  Mor,  the  second  son  of  King  Diarmait,  in  connexion  with 
it.  A  sculptured  cross,  called  St.  Columkille's  Cross,  stands  in 
the  churchyard  ;  and  near  it  is  St.  Columkille's  Well.  The  most 
interesting  relique  of  the  abbey  is  the  beautiful  Evangeliarium, 
known  as  the  Book  of  Durrow,  a  manuscript  approaching,  if 
not  reaching,  to  the  Columbian  age,  and  now  preserved  in  the 
Library  of  Trinity  College,  Dublin.  See  p.  xciii.  infra.  An 
ancient  Irish  poem  remains,  professing  to  have  been  composed 
by  St.  Columba  on  the  occasion  of  his  departure  from  Dear- 
magh  for  the  last  time.  In  reference  to  the  early  administra 
tion  of  which,  we  find  in  it  the  following  verses  : — 


INTRODUCTION. 

"  Beloved  the  excellent  seven, 

Whom  Christ  has  chosen  to  his  kingdom 
To  whom  I  leave,  for  their  purity, 
The  constant  care  of  this  my  church. 

Three  of  whom  are  here  at  this  side, 
Cormac  son  of  Dim  a,  and  ^Engus, 
And  Collan  of  pure  heart, 
Who  has  joined  himself  to  them. 

Libren,  Senan,  comely  Conrach, 

The  son  of  Ua  Chein,  and  his  brother, 
Are  the  four,  besides  the  others, 
Who  shall  arrive  at  this  place. 

They  are  the  seven  pillars, 

And  they  are  the  seven  chiefs, 
Whom  God  has  surely  commanded 
To  dwell  in  the  same  abode." 

2.  DERRY. — Formerly  Daire-Calgaich,  as  in  Adamnan,  who 
also  gives  the  Latin  interpretation,  Roboretum  Calgachi.  For 
an  account  of  the  foundation,  see  Orig.  Ed.,  p.  160,  Note  r.  The 
original  church  was  called  the  Dubh-regles,  "  Black-church,"  to 
which  there  is  reference  in  the  ancient  lines  cited  by  Tigher- 
nach : — 

"  Three  years,  without  light,  was 
Colum  in  his  Black  Church  : 
He  passed  to  angels  from  his  body, 
After  seven  years  [and]  seventy." 

This  church,  like  the  Sabhall  at  Saul  and  Armagh,  is  recorded 
to  have  stood  north  and  south ;  and  the  remains  of  it,  which 
existed  in  1520,  were  referred  to  by  O'Donnell  in  proof  of  the 
fact.  In  the  fourteenth  century  it  was  called  the  Cella  Nigra, 
de  Deria.  Its  Eound  Tower  was  standing  in  the  seventeenth 
century,  but  the  only  local  record  of  its  existence  now  remain 
ing  is  the  name  of  the  lane  which  leads  to  its  site,  the  Long 
Steeple.  It  is  deserving  of  notice  that  Fiachadh,  son  of  Ciaran, 
son  of  Ainmire,  son  of  Sedna,  whose  death  is  recorded  by 
Tighernach  at  620,  is  described  by  the  annalist  as  alius  funda- 
torum  Daire  Calgaidi.  He  was  nephew  of  Aedh,  son  of  Ainmire, 


INTRODUCTION.  li 

the  reputed  founder.  This  entry,  and  the  authorities  cited  (in  the 
Orig.Ed.)  p.  1 60,  are  sufficient  to  vindicate  O'Donnell's  statements 
concerning  the  donation  of  Deny  from  the  objections  urged  in 
the  Ordnance  Memoir  of  Templemore.  This  admirable  work, 
however,  will  always,  and  deservedly,  be  cited  as  the  highest 
authority  on  the  history  of  Derry,  and  will  couple  with  the 
name  of  that  ancient  city,  and  the  Ordnance  Survey,  as  the 
quickening  cause,  the  revival  in  Ireland  of  genuine  antiquarian 
research. 

3.  KELLS. — The  Irish  name  is  Cenannus,  which  signifies 
"Head-abode,"  and  gives  the  title  of  Headfort  in  the  Irish, 
and  Kenlis  in  the  British  Peerage,  to  the  family  of  Taylor, 
whose  seat  is  beside  the  town  of  Kells.  Kenlis  is  the  transition 
form  of  the  name.  The  site  of  the  monastery  was  anciently 
known  as  Dun-chuile-sibrinne,  and  the  surrounding  territory 
was  called  Magh-Seirigh.  It  is  situate  in  the  north-west  of  the 
county  of  Meath,  and  gives  name  to  a  parish.  The  old  Irish. 
Life,  followed  by  O'Donnell,  states  that  in  St.  Columba's  time  it 
was  the  royal  dun  or  seat  of  Diarmait  Mac  Cerbhaill,  and  adds, 
"  Colum-cille  then  marked  out  the  city  in  extent  as  it  now  is, 
and  blessed  it  all,  and  said  that  it  would  become  the  most  illus 
trious  possession  he  should  have  in  the  land,  although  it  would 
not  be  there  his  resurrection  should  be."  O'Donnell  observes 
that  Diarmait  granted  it  to  the  saint  in  amends  for  injuries 
which  he  had  done  to  him,  and  that  his  son  Aedh  Slane  was  a 
consenting  party.  If  a  church  was  founded  here  by  St.  Columba 
it  must  have  been  an  inconsiderable  one,  for  there  is  no  mention 
of  the  place  in  the  Annals  as  a  religious  seat  until  804,  when, 
on  account  of  the  dangers  and  sufferings  to  which  the  com 
munity  of  Hy  were  exposed,  measures  were  taken  for  the  pro 
vision  of  an  asylum  in  Ireland ;  and,  as  the  Annals  of  Ulster 
state,  Tabhairt  Ceanannsa  cen  chath  do  CJwluim  cliille  ceolacli 
hoc  anno,  "  Kells  was  given,  without  battle,  to  Columkille  the 
harmonious,  in  this  year."  In  furtherance  of  which  there  was 
commenced,  in  807,  the  Construct™  nove  civitatis  Columbe  cille 


1NTKODUCTION. 

hi  [in]  Ceninnus;  and  in  814,  Ceallach  alias  lae,  finita  con\ 
structione  templi  Cenindsa,  reliquit  principatum,  et  Diarmiciw 
alumpnus  Daigri  pro  eo  ordinatus  est.     From  this  time  forward 
it  became  the  chief  seat  of  the  Columbian  monks.     There  art; 
several  indications  of  the  ancient  importance  of  the  place  stil 
remaining,  such  as  the  fine  Eound  Tower,  about  ninety  feel 
high,  which  stands  in  the  churchyard;  the  curious  oratory! 
called  "St.  Columkille's  House;"   the  ancient  cross   in  the! 
churchyard,  having  on  the  plinth  the  inscription,  Crux  Patricia 
et  Columle ;   a  second  cross,  now  standing  near  the  market-! 
place ;  and  a  third,  once  the  finest,  now  lying  in  a  mutilated; 
condition  in  the  churchyard.     The  shafts  of  all  these  crosses! 
were  covered  with  historical  representations  from  Scripture.! 
Trinity  College,  Dublin,  possesses  its  great  literary  monument,; 
commonly  known  as  the  "Book  of  Kells."      It  is  an  Evan-, 
geliarium  somewhat  resembling  the  Book  of  Burrow,  but  far| 
surpassing  it  in  the  brilliancy  and  elaborateness  of  its  execu 
tion.  (See  p.  xciv.)     In  the  tenth  and  following  centuries  the  I 
families  of  Ua  h  Uchtain  and  Ua  Clucain  furnished,  succes- 
sively,  a  large  proportion  of  the  chief  officers  of  this  church, , 
the  occupation  of  its  lands  having  probably  become  hereditary 
in  their  clans. 

4.  TOEY.— Formerly  Torach,  that  is,  "  Towery,"  from  the 
torrs  or  pinnacles  of  rock  by  which  the  island  is  characterized. 
Sometimes  it  is  called  Tor-mis,  the  name  by  which,  strange  to 
say,  the  Irish  designate  St.  Martin's  Church  of  Tours.  It  is 
situate  off  the  north  coast  of  Donegal,  in  the  barony  of  Kil- 
macrenan  and  diocese  of  Kaphoe,  oppo  ite  the  maritime  tract 
known  as  the  Tuatha,  or  "  territories,"  of  Mac  Swyne.  There  are 
many  traces  of  antiquity  here,  but  the  most  remarkable  is  the 
Eound  Tower,  fifty-one  feet  high,  which  was  the  nucleus  of  an 
old  monastic  establishment.  In  617,  according  to  Tighernach, 
"  Torach  was  laid  waste  [occisio  Tvrchae,  An.  Ult.],  when  its 
primitive  church  was  probably  destroyed;  for  in  621  the  same 
annalist  records,  Hoc  tempore  constructa  est  ecclesia  Toraidhe, 


INTRODUCTION.  liii 

which  the  Four  Masters  (An.  616)  interpret,  "The  church  of 
Torach  was  covered  in,  having  been  destroyed  some  time 
before."  St.  Ernan,  son  of  Colman,  fifth  in  descent  from 
Eoghan,  son  of  Niall,  was  its  first  abbot.  His  day  is  Aug.  17. 
A  St.  Damongoch,  of  the  same  race,  is  also  mentioned  in  the 
Naemhseanchus  as  a  pilgrim  of  Torach.  The  herenachs  of  this 
church  were,  in  after  times,  of  the  family  of  O'Eobhartaich,  or 
O'Koarty. 

5.  DRUMCLIFF. — Formerly  Druim  cliabh,  situated  a  little  to 
the  north  of  Sligo,  in  the  barony  of  Carbury,  and  diocese  of 
Elphin.    A  portion  of  its  Eound  Tower  remains  in  proof  of 
its   ancient   consequence.      The   old  Irish  Life,  followed  by 
O'Donnell,  mentions  St.  Mothoria  as  its  first  abbot  under  the 
founder.    This  name  occurs  in  the  Calendar  at  the  9th  of  June. 
The  herenachy  of  the  church  became  limited  in  the  eleventh 
century  to  the  family  of  O'Beollain,  commonly  called  O'Boland. 

6.  SWORDS. — Known  by  the  natives  as  Sord,  or,  with  the 
founder's  name,  Sord-Choluim-chtik.   It  is  situated  in  the  diocese 
and  county  of  Dublin,  about  seven  miles  north  of  the  metro 
polis,  in  the  territory  of  which  mention  has  been  made  by 
Adamnan  as  Ard-Ceannachte.     St.  Finan  Lobhar,  of  the  race  of 
Tadhg,  son  of  Cian,  who  gave  name  to  the  territory,  is  said  to 
have  been  placed  over  the  church  by  St.  Columba.      He  is 
commemorated  at  Mar.  1 6.     The  foundation  of  this  church  is 
ascribed  by  the  old  Irish  Life,  and  O'Donnell  its  copyist,  to  our 
saint,  whose  memory  is  vividly  preserved  in  the  parish.     The 
Eound  Tower,  surmounted  by  a  cross,  marks  the  site  of  the 
ancient  church.    A  square  tower,  which  belonged  to  the  old 
parish  church,  stands  close  to  the  Eound  Tower,  between  it 
and  the  modern  church,  with  which  it  is  unconnected. 

7.  EAPHOE. — In  Irish  Bath-loth.     St.  Adamnan  or  Eunan  is 
the  reputed  patron,  but  the  foundation  of  the  church  is  ascribed 
to  St.  Columba  by  an  ancient  poem,  and  the  old  Irish  Life,  with 
O'Donnell,  and  others.     It  is  situate  in  the  county  of  Donegal, 
and  gives  name  to  the  barony  and  diocese.     It  had,  in  the 


liv  INTRODUCTION. 

early  part  of  the  seventeenth  century,  a  Eound  Tower,  which 
Sir  James  Ware  represents  as  "  built  on  a  hill,  in  which  the 
bishops  of  Eaphoe  formerly  kept  their  studies,"  but  it  had  been 
demolished  before  his  time.     It  is  deserving  of  mention  that,  in  jj 
1635,  King  Charles  i.  wrote  to  John  Lesley,  Bishop  of  Eaphoe, , 
in  reference  to  his  predecessor,  Andrew  Knox,  stating  that : 
"  Andro  late  bischop  of  Eapho  did  without  just  caus  or  any  ! 
warrant  from  our  late  royall  father  or  ws,  carle  with  him  two 
of  the  principal  bells  that  wer  in  Icolmkill  and  place  them  in  i 
some  of  the  churches  of  Eapho ; "  and  requiring  him  to  deliver  I 
unto  the  present  "bischop  of  the  Yles"  these  two  bells  for  the  i 
use  of  said  Cathedral  Church. 

8.  KILMORE. — The  Cella  Magna  Deatlirib  of  Adamnan,  and  the 
Cill-mor  dithrib  of  the  Irish.     See  Orig.  Ed.,  p.  9  9,  Note  g.     The 
Calendars  commemorate  Fedhliinidh,  in  connexion  with  this 
church,  at  Aug.  9 ;   and  at  the  same  day  the  "  Four  sons  of 
Dioman   of   Cill-mor-dithrubh."      Fedhlimidh,   according   to 
jEngus,  was  son  of  Deidiu,  daughter  of  Trena,  son  of  Dub- 
thaigh  Ui  Lugair,  and  brother  of  Dega  Mac  Cairill  of  Iniskeen. 

9.  LAMB  AY. — Anciently  Rechra,  and  called  Redirect,  insula  by 
Adamnan.     See  Orig.  Ed.,  p.  164,  Note  b.      It  has  belonged  to 
Christ  Church,  Dublin,  from  a  very  remote  period.  In  the  earliest 
grant,  circ.  1038,  it  is  called  Reclien;  and  Portrane,  the  parish 
to  which  it  is  attached,  is  called  Portrahern,  a  corruption  of 
Port-Eechrainn.     In  1204  the  same  places  appear  under  the 
names  Lambay  and  Portrachelyn.     There  is  a  poem  on  Eechra 
ascribed  to  St.  Columba,  in  the  Laud  MS.  ;  and  in  another 
composition  of  the  same  collection  the  Saint  is  described  as 
visiting  his  churches  from  Sliabh  Fuaid  to  Leinster,  and  from 
Ath-Feine  [in  Westmeath]  to  Eachra. 

10.  MOONE. — Formerly  Maein,  and  Maein  Choluim-chille.     It 
is  situate  in  the  county  and  diocese  of  Kildare,  in  the  barony  of 
Kilkea  and  Moone.     The  foundation  of  the  church  is  ascribed  in 
the  old  Irish  Life  to  St.  Columba,  and  his  memory  has  always 
been  held  in  great  veneration  in  the  parish.    An  ancient  sculp- 


INTRODUCTION.  lv 

tured  cross  stands  in  the  churchyard,  called  St.  ColumJcilles  Cross. 
The  name  occurs  in  the  Four  Masters  at  1014  and  1040  only. 

11.  CLONMORE.  —  Cluain-mor   Fer  Arda,  "  Cluain-mor   of 
Fer-arda"  is  the  old  name.     The  old  Irish  Life,  followed  by 
O'Donnell,  states  that  St.  Columba,  having  founded  the  church, 
committed  it  to  Oissein,  son  of  Ceallach,  whose  day  in  the 
Calendar  is  Jan.  1.      Clonmore  is  a  parish  in  the  diocese  of 
Armagh,  situate  in  the  county  of  Louth,  and  barony  of  Ferrard. 
The  church  is  styled  "Ecclesia  S.  Columbse  de  Clonmore"  in 
the  diocesan  registries  of  the  fifteenth  century.     There  are  the 
remains  of  an  old  church ;   and  a  patron  in  honour  of  St. 
Columkille  was  held  on  the  9th  of  June. 

12.  KILMACRENAN. — Cill-mac-Nenain  of  records.     See  Orig. 
Ed.,  p.  191,  Note  c.     In  the  Laud  MS.  of  Columkille's  poems  is 
one  in  which  the  Saint  is  represented  as  expressing  his  love  for 
Kilmicnenain  and  Gartan.     In  three  other  poems  of  the  same 
collection  it  is  called  by  its  original  name  Doire-Eithne  ;  and  one 
of  them  (p.  62)  mentions  a  tribute  which  was  payable  by  the 
abbot  of  Hy  to  Doire  Eithne  in  Ireland.    The  O'Firghils,  or 
O'Freels,  who  were  the  herenachs  of  this  church,  were  descended 
from  Firghil,  great-grandson  of  Aedh,  who  was  son  of  Eoghan, 
St.  Columkill's  brother. 

13.  GARTAN. — The  parish  in  which  St.  Columba  was  born. 
The  family  of  O'lSTahan  were  the  hereditary  herenachs   and 
corbes  who  had  also  the  privilege  of  carrying  "  Collumkillies 
read  stoane."    This  was  the  Clock  Ruadh  mentioned  by  O'Don 
nell.     Gartan  is  a  wild  parish  in  the  county  of  Donegal,  and 
diocese  of  Kaphoe,  having  the  ruins  of  a  small  church,  inside 
which  is  the  old  tomb  of  an  O'Donnell,  and  in  the  adjoining 
churchyard  the  traces  of  an  earlier  structure. 

14.  GLENCOLUMKILL. — Formerly  Seangleann,  or  Gleann  Gairge, 
and  called  by  these  names  in  the  poems  attributed  to  St.  Co 
lumba.     It  is  a  wild,  desolate  parish  in  the  barony  of  Banagh, 
at  the  south-west  of  the  county  of  Donegal.     See  Orig.  Ed., 
p.  206,  Note  e.    The  herenachy  was  in  the  family  of  Mac  Eneilis. 


Ivi  INTRODUCTION. 

15.  TEMPLEDOUGLAS. — Formerly  Tulachdulh-glaisse,  "Hill  of  j 
the  Dark  Stream."    See  Orig.  Ed.,  p.  1 92,  Note  c.    There  are  the  \ 
remains  of  an  old  church ;  and  the  cemetery  is  in  two  portions  j 
in  one  of  which  was  an  ancient  enclosure  of  stones  like  a  roofless 
chapel,  which  was  commonly  called  Ced-mitheachd  ColumJcille,  j 
that  is,  "  Primum  Columbse  deambulacrum,"  from  the  tradition  i 
that  it  was  the  first  ground  which  St.  Columba  paced  after  he  ! 
had  learned  to  walk. 

16.  ASSYLYN. — Eos  Ua  Floinn,  a  spot  on  the  river  Boyle,  i 
about  a  mile  west  of  the  town.     It  was  anciently  called  Eas 
mic  nEirc,  from  Dachonna,  or  Mochonna,  son  of  Earc,  who  is 
said  to  have  been  placed  over  it  by  St.  Columba.     His  day  is 
March  8.     The  old  Irish  Life,  as  well  as  the  Tripartite  Life  of 
St.  Patrick,  ascribes  the  foundation  to  St.  Columba.     Adamnan 
twice  alludes  to  St.  Columba's  stay  in  this  neighbourhood.    See 
Orig.  Ed.,  pp.  79,  129. 

17.  SKREEN. — Serin  Cholaim-chille,  so  called  from  its  being 
the  repository  of  a  shrine  with  some  of  St.  Columba's  relics. 
The  old  church  stands  on  a  hill,  in  the  county  of  Meath,  which 
was  formerly  called,  according  to  the  Dinnseanchus,  Achaill, 
and  gives  name  to  a  rural  deanery  in  the  diocese  of  Meath.    It 
is  mentioned  by  Tighernach  at  976,  and  by  the  Four  Masters 
at  1027,  1037,  1058,  1127,  1152.    The  Ordnance  Survey  marks 
St.  Columkille's  Well  on  the  N.w.  of  the  church. 

18.  BALLYNASCREEN. — Called  Serin  Colaim  cille  by  the  Four 
Masters  at   1203.     The  old  church,  situate  in  a  picturesque 
valley  on  the  Moyola  Water,  occupies  the  site  of  an  earlier 
building.     The  parish  is  called  Baile  na  Scrine,  "  Town  of  the 
Shrine,"  and  forms  the  western  portion  of  the  barony  of  Lough- 
insholin,  in  the  modern  county  of  Londonderry ;  but  until  the 
seventeenth  century  it  was  considered  as  situate  in  Gleann- 
Concadhan  in  Tirone.     See  the  Eev.  Kobert  King's  Old  Church 
of  Ballynascreen,  p.  103;  Eeeves'  Cotton's  Visitation,  p.  82. 

1 9.  SCREEN. — Serin  i  nArda,  Scrinium  de  Ardo.    An  ancient 
chapel  in  the  townland  of  Craig,  parish  of  Tamlaghtard  or 


INTRODUCTION.  Ivii 

Magilligan,  in  the  diocese  and  county  of  Derry. — Eeeves'  Col- 
ton's  Visitation,  p.  78.  For  an  account  of  the  ancient  shrine 
preserved  here,  see  O'Donnell. 

20.  DRUMCOLUMB. — Druim  Choluim  cille,  Dor  sum  Columbce- 
cille,  anciently  Druim-namac.     O'Donnell  preserves  the  tradi 
tion  that  a  church  was  founded  here  by  St.  Columba,  who  left 
his  disciple  Finbarr  in  charge  of  it,  having  given  him  a  bell 
called  Glassan,  and  a  cross.     It  is  now  a  parish  church  of  the 
diocese  of  Elphin,  in  the  barony  of  Tirerrill,  county  of  Sligo. 

21.  COLUMBKILLE. — This  is  the  name  of  a  parish  in  the  barony 
of  Granard,  on  the  N.E.  of  the  county  of  Longford.     Here,  in 
Lough  Gowna,  is  an  island  of  fourteen  and  a  half  acres,  called 
Inchmore,  formerly  known  as  Inir-mor  Locha  Gamlina.     On  this 
island  is  an  ecclesiastical  ruin  called   Teampull  Choluim-cille, 
which  was  formerly  the  parish  church.     Eman  mac  Findbairr 
was  prior  of  it  in  1415. 

22.  EMLAGHFAD. — Imleach  fada,  "  the  long  marsh."     Here, 
according  to  O'Donnell,  St.  Columba  founded  a  church  on  the 
west  side  of  a  hill  called  Tulach-segra  [now  Tully  in  Toomour] 
in  the  district  of  Corann,  appointing  Enna,  son  of  Nuadhan,  its 
first  minister.     It  is  now  a  parish  church  in  the  diocese  of 
Achonry,  and  county  of  Sligo. 

23.  GLENCOLUMBKILLE. — Gleann  Choluim  cille,  Vallis  Columbce 
cille.     The  two  townlands  of  this  name,  North  and  South,  are 
situate  on  the  east  side  of  the  parish  of  Carran,  in  the  diocese 
of  Kilfenora,  and  in  the  barony  of  Burren,  on  the  N.E.  side  of 
the  county  of  Clare.    The  Ordnance  Map  marks  the  Graveyard, 
and  St.  ColumbkiWs  Church  in  ruins. 

24.  KILCOLUMB. — A  parish  in  the   S.E.   of   the    county  of 
Kilkenny,  barony  of  Ida,  on  the  river  Barrow.     The  Ordnance 
Map  marks  Kilcolumb  Church  in  ruins,  and  a  well,  Tobernago- 
lumb. 

25.  KNOCK. — Formerly  called  Knockcollumkill,  and  marked 
Collumkill  on  Speed's  map  of  Ulster.     Father  Mac  Cana,  in  the 
early  part  of  the  seventeenth  century,  thus  described  it :  "  Inter 

d 


Iviii  INTRODUCTION. 

Commor  [Cumber]  et  sestuarium  Loch-Laodh  [see  p.  291,  infra] 
quod  Karrick-fergusium  et  Belfastium  oppida  alluit,  est  ecclesia 
D.  Columbae  sacra,  quam  egre^iis  agris  ac  multis  privilegiia 
auxit  Niallus  O'Niellus  [cir.  1512]  Tren-Congallise  [Dalaradise] 
Princeps." — Ulster  Journ.  of  Archceol,  vol.  ii.  p.  56.  The  parish 
is  now  united  to  Breda,  and  forms  the  union  of  Knock-Breda 
in  the  diocese  of  Down.  The  ruins  of  the  church,  situate  near 
a  fine  earthen  fort,  occupy  a  commanding  position  on  the 
Castlereagh  Hills,  about  three  miles  S.E.  of  Belfast.  See 
Reeves'  Eccles.  Antiq.,  p.  12. 

26.  TERMON-MAGUIRK. — Formerly  Tearmonn  Cuiminigh,  and 
known  in  the  thirteenth  and  following  centuries  as  Termon- 
conyn,  or  Termon-conny.    It  may  derive  its  name  from  Cuimne, 
sister  of  St.  Columba.     About  half  a  mile  from  the  old  church 
is  a  nearly  disused  burying-ground  called  Eellig-na-man  \Eeileg 
na  mbeann],  or  "  the  Women's  Cemetery ;"  and  the  local  tradi 
tion  is,  that  St.  Columkill  directed  a  woman  of  bad  character  to 
be  buried  at  a  spot  where  the  sound  of  a  bell,  rung  in  front  of 
the  funeral,  would  cease  to  be  heard  at  his  church ;  and  that  he 
left  an  injunction  that  the  cemetery  should  never  be  entered  by 
a  living  woman  or  a  dead  man.     Devout  women  in  old  times 
used  to  request  burial  here,  under  the  idea  that  none  interred 
here  would  be  damned ;  but  this  impression  has  nearly  disap 
peared.     Outside  the  old  parish  cemetery  of  Termon  there  are 
two  others,  called  Bdig-na-paisde,  "  Children's  Cemetery,"  and 
Relig-na-fir-gunta,  "  Cemetery  of  the  Slain."     Colgan's  version 
of  O'Donnell  incorrectly  calls  the  church  Tearmonn  Cetmainich. 
The  parish  derives  its  present  name  from  the  family  of  Mac 
Guirk,  who  were  formerly  herenachs,  under  the  Primate,  of  the 
ecclesiastical  lands  in  the  parish.     See  Beeves'  Colton,  p.  3.    It 
is  situate  in  the  barony  of  Omagh  East,  county  of  Tyrone,  and 
diocese  of  Armagh. 

27.  CLOGHMORE. — A  townland  in  the  parish  of  Killannin, 
diocese  of  Tuam,  situate  in  the  county  of  Galway,  and  barony 
of  Moycullen.     In  Roderick  O'Flaherty's  time  there  was  an 


INTRODUCTION.  Hx 

altar  of  St.  Columbkill  near  a  brook  in  this  townland,  and  there 
is  still  an  old  churchyard  bearing  his  name. 

28.  COLUMBKILLE. — Called  Capella  de  Colmekyll  in  the  ancient 
Taxation  of  Ossory.     The  Ordnance  Survey  marks  St.  Columb- 
kttle's  Church  in  ruins,  and  St.  Columbkille's  Well.    It  is  a  parish 
of  the  diocese  of  Ossory,  situated  in  the  barony  of  Gowran,  near 
the  centre  of  the  county  of  Kilkenny. 

29.  ARDCOLUM. — A  parish  of  the  diocese  of  Ferns,  situate 
in  the  barony  of  Shelmalier,  on  the  east  side  of  the  county  of 
Wexford.    The  Ordnance  Survey  marks  St.  Columb's  Church  in 
ruins,  Graveyard,  and  St.  Columb's  Well. 

30.  ARMAGH. — Recks  Cholaim  cille,  "  Church  of  Columcille," 
in  Armagh,  is  mentioned  by  the  Annals  of  Ulster,  An.  1010, 
and  the  Four  Mast.,  An.  1152.     Concerning  the  site  of  this 
church,  see  Stuart's  Armagh,  p.  96. 

31.  MORNINGTON. — Formerly  Villa  Maris,  or  Mariner -stown, 
and  a  distinct  parish.     It  now  forms  a  portion  of  the  union  of 
Colpe,  in  the   county  and  diocese   of  Meath. — "  Ecclesia  S. 
Columbse." 

32.  DESERTEGNY. — A  parish  of  Deny,  situate  in  Inishowen, 
county  of  Donegal.    Colgan  states  that  St.  Columba  was  patron. 
See  Eeeves'  Colton,  p.  67. 

33.  CLONMANY. — A  parish  of  the  diocese  of  Derry,  in  the 
barony  of  Inishowen,  county  of  Donegal.     St.  Columba  was 
patron,  according  to  Colgan.     See  Eeeves'  Colton,  p.  67. 

34.  DESERTOGHILL. — A  parish  in  the  diocese  of  Derry,  and 
barony  of  Coleraine,  in  the  county  of  Londonderry.    St.  Columba 
was  patron.     See  Eeeves'  Colton,  p.  80. 

35.  BALLYMAGROARTY. — This,  which  is  a  townland  in  the 
parish  of  Drumhome,  of  the  diocese  of  Eaphoe,  situate  in  the 
county  of  Donegal,  barony  of  Tirhugh,  is  divided  into  two  por 
tions,  called  Irish  and  Scotch.     In  the  former  are  the-  remains 
of  an  old  chapel  which  formerly  bore  the  name  of  St.  Columba. 
The  name  of  the  townland  is  derived  from  the  family  of  Mac 
Eobhartaigh,  pronounced  Mac  Eoarty,  and  written  baile-mecc- 


Ix  INTRODUCTION. 

Rabhartaich,  by  Colgan,  who  adds,  "ubi  illud  celebre  reliquiarium 
S.  Columbae  quod  Cathach  appellatur."  This  chapel  is  situate 
near  Bath-Cunga  (Orig.  Ed.,  p.  38),  the  right  of  which  was  in  con 
troversy  between  the  Columbian  monks  and  those  of  Ardstraw, 
so  early  as  the  eighth  century,  as  appears  from  the  following 
passage  of  Tirechan  concerning  St.  Assicus : — "  Et  sunt  ossa 
ejus  in  campo  Sered  hi  Eaith-Chungi,  monachus  Patricii,  sed 
contenderunt  eum  familia  Columbae-cille  et  familia  Airddsratha." 

36.  BALLYMAGRORTY. — A  townland  in  the  parish  of  Temple- 
more,  or  Derry.    Colgan  says  of  it :  "  Olim  monasterium  (cujus 
ruinse  vix  nunc  extant)  dicecesis  Dorensis  in  praedicta  regione 
de  Inis-Eoguin." 

37.  ESKAHEEN. — In  the  parish  of  Muff,  to  the  N.N.E.  of  the 
city  of  Derry.     See  Orig.  Ed.,  p.  247,  Note  p.     The  ruins  of  the, 
old  church  stand  near  the  Eoman  Catholic  chapel. 

The  expression  cujus  monasteria,  intra  utrorumque  populo- 
rum  terminos  (p.  191),  as  applied  to  St.  Columba,  is  not 
limited  to  the  churches  which  were  founded  by  him  in  person, 
but  includes  all  those  which,  down  to  the  writer's  time,  were 
established  by  Columbian  monks,  or  professed  subjection 
to  the  mother  church  of  Hy.  Hence  it  is  likely  that  many 
monasteries,  which  in  the  seventh  and  eighth  centuries  might 
be  classed  under  the  above  title,  ceased  in  after  times  to  bear 
any  trace  of  their  original  relation,  and  became  distinguished 
only  by  the  names  of  the  immediate  founders,  under  whose 
patronage  they  were  built.  St.  Dochonna's  church,  for  instance, 
was  probably  at  first  subject  to  Hy,  though  afterwards  indepen 
dent,  when  known  as  St.  Machar's  of  Aberdeen.  The  following 
catalogue  of  Columbian  foundations  in  Scotland  admits  of  con 
siderable  enlargement,  but  it  is  sufficient  to  show  how  widely 
the  veneration  of  St.  Columba  was  extended  in  his  adopted 
country : — 

AMONG  THE  SCOTS. 

1.  SOROBY. — In  the  island  of  Tiree.     The  modern  name  is  of 
Scandinavian  origin,  but  there  can  be  little  doubt  that  it  repre- 


ISTKODUCTION.  Ixi 

sents  the  Campus  Lunge  so  frequently  mentioned  by  Adamnan. 
See  Notes  on  B.  i.  c.  24.  It  will  be  seen  from  the  App.  I.  that 
the  names  of  several  Irish  saints  are  associated  with  places  in 
the  island,  although  the  chief  founder  has  no  longer  any  local 
commemoration  therein. 

2.  ELACHNAVE. — One  of  the  Garveloch  group  of  islands.     A 
modern  writer  says :  "  The  Garvelloch,  or  Holy  Islands,  are 
remarkable  for  having  been  once  the  residence  of  the  monks  of 
lona."     And  a  visitor  of  more  recent  date  observes  :  "  A  water- 
spring  at  the  head  of  a  narrow  creek  in  the  adjacent  shore  is 
called  St.  Columba's  Well,"  adding,  what  seems  an  imported 
tradition,  that  a  little  pile  on  the  summit  of  a  neighbouring 
height  was  said  to  be  "  the  tomb  of  ^Ethnea,  mother  of  the  illus 
trious  saint."     The  adjacent  island  is  called  Culbrandon,  i.e., 
Secessus  Brendani. 

3.  LOCH  COLUMKILLE. — On  the  N.-w.  of  the  parish  of  Kilmuir, 
in  Skye.     See  notes  on  B.  I.  c.  27,  and  B.  II.  c.  27,  for  the  de 
scription  of  its  monastic  remains.     The  particulars  of  its  drain 
ing  are  to   be   found  in  the  New   Statistical  Account,  vol. 
xiv.  pt.  1,  pp.  246,  267,  279.      It  may  be  a  question  whether 
the  island  of  Skye  belonged   to   the   Picts    or  to   the   Scots 
in    Columba's     time :    the    anecdote    told    in    i.    33    seems 
in  favour  of  the  former.     Tighernach,  at  668   (An.  Ult.  667), 
records  the  Navigatio  filiorum  Gartnaith  ad  Hiberniam  cum 
plebe  Scith;  and  at  670  (An.  Ult.  669),  Fenit  Gens  Gartnait  de 
Hibernia  ;  where  Scith  probably  denotes  Skye.     In  this  case 
the  filii  Gartnait  may  have  been  the  family  of  Gartnait,  the 
youngest  son  of  King  ^Edan,  who  had  occupied  the  island  :  but 
this  is  not  likely,  as  the  Cinel  Gabhrain,  to  which  they  belonged, 
were  the  most  southern  settlers  of  the  Scotic  colony.     The  filii 
Gartnait  were  rather  the  sons  of  Gartnait  mac  Uuid,  the  Pictish 
king  in  636,  or  of  his  successor,  Gartnait  mac  Domhnall,  who 
died  in  663.     In  this  case  the  change  of  settlement,  in  668, 
may  have  been  caused  by  Scotic  occupation.     However,  when 
Adamnan  wrote,  the  mountain  of  the  Dorsum  Britannia  being 


Ixii  INTRODUCTION. 

considered  the  boundary  line,  the  islands  on  the  west  would 
necessarily  fall  to  the  Scots.  Hence  the  legend  of  St.  Comgan 
in  the  Aberdeen  Breviary  states  that  the  adjacent  parish  on 
the  mainland  of  Lochelch  [now  Lochalsh]  was  in  Erchadia 
loriali,  or  North  Argyle. 

4.  FLADDA-CHUAIN. — Of  this  island,  which  lies  N.w.  of  the 
extreme  north  point  of  Skye,  Martin  writes  : — 

"  Fladda-Chuan  (i.e.)  Fladda  of  the  Ocean,  lies  about  two  Leagues 
distant  from  the  West-side  of  Hunish-point,  it  is  two  Miles  in  Com 
pass,  the  Ground  is  boggy,  and  but  indifferent  for  Corn  or  Grass. 
There  is  a  Chappel  in  the  Isle  dedicated  to  St.  Columbus  ;  it  has  an 
Altar  in  the  East-end,  and  there  is  a  blue  Stone  of  a  round  Form 
on  it,  which  is  always  moist ;  It  is  an  ordinary  Custom,  when  any 
of  the  Fishermen  are  detained  in  the  Isle,  by  contrary  Winds,  to 
wash  the  blue  Stone  with  water  all  round,  expecting  thereby  to 
procure  a  favourable  Wind,  which  the  Credulous  Tenant  living  in 
the  Isle  says  never  fails,  especially  if  a  Stranger  wash  the  Stone ; 
The  Stone  is  likewise  applied  to  the  sides  of  People  troubled  with 
Stitches,  and  they  say  it  is  effectual  for  that  purpose.  And  so 
great  is  the  regard  they  have  for  this  Stone,  that  they  swear  de 
cisive  Oaths  on  it.  The  Monk  0  Gorgon  is  buried  near  to  this 
Chappell,  and  there  is  a  Stone  five  foot  high  at  each  end  of  his 
Grave." 

This  story  of  the  Uue  stone  is  not  worse  than  that  of  the  white 
stone  at  ii.  34.  Modern  description  represents  this  small 
island  as  having  three  burial-places,  one  of  which  is  called 
Cladk  Mhanaich,  "  Monks'  tomb." 

5.  TRODDA. — Off  Aird  Point,   south-east  of  the  preceding. 
Martin  says  :  "  The  Isle  Troda  lies  within  half  a  League  of  the 
Northermost  point  of  Skie,  called  Hunish,  it  is  two  Miles  in 
Circumference,  fruitful  in  Corn,  and  Grass,  and  had  a  Chappel 
dedicated  to  St.  Columbm." 

6.  SNIZORT.— In  SKYE.     Formerly  Kilcolmkill,  or  St.  Colme's 
Kirk  in  Snesford.     See  Notes  on  Book  I.  c.  27,  and  B.  II.  c.  27. 
The  New  Statistical  Account  describes  the  remains  of  the  old 
church  as  "  the  ruins  of  a  large  cathedral." 

7.  EILEAN  COLUIMCTLLE.— An  island  in  the  southern  recess  of 


IM'KODUCTION.  Ixiii 

Portree  Bay,  on  the  east  of  Skye.  See  Notes  on  B.  i.  c.  27, 
and  B.  II.  c.  27.  Portree  Bay  was  anciently  Loch  Coluimcille  ; 
and  the  old  name  of  the  parish  was  Cill-tarraglan. 

8.  GAKIEN. — In  the  parish  of  Stornoway,  formerly  Ness,  on 
the  north  shore  of  Broad  Bay,  at  the  N.E.  side  of  Lewis,  there 
was  a  chapel  called  St.  Colm's  Church. 

9.  EY. — The  peninsula  of  Ui,  on  the  N.E.  side  of  Lewis,  gave 
name  to  a  parish.     The  church,  called  St.  Collums  in  Ui,  stood 
on  the  isthmus,  a  little  east  of  Stornoway.     The  cemetery,  con 
taining  the  ruins  which  are  described  as  "  strong  walls  now 
standing,"  is  still  to  be   seen.      It  was  the   original  burial- 
place  of  the  clan  Mac  Leod. 

10.  ST.  COLM'S  ISLE. — Situate  in  Loch  Erisort,  in  the  parish 
of  Lochs,  on  the  east  side  of  Lewis.     Here  stood  St.  Columba's 
Church,  the  cemetery  of  which  is  still  the  parish  burying-grouiid. 
North  of  this  was  the  bay  called  Loch  Colmkille. 

11.  BEENERA. — An  island  belonging  to  the  parish  of  Harris, 
but  lying  close  to  the  North  Uist.     It  had  two  ancient  chapels, 
one  of  which  was  named  after  St.  Columba. 

12.  KILCHOLMKILL. — In  the  old  parish  of  Sand,  on  the  north 
side  of  North  Uist,  at  a  place  called  Clachan,  stood  this  ancient 
church.     The  New  Statistical  Account  mentions  that  there  are 
several  burial-grounds  in  the  parish,but  it  does  not  specify  this. 

13.  KILCHOLAMBKILLE. — In   Benbecula,  formerly  known  as 
the  Church  of  St.  Columba  in  Beandmoyll.  It  stood  on  the  north 
coast  of  the  island.     At  Ballvannich,  or  Ballinamanniche,  near 
the  N.w.  coast,  is  a  small  island  in  a  lake,  containing  ecclesi 
astical  remains.     The  lands  here  are  supposed  to  have  belonged 
to  the  abbot  of  Hy.      Indeed  the  whole  island,  which  abounds 
with  vestiges  of  old  ecclesiastical  establishments,  appears  to 
have  had  of  old  a  very  intimate  connexion  with  Hy. 

14.  HOWMORE.— In  South  Uist.     Martin  states   that  there 
was  a  church  here  bearing  our  Saint's  name,  and  adds :  "  A 
Stone  set  up  near  a  Mile  to  the  S.  of  Columbus's  Church,  about 
eight  foot  high,  and  two  foot  broad,  it  is  called  by  the  Natives 


Ixiv  INTRODUCTION. 

the  Bowing-Stone  ;  for  when  the  Inhabitants  had  the  first  sight 
of  the  Church,  they  set  up  this  Stone,  and  there  bowed  and  said 
the  Lord's  Prayer."  He  observes  that  "  the  Natives  speak  the 
Irish  Tongue  more  perfectly  here,  than  in  most  of  the  other 
Islands ;"  also  that  "  Fergus  Beaton  hath  the  following  ancient 
Irish  Manuscripts  in  the  Irish  Character ;  to  wit,  A.  Vicenna, 
A.  Verroes,  Joannes  de  Vigo,  Bernardus  Gordonus,  and  several 
Volumes  of  Hypocrates" 

1 5.  ST.  KILDA. — Formerly,  and  still  among  the  natives,  Hirt. 
One  of  its  three  ancient  chapels  was  St.  Golumba's;   another 
St.  Brendan's. 

16.  CANNA. — The  church,  as  Martin  states,  was  "dedicated 
to  St.  Columbus."     It  stood  near  the  middle  of  the  island,  in 
ruins  in  1772,  having  beside  it  a  small  cross. 

1 7.  ISLAND  COLUMBKILL. — Situate  at  the  head  of  Loch  Arkeg, 
in  the  parish  of  Kilrnalie,  in  Inverness.      It  derived  its  name 
from  a  chapel  of  St.  Columba. 

1 8.  KILLCHALLUMKILL. — A  chapel  at  Duror  in  Appin,  oppo 
site  Lismore. 

19.  KILCOLMKILL. — Now  Kiel  in  Ardchattan.   "  This  chappell 
town  called  in  Inglish  St.  Colme's  Chappell." 

20.  KILCOLMKILL.— This  church,  sometimes  called  St.  Colum- 
ba's  in  Kinelvadon,  or  St.  Columba' s  in  Morwarne,  gave  name  to 
an  old  parish,  which  was  afterwards  united  with  Killintag  to 
form  the  modern  parish  of  Morvern  in  Argyle.     This  territory, 
called  from  the  descendants  of  Baedan,  of  the  house  of  Loarn 
Mor,   Kinelbathyn,   or  Kinelbadon,   afterwards    contracted    to 
Cenalbin,  formed  the  chief  portion  of  the  ancient  seignory  of 
Garmoran.     The  cemetery,  with  a  small  portion  of  the  ruins  of 
Kilcolmkill,  is  situate  at  Kiel,  on  Loch-aline,  on  the  s.w.  of  the 
present  parish.     It  was  of  old  esteemed  a  sanctuary. 

21.  KILCOLLUMKILL. — An  old  parish  of  Mull,  now  united  to 
Kilninian.     The  church  stood  at  the  head  of  a  loch  in  the  dis 
trict  of  Quinish,  on  the  north  coast  of  Mull. 

22.  COLUMKILLE. — In  the  parish  of  Torosay,  on  the  east  coast 


INTRODUCTION.  IxV 

of  Mull.  "  Near  the  small  village  of  Salen  are  the  ruins  of  a 
cell  which  belonged  to  the  monastery  of  lona.  The  village  is 
called  Salen-dubh- Challum-chille" 

23.  ORANSAY. — Separated  from  Colonsay  at  flood- tide  only. 
Here  tradition  places  the  first  landing  of  St.  Columba  on  his 
leaving  Ireland.      It  is  the  vulgar  opinion  that  the  two  names 
denote  respectively  Oran's  and  Colum's  isle.     But  this  is  incor 
rect  :  Colonsay  is  called  Coloso  by  Adamnan,  and  there  are  four 
islands  of  the  name  in  Argyleshire  ;  while  there  is  an  Oronsay 
off  North  Uist,  and  another  off  South  Uist,  none  of  which 
possess  any  traces  of  early  ecclesiastical  distinction.     Fordun 
(Bowar)  notices  the  present  island  as  "  Hornesay  ubi  est  monas- 
terium  nigrorum  canonicorum,  quod  fundavit  Sanctus  Columba." 
Martin  says :  "  It  is  adorn'd  with   a   Church,   Chappel,   and 
Monastry ;  they  were  Built  by  the  famous  St.  Columbus,  to 
whom  the  Church  is  dedicated."     There  may  have  been  an 
earlier  church  on  the  island,  but  the  ruins  to  which  Martin 
alludes  are  the  remains  of  a  priory  which  was  founded  by  a 
Lord  of  the  Isles,  and  affiliated  to  Holyrood.     After  the  disso 
lution  of  religious  houses,  the  priory  of  Oransay  was  annexed  to 
the  bishopric  of  the  Isles ;  hence  we  find  Andrew  Knox,  bishop 
of  Eaphoe,  in  1630,  who  still  held  the  Isles  with  his  Irish  pre 
ferment,  as  prior  of  Oransay,  granting  to  Colin  Campbell,  rector 
of  Craigness,  the  isles  of  Elachniue  and  Kilbrandan,  with  the 
parsonage  and  vicarage  teinds  of  the  same,  both  which  apper 
tained  to  the  priory.     In  1635  this  grant  was  confirmed  by  his 
successor  in  the  bishopric  of  the   Isles.      There  is  a  hill  in 
Colonsay   called    Cam    cul-ri-Erin,   "  Carn-of-the-back-to-Ire- 
land;"  and  in  the  north  of  the  island  a  small  chapel  called 
Tempull-na-gluine,  where  St.  Columba  is  said  to  have  embarked 
for  Hy.     The  old  church  of  Colonsay  (not  of  Oransay)  was 
called  Killoran. 

24.  KILCHOLMKILL.— A  chapel  in  the  parish  of  Kildalton,  on 
the  east  coast  of  Islay. 

25.  KILCHOLMKILL. — A  chapel  of  St.  Columba  in  Kilarrow,  a 


Ixvi  INTRODUCTION. 

parish  of  Islay,  situate  between  Loch  Finlagan  and  the  sea. 
"  There  is  a  Cross  standing  near  St.  Columbas's  or  Portescock 
side,  which  is  ten  foot  high." 

26.  COVE. — In  the  parish  of  North  Knapdale,  formerly  Kill- 
mochormac,  on  the  west  side  of  Loch  Killisport,  near  its  head, 
was  a  chapel  of  St.  Columba ;  and,  in  a  neighbouring  cave,  an 
altar,  piscina,  and  cross  cut  in  the  rock. 

27.  KILCOLUMKILL. — This  old  church,  which  was  situate  at 
the  southern  extremity  of  Cantyre,  between  Carskay  and  Dun- 
averty,  gave  name  to  a  parish  which  is  now  united  to  Kilblane 
to  form  the  modern  parish  of  Southend.     Kilcolmkill  forms  the 
south-west  portion,  and  contains  the  Mull  of  Cantyre.     The 
grant  of  St.  Collomkill's  church  in  Kyntire,  which  had  been 
made  by  Patrick  Makschillingis,  and  Finlach  his  wife,  to  the 
canons  of  Whithern,  was  confirmed  by  King  Eobert  Bruce  in 
1326.     The  ruins  of  the  chapel  are  in  the  unusual  proportion 
of  72  to  15  feet. 

28    ST.  COLOMB'S. — An  ancient  chapel  of  the  parish  of  Kothe- 
say,  in  Bute. 

29.  KILMACOLM. — Now  incorrectly  written  Kilmalcolm.     A 
large  parish  in  Kenfrew,  formerly  including  Port-Glasgow,  and 
now  situate  next  it  on  the  south  and  east. 

30.  LARGS. — In  Ayrshire.      "  The  church,  surrounded  by  its 
ancient  village,  stood  on  the  level  ground  on  the  right  bank  of 
the  Gogo,  where  it  falls  into  the  Firth.     It  was  dedicated  to  St. 
Columba,  whose  festival  was  on  the  9th  day  of  June,  and  a 
yearly  fair,  vulgarly  called  Colm's  day,  once  famous  in  the  West 
Highlands,  is  still  held  there  on  the  second  Tuesday  of  June, 
old  style." 

31.  KIRKCOLM. — A  parish  in  Wigton,  on  the  west  side  of 
Loch  Eyan,  opposite  Glenarm,  in  the  county  of  Antrim. 

32.  ST.  COLUMBO. — In  the  parish  of  Caerlaverock  in  Dumfries, 
on  the  east  side  of  the  Mouth  of  the  Mth,  "  a  little  below  Glen- 
caple  Key,  close  by  the  shore,  was  a  cell  or  chapel  dedicated  to 
St.  Columba ;  near  this  is  a  well,  of  which  no  person  was  per- 


INTRODUCTION.  Ixvii 

initted  to  drink  without  leaving  a  portion  of  victuals,  or  a  piece 
of  money,  as  an  alms  to  the  inhabitant  of  the  cell." 

The  four  parishes  last  mentioned  were  originally  occupied  by 
Australes  Picti,  but  in  Ven.  Bede's  time  the  Angli  had  come  in 
on  them,  and  they  were  then  considered  in  the  provincia  Ber- 
niciorum. 

AMONG  THE  PICTS. 

1.  BURNESS. — A  parish  in  the  north-west  of  Sanday,  one  of 
the  Orkney  islands,  formerly  known  as  St.  Colm's. 

2.  HOY. — One  of  the  Orkneys,  on  the  s.w.     It  had  a  chapel 
of  St.  Columkill. 

3.  ST.  COMBS.— In  the  parish  of  Olrick  in  Caithness.     "  On 
the  boundary  of  the  parish  in  the  east,  towards  Dunnet,  the 
spot  is  still  called  St.  Coomb's  Kirk,  supposed  to  have  been 
overwhelmed  in  the  sand  at  night." 

4.  DIRLET. — In  the  parish  of  Halkirk  in  Caithness.      There 
was  a  chapel  of  St.  Columba  at  this  place. 

5.  ISLAND  COMB. — In  the  parish  of  Tongue,  off  the  north 
coast  of  Sutherland.     It  is  sometimes  called  JZilean-na-naoimh, 
"  Island  of  Saints."     It  had  formerly  a  chapel  and  cemetery,  the 
traces  of  which  are  still  to  be  seen. 

6.  KILLCOLMKILL.— In  Strabruraich,  or  "  Srath  of  Brora,"  on 
the  east  side  of  Loch  Brora,  in  the  parish  of  Clyne,  and  county 
of  Sutherland,  stood  this  chapel.     "  In  digging  some  ground  at 
that  place,  a  cemetery  was  found  that  contained  large  human 
bones,  upon  which  a  stop  was  put  to  the  digging  there.     At 
some  little  distance  from  it,  a  year  or  two  ago  (1794),  a  gentle 
man  making  out  part  of  the  high  road,  found  a  stone  cross, 
which  was  immediately  erected  in   the  place  where  it  was 
found." 

7.  AULDEARN. — A  parish  in  Nairn.     St.  Columba  was  patron 
of  the  church,  and  his  fair,  called  St.  Colm's  Market,  is  held  here 
annually  on  the  first  Wednesday  after  the  19th  [query  N.  s.,  or 
9th  ?]  of  June. 


Ixviii 


INTRODUCTION. 


8.  PETTIE. — With  Bracholy,  a  parish  in  Inverness-shire.  For 
merly  Petyn.     In  'the  Register  of  Moray  we  find  mention  of 
"  Walterus  vicarius  S.  Columbse  de  Petyn." 

9.  KINGUSSIE. — A  parish  in  Badenoch,  on  the  east  of  Inver 
ness-shire.     St.  Columba  was  patron,  and  the  chief  fair  is  held 
in  June,  probably  on  his  day. 

10.  ST.  COLM'S. — A  chapel  at  Aird,  in  the  parish  of  Fordyce, 
Banff. 

11.  ALVAH. — A  parish   on  the  north-east  of  Banff.      St. 
Columba  seems  to  have  been  the  patron  saint,  for  at  the  foot 
of  the  Hill  of  Alvah  is  St.  Colm's  Well ;  and,  not  far  from  it 
on  the  south,  the  church. 

12.  LONMAY. — A  parish  at  the  north-east  angle  of  Aberdeen- 
shire,  near  Cairnbulg.      "  Previous  to  1 608,  the  parish  church 
was  by  the  sea-side,  hard  by  where  the  village  of  St.  Combs  now 
stands. "    An  earlier  writer  says,  "  This  parish  at  different  times 
has  been  named  St.  Colm,  from  the  name  of  the  saint  to  whom 
the  old  church  was  dedicated,  and  Lonmay,  from  the  name  of 
the  estate  on  which  the  church  now  stands." 

13.  DAVIOT. — A  parish  nearly  in  the  middle  of  Aberdeen- 
shire.     St.  Columba  was  the  patron,  and  his  effigy  in  stone  was 
formerly  placed  in  a  niche  within  the  church."     St.  Colm's  Fair 
was  formerly  held  at  Kirktown  in  this  parish,  on  every  9th  of 
June. 

14.  BELHELVIE. — This  parish,  adjoining  Aberdeen   on   the 
north,  "  hath  for  its  tutelar  Saint  Colm."     St.  Colm's  Fair  used 
to  be  held  here,  at  Drumhead,  June  9th. 

15.  MONYCABO. — Or,  New    Machar,   a    parish   formerly  a 
chapelry  of  Old  Machar  of  Aberdeen.      It  bore  the  name  of 
St.  Colm's. 

16.  CORTACHY. — A  parish  in  the  N.w.  of  Forfarshire.      St. 
Colm's  Fair  used  to  be  held  here  annually,  at  Muirs-keith,  near 
the  kirk. 

17.  TANNADICE. — In  the  middle  of  Forfarshire,   S.E.   of  the 
last.     "  A  chapel  is  said  to  have  been  here  [at  Shielhill],  in  old 


INTRODUCTION.  Ixix 

time ;  and  a  fountain,  at  a  little  distance,  is  known  by  the  name 
of  St.  Colm,  to  whom  the  chapel  may  have  been  inscribed." 

18.  DUNKELD. — In  Perthshire.  It  has  been  stated  on  re 
spectable  authority,  that  Columba,  circ.  640,  was  first  bishop 
of  this  church.  But,  on  maturer  consideration,  the  writer 
has  come  to  the  conclusion  that  the  founder  of  Hy  was  the 
only  Columba  whose  name  was  ever  prominently  associated 
with  Dunkeld,  and  that  the  misapprehension  has  arisen  from 
erroneous  statements  in  the  Irish  Life  of  St.  Cuthbert.  The 
version  of  it  printed  in  the  Nova  Legenda  of  Capgrave  relates 
the  departure  of  St.  Cuthbert's  mother  from  Ireland  to  Britain, 
and  tells  how  "  venit  Mater  cum  puero  ad  Episcopum  Colum- 
bam  qui  primus  sedem  Dunkelde  rexit  in  Scotia."  To  the 
same  effect  the  Durham  narrative,  borrowed  from  a  similar 
source :  "  Cum  ad  fines  Scotiae  pervenisset,  Sanctus  Columba 
primus  episcopus  in  Dunkel  puerum  suscepit,  unaque  cum 
puellula  quadam,  nomine  Brigida  ex  Hybernia  oriunda,  retinuit 
et  aliquandiu  educavit."  And  in  the  following  chapter :  "  Post- 
modum  vero  cum  matre  puer  ad  insulam  quse  Hy  dicitur,  pro- 
fectus  est,  ubi  aliquandiu  cum  religiosis  viris  loci  illius  conver- 
satus  est."  Now  the  word  Scotia  in  these  authorities  savours 
very  much  of  circ.  1 100,  or  later.  A  writer  of  that  period  would 
find  Dunkeld  a  bishop's  see,  and  the  name  Columba  intimately 
associated  with  it.  Hence,  by  a  process  similar  to  that  which 
made  St.  Eunan  bishop  of  Eaphoe  in  Ireland,  he  would  argue 
that  the  founder  of  St.  Columba's  diocesan  church  of  Dunkeld 
was  a  Columba  and  a  bishop.  But  the  fact  was  otherwise.  The 
Danish  descents  on  Hy  in  the  early  part  of  the  ninth  century, 
and  the  rise  of  Kells  in  Ireland,  had  caused  a  diversion  in  the 
administration  of  the  Columbian  brotherhood  ;  and  when,  soon 
after,  the  Pictish  nation  yielded  to  Scotic  rule,  and  Kenneth 
Mac  Alpin  transferred  the  seat  of  government  to  the  eastern 
side  of  the  kingdom,  a  collateral  movement  took  place  in  the 
ecclesiastical  economy  of  his  dominions :  and  accordingly,  circ. 
849,  he  ftnmded  a  church  at  the  seat  of  government,  which  was 


xx  INTRODUCTION. 

to  be  an  inland  Hy,  and  the  representative  of  the  Columbian 
institution  for  the  united   kingdom.      In  furtherance  of  this 
project,  St.  Columkille  was  named  the  patron  saint,  and  a  por 
tion  of  his  relics,  real  or  alleged,  were  deposited  in  the  site,  as  a 
material  guarantee  of  the  dedication.      Hence  the  9th  of  June 
became   the   proper  festival  of  Dunkeld,   and  St.   Columba's 
memory  associated  with  its  future  history.    As  the  new  founda 
tion  was  essentially  Columbian,  the  intercourse  which  previ 
ously  existed  between  the  mother  church  and   Ireland  was 
extended  to  the  east  of  Scotland :  and  for  this  reason  the  few 
names  of  the  early  abbots  of  Dunkeld  which  are  preserved  are 
strictly  Irish,  and  found  in  Irish  Annals  only.      Hy  continued 
to  decline,  and  Dunkeld  to  rise  in  importance  ;  tradition  stamped 
the  former  with  sanctity,  but  royalty  invested  the  latter  with 
power :  and,  as  a  consequence,  when  the  jurisdiction  of  bishops 
began  to  be  defined  by  diocesan  limits,  Argyle,  including  Hy, 
was  comprised  within  the  diocese  of  Dunkeld,  subject,  no  doubt, 
to  occasional  interference  from  the  Irish  coarbs  of  St.  Columba, 
who  regarded  themselves  as  the  conventual  superintendents  of 
the  society ;  and  to  a  temporary  usurpation  of  authority  by  the 
Norwegians  :  but  the  relation  was  presently  renewed ;  and  long 
after  1200,  when  Argyle  became  a  distinct  see,  withLismore  as 
the  centre  of  jurisdiction,  the  island  of  Hy,  which  was  farther 
west,   continued   to  own  episcopal   subjection  to  its  kindred 
church  of  Dunkeld.     We  find  the  following  notices  of  Dunkeld 
in  the  Annals  of  Ulster  : — A.C.  864,  Tuathal  mac  Artgusso  pi*im 
epscop  Fortrenn  acas  abbas  Duin  caillenn  dormivit,  "  Tuathal,  son 
of  Artgus,  chief  Bishop  of  Pictland,  and  Abbot  of  Duncaillenn, 
fell  asleep."     A.c.  872,  FlaitJibertacli  mac  Murcertaigh  princeps 
Duinchaillden  obiit,  "Flaithbertach,  son  of  Muircertach,  Superior 
of  Duncailldenn,  died."     A.c.    964,    Oath  etir  firu  Allan  in 
Moneitir  ubi  multi  occisi  sunt  im  Donnchadh  .i.  abbaidh  Duine- 
caillenn,  "  Battle  between  the  men  of  Alba  at  Moneitir  [again 
1004]  where  many  were  slain,  together  with  Donnchadh,  i.e.  the 
Abbot  of  Dun-caillenn."      A.c.   1027,  Diincaillenn,  i  nAlbain 


INTRODUCTION.  Ixxi 

do  uile  loscadh,  "DuncailJenn  in  Alba  was  entirely  burned."  A.c. 
1045,  Catli  eder  Albancu  etarru  fein  i  torcair  Cronan  abb  Duine 
caillend,  "  Battle  among  the  Albanach  between  themselves,  in 
which  was  slain  Cronan,  Abbot  of  Duncaillenn." 

1 9.  INCHCOLM. — An  island  in  the  Forth,  belonging  to  Aber- 
dour  in  the  county  of  Fife.     In  1123,  King  Alexander,  being 
overtaken  in  a  violent  storm  in  the  Forth,  vowed  to  erect  on  an 
island  therein,  should  he  reach  it,  a  religious  house  to  serve  as 
an  asylum  and  comfort  to  the  shipwrecked.     He  succeeded  in 
landing  on  this  island,  which  was  called  ^Emonia,  "  ubi  tune 
degebat  quidam  eremita  insulanus,  qui  servitio  Sancti  Columbse 
deditus,  ad  quandam  inibi  capellulam  tenui  victu,  utpote  lacte 
unius  vaccae  et  conchis  ac  pisciculis  marinis  collectis,  contenta- 
tus,  sedule  se  dedit." 

20.  KINCARDINE. — In  the  detached   portion   of  Perthshire, 
on  the  Forth.     Here  was  a  "  croft  of  land  of  St.  Colme." 

21.  DRYMEN. — A  parish  in  Lennox,  in  the  west  of  Stirling 
shire.     The  church  was  under  the  title  of  St.  Columba,  and  his 
yearly  market,  called  St.  Oolm's  Fair,  was  formerly  held  here 
on  the  9th  of  June. 

IV. 

The  desire  which  prevailed,  in  the  early  ages  of  Christianity,     SAINT 

to  imitate  even  the  accidental  features  of  the  apostolic  system,  CoLUMBA's 

TWELVE 

naturally  suggested  the  adoption  of  the  number  Twelve  in  the  DISCIPLES. 
adjustment  of  religious  societies ;  and  its  use  was  afterwards 
extended  to  other  relations,  both  social  and  moral.  We  find 
in  Adamnan  the  mention  of  King  Oswald  and  his  twelve  com 
panions  (p.  6)  ;  of  twelve  years  as  a  term  of  monastic  service 
(pp.  19,  99);  of  a  flotilla  of  twelve  curachs  (p.  75);  and  of 
St.  Columba  and  his  twelve  disciples.  The  names  of  these 
twelve  followers  have  been  thus  given  in  Codex  B  : — 

"  Hsec  sunt  duodecim  virorum  nomina  qui  cum  sancto  Columba 
cle  Scotia,  primo  ejus  transitu  ad  Brittanniam,  transnavigaverunt  : 
Duo  filii  Brenden,  Baithene,  qui  et  Conin,  sancti  successor  Columbae ; 


Ixxii  INTRODUCTION. 

et  Cobthach,  frater  ejus ;  Ernaan,  sancti  avunculus  Columbse ;  Dior- 
mitius,  ejus  ministrator ;  Rus,  et  Techno,  duo  filii  Rodain ;  Scandal, 
films  Bresail  filii  Endei  filii  Neil ;  Luguid  Mocuthemne ;  Echoid  ; 
Tochannu  Mocufir-cetea ;  Cairnaan,  filius  Branduib  filii  Meilgi ; 
Grillaan. 

"  Sancti  Columbse  parentes :  Aedelmith,  pater  ejus,  filius  Fer- 
guso  ;  Eithne,  mater  ipsius,  filia  filii  JSTavis. 

"  logen  germanus  frater  Columbse  junior.  Item,  tres  germanse 
sorores  ejus  :  Cuimne,  mater  filiorum  Meic  Decuil,  qui  nominantur 
Mernooc,  et  Cascene,  et  Meldal,  et  Bran  qui  sepultus  est  in  Dairu 
Calchaich,  consobrini  sancti  Columbse  ;  Mincholeth,  mater  filiorum 
Enain,  quorum  unus  Calmaan  dicebatur;  Sinech  mater  virorum 
Mocucei  in  Cuile-aque,  quorum  nomina  sunt  Aidanus  monachus, 
qui  sepultus  est  hi  Cuil-uisci,  et  Chonrii  Moccucein,  qui  sepultus 
est  in  Daurmaig ;  avia  Tocummi  Mocucein,  qui  valde  senio  fessus, 
presbiter  sanctus,  in  lona  insula  prsesentem  finivit  vitam." 

The  following  recital  will  serve  as  a  commentary  on  that  list, 
in  showing  the  prevalence  of  the  duodecimal  economy  among 
the  Irish  as  well  as  the  other  inhabitants  of  the  British  Isles : — 

I. — MISSIONARY. 

1.  S.  Palladius,  with  twelve  companions,  sent  to  the  Scots. 

2.  S.  Mochta,  a  Briton,  circ,  500,  came  to  Ireland  with 

twelve  disciples. 

3.  S.  Columla,  An.  562,  with  twelve  followers,  retired  to  Hy. 

4.  S.  Mochonna,  called  also  Macarius  and  Mauritius,  was 

sent  by  St.  Columba  with  twelve  companions  to 
the  Picts. 

5.  S.  Columbanus,  circ.  612,  with  twelve  brethren,  whose 

names  are  on  record,  departed  from  Ireland  to  the 
Continent. 

6.  S.  Kilian,  circ.  680,  was  chief  of  a  company  of  twelve 

who  went  from  Ireland  to  Franconia,  and  founded 
the  church  of  Wiirtzburg.      .  ^txNj*5^ 

7.  S.  Moquius,  disciple  of  S.  Fursa,  circ.  680,  with  twelve 

companions,  whose  names  are  preserved,  propagated 
the  Gospel  in  Belgium. 

8.  S.  Rudbert,  or  Rupert,  circ.  700,  chose  twelve  companions, 

whose  names  are  on  record,  to  assist  him  in  preach 
ing  the  Gospel  in  Bavaria. 

9.  $.    Willibrord,   who  had  studied  for  twelve  years   in 

Ireland,  was  chief  of  a  society  of  twelve  who,  in , 
692,  were  sent  by  Ecgbert  to  evangelize  Friesland. 
Their  names  are  <?iven  in  Surius. 


INTRODUCTION.  Ixxiii 

10.  S.  Forannan,  an  Irishman,  bishop  and  abbot  of  Vassor, 

circ.  970,  with  twelve  companions,  propagated  the 
Gospel  on  the  Belgic  frontier. 

11.  S.  Paulus,  uncle  of  S.  Jovimis,  with  twelve  presbyters, 

passed  over  from  Britain  to  Armorica. 

12.  S.  Joseph,  and  his  twelve  companions,  appear  in  the 

Glastonbury  Legends;   and  the  number  recurs  in 
other  instances  adduced  by  Ussher. 

II. — MONASTIC. 

1.  S.'  Carthach,  or  Mochuda,  formed  at  Eahen  a  com 

munity  of  twelve,  whose  names  are  recorded. 

2.  S.  David,  of  Menevia,  founded  twelve  monasteries. 

3.  S.  Petroc,  who  retired  to  the  wilderness  with  twelve 

companions. 

4.  S.  Benedict  founded  twelve  monasteries,  placing  in  each 

twelve  monks  under  a  superior. 

5.  S.  Cungar,  or  Doccuin,  placed  twelve  canons  in  each 

of  his  monasteries. 

6.  S.  Gall  built  an  oratory,  "  mansiuneculis  per  gyrum 

dispositis,  ad  commanendum  fratribus,  quorum  jam 
xn.  ad  seternorum  desiderium  concitavit." 

7.  S.  Corpreus,  collected  twelve  presbyters  into  his  church 

at  Clonmacnois. 

8.  S.  Disibod,  an  Irishman,  in  whose  church  of  Mons 

Disibodi,  or  Dysenberg,  twelve  canons  were  placed 
"  ad  numerum  xn.  apostolorum." 

9.  S.  EJiabanus  Maurus,  at  Fulda,  had  270  monks,  "inter 

quos  juxta  numerum  Apostolorum  XII.  viri  erant 
prse  ceteris  doctissimi." 

JO.  Mons  S.   Victor,  a  cell  of  St.  Gall,  founded  for  twelve 
Irish  pilgrims. 

11.  S.  Colman  Finn,  cum  suis  sociis  XII.  in  Morthreabh 

Corcnea. — (Litan.'  Aengus,  Colgan,  Act.  SS.,  p.  539.) 

12.  SS.    Conchennacii  xn.,   qui   cum    utroque   Sinchello 

jacent  in  Kill-achuidh  (ibid.) 

13.  S.    Finniani    xn.    discipuli    in    Ard-brendomnuigh 

(ibid.) 

14.  Episcopi  xn.  habitatores  Killachiee  Dromfhodse  apud 

Falgheides  (ibid.) 

15.  Meuthi,    an    Irish    hermit    in    Wales,   with    twelve 

ministers. 

16.  Monymusk,  where  was  a  college,  of  twelve  Culdees  and 

a  prior. 

e 


Ixxiv  INTRODUCTION. 

III. — DIOCESAN. 

1.  Pope  Gregory  wrote  to  St.  Augustine  of  Canterbury, 

directing :  "  Per  loca  singula  xii.  episcopos  ordines 
qui  tuse  subjaceant  ditioni.  Ad  Eburacam  vero 
civitatem  te  volumus  episcopum  mittere ;  ita  dun- 
taxat,  ut  si  eadem  civitas  cum  finitimis  locis 
verbum  Dei  '  receperit,  ipse  quoque  xn.  episcopos 
ordinet,  et  metropolitan!  honore  perfruatur "  (Bede 
i.  29). 

2.  S.  Cataldus  ducatum  in  xii.  episcopatus  distribuens, 

de  suo  episcopio  archiepiscopatum  fecit. 

IV.— CAPITULAR. 

1.  Canterbury. — Dean  and  twelve  canons. 

2.  Durham. — Dean,   twelve   canons,   and    twelve   minor 

canons  (orig.  constit.) 

3.  Winchester. — Dean  and  twelve  canons. 

4.  Westminster. — Dean  and  twelve  canons. 

5.  Windsor. — Dean  and  twelve  canons. 

6.  Gloucester. — Dean,  six  canons,  and  six  minor  canons. 

7.  Bristol. — Dean,  six  canons,  and  six  minor  canons. 

8.  Norwich. — Dean,  six  canons,  and  six  minor  canons. 

9.  Aberdeen. — Bishop,  and  twelve  canons. 

V. — EDUCATIONAL. 

1.  S.  Finnian,  of  Clonard,  had  twelve  principal  students, 

afterwards  styled  the  Twelve  Apostles  of  Erin. 

2.  Aidan. — Eata  "  unus    de    xn.    pueris  Aidani,    quos 

primo  episcopatus  sui  tempore  de  natione  Anglorum 
erudiendos  in  Christo  accepit" — (Bede  iii.  26)/ 

3.  Daire-rabhne. — Duodecim  >innocentes  pueri  in  Daire- 

rabhne  (Litan.  Aengus). 

VI. — CEREMONIAL. 

1.  At  Wilfrid's  consecration,  Agilberct,  bishop  of  Paris, 

"  et  alii  undecim  episcopi  ad  dedicationem  antistitis 
[Wilfridi]  convenientes,  multum  honorifice  minis- 
terium  impleverunt "  (Bede  v.  19). 

2.  Eanfleda,  "  baptizata  est  die  sancto  Pentecostes,  prima 

de  gente  Nordanhymbrorum,  cum  undecim  aliis  de 
familia  ejus  "  (Bede  ii.  9). 

VII. — PEREGRINAL. 

1.  S.  Ailbhe  went  to  Home,  attended  by  several  companies 
of  twelve. 


INTRODUCTION.  Ixxv 

2.  S.  Barr,  of  Cork,  was  attended  to  Eome  by  twelve 

companions. 

3.  S.  Maidocus.    Duodecim  qui  cum  Maidoco  Fernensi 

ultra  mare  sunt  peregrinati  (litan.  Aengus). 

4.  Laisreanus.      Duodecim  qui  sine  morbo   ad   aeterna 

tabernacula  transierunt  cum  S.  Molassio  (ibid) 

5.  Duodecim    peregrini,   quorum    unum   superstitem  in 

Insula  Felis  reperit  Brendanus  (ibid.) 

6.  S.  Eioch.     Duodecim  socii  S.  Eiochi  ultra  mare  (ibid) 

7.  Duodecim  peregrini  in  Lethglas  Mor  (ibid.) 

8.  Duodecim  qui  cum  Albeo  mori  elegerunt  (ibid.) 

9.  S.  Munna,  attended  by  twelve  of  his  fraternity,  went 

to  meet  the  King  of  Leinster  at  Kathmor. 

VIIL— MORAL. 

1.  Duodecim  gradus  humilitatis. 

2.  Duodecim  pericula  animse. 

3.  Duodecim  abusiones  sseculi. 

IX.— MISCELLANEOUS. 

1.  Twelve  citizens  placed  by  St.  Patrick   in  Armagh. 

Kepresented  by  twelve  burgesses  in  modern  times. 

2.  Twelve  pillars  and  twelve  lamps  in  the  Anastasis  at 

Jerusalem. 

3.  Twelve  psalms  to  be  recited. 

4.  Twelve  hostages  delivered  up. 

5.  Si  xn.  ordinati  viri  sapientes  defuerunt,  xii.  clericorum 

inordinatorum  consilium :  si  vero  xii.  clerici  non 
affuerunt,  xii.  parvulis  pueris,  virginibus  cum  muli- 
eribus  haut  coinquinatis,  judicium  atque  consilium 
permittatur  (Eees,  Cambro-Brit.  SS.,  p.  43.) 

6.  Twelve  masons  employed  in  Wales  under  an  Irish 

architect  called  Liuguri  (ibid.  p.  47). 

X. — MULTIPLES. 

1 .  S.  Patrick  came  to  Ireland  attended  by  twenty-four 

companions. 

2.  S.  Brendan  visits  a  community  consisting  of  an  abbot 

and  twenty-four  monks. 

3.  S.  Ailbhe,  with  twenty-four  men  of  Munster,  crossed 

the  sea  (Litan.  Aengus). 

4.  S.  Cadoc  and  his  twenty-four  disciples  (Eees,  Cam.- 

Brit.  SS.,  p.  61). 

5.  JRatisbon. — An  Irish  monastery,  founded  for  twenty- 

four  Scots. 
&  Exeter  cathedral,  dean,  and  twenty-four  canons. 


Ixxvi  INTRODUCTION. 

7.  York  cathedral,  dean,  and  thirty-six  canons. 

8.  S.  Cadoc  appointed  thirty-six  canons  at  Nantcarban 

(Kees,  p.  82). 

9.  S.  Brendan,  with  sixty  pilgrim  monks  (Litan.  Aengus). 

1 0.  8.  Leonorius  went  from  Britain  to  Gaul  with  seventy- 

two  disciples. 

11.  S.  Benedict. — "Instrumenta  bonorum  operum  LXXII." 

12.  Servi  Dei  MCC.  circa  Lasreanum,  ac  episcopos   Leth- 

glinenses  (ibid.) 

V. 

In  calculating  the  year  of  St.  Columba's  death,  it  will  be 
granted  that  he  died  on  the  ninth  of  June :  for  though 
Adamnan  does  not  name  the  day  of  the  month,  he  states  the 
coincidence  of  St.  Columba's  and  St.  Baithene's  festivals,  and 
speaks  of  the  Saint's  decease  as  occurring  soon  after  the  month 
of  May  (B.  ill.  c.  24).  In  the  Feilire  of  ^Engus  and  the  Koman 
Martyrology,  as  well  as  those  of  Bede  and  Notker,  we  have 
domestic  and  foreign  testimonies  agreeing  with  the  date  which 
has  been  observed  for  the  solemnity  within  the  memory  of  man. 
We  learn,  however,  from  Adamnan  the  following  particulars, 
which,  taken  in  conjunction  with  the  date  of  the  festival, 
determine  the  year  with  great  precision  : — 

1.  Saturday  was  the  last  day  of  the  Saint's  life. 

2.  He  had  attended  the  nocturnal  vigils. 

3.  Shortly  after  midnight  he  rose  for  matins. 

4.  Which  was  the  second  service  of  Sunday. 

5.  And  just  as  the  brethren  had  assembled. 

6.  While  it  was  still  dark  in  the  oratory,  for  his  attendant 
was  obliged  to  feel  after  him,  and  was  unable  to  discern  his 
condition  till  lanterns  were  brought. 

7.  That  this  portion  of  the  twenty-four  hours  was  called  the 
night  of  Sunday. 

8.  That,  therefore,  he  died  on  Sunday. 

9.  That  the  ninth  of  June  fell  on  Sunday. 

Now  the  Eegular  letter  of  the  ninth  of  June  is  f ;  therefore 
F  was  the  Sunday  letter  of  the  year.     But  597  is  the  only  year 


INTRODUCTION.  Ixxvii 

at  this  period  to  which  F  belongs,  that  is,  whose  first  of  January 
fell  on  Tuesday.  Thus,  as  far  as  Adamnan's  statements  go, 
the  inference  is  very  explicit,  and  we  are  freed  from  the  uncer 
tainty  which  Ussher  expresses:  "Cum  media  nocte  Eomani 
civiles  suos  dies  et  incipere  soleant  et  terminare :  num.  nox 
ilia  media,  qua  Columbam  decessisse  diximus,  diem  Junii 
nonum  vel  inchoaverit  vel  finierit,  quaestionis  quid  habet." 
With  regard  to  Adamnan's  language,  there  cannot  be  any 
uncertainty  ;  for  he  represents  the  Saint  as  saying,  while  it  was 
yet  Saturday,  "  hac  sequenti  media  venerabili  Dominica  nocte 
patrum  gradiar  viarn,"  and  states  of  the  penultimate  service 
which  he  attended,  "  Sanctus  ad  vespertinalem  Dominicse 
noctis  missam  ingreditur  ecclesiam."  Adamnan  reckons  his 
day  from  sunset  to  sunset,  and  thus  we  find  him,  on  more 
than  one  occasion,  employing  a  wxQij/jiepov,  and  making  the 
night  of  a  festival  precede  the  day.  See  ii.  46,  iii.  12,  13,  24. 
With  this  date  agree  the  biographer's  chronological  notes,  who 
states  that  St.  Columba  passed  over  to  Britain  in  the  second 
year  after  the  battle  of  Culdreibhne,  that  is,  in  563,  being  then 
42  years  old,  and  that  he  died,  having  completed  34  years  in 
his  pilgrimage,  thus  giving  597  for  his  obit,  and  76  years  for 
his  age.  So  also  Bede,  who  places  his  removal  to  Scotland  at 
565,  the  length  of  his  pilgrimage  32  years,  and  his  death,  when 
he  was  about  77  years  of  age. 

But  against  this  evidence  may  be  alleged  the  authority  of 
Tighernach,  who  records  Quies  Coluimcille  in  nocte  Dominica  Pen- 
tecostes  v.  Id.  Junii,  anno  peregrinacionis  sue  xxxv.  etatis  vero 
Ixxvii.  With  this  statement,  that  he  died  on  Wednesday,  agree 
the  ancient  Irish  Life,  cited  in  the  note  on  B.  in.  c.  24, 
and  the  Naemhsenchas,  which,  under  the  Saint's  name,  has  Tri 
cengcaidhis  Colamcilli :  a  gen,  a  baihis,  a  bas,  "  Three  Pentecosts 
[quinquagesimas]  of  Colam-cille :  his  birth,  his  baptism,  and 
his  death."  Now,  in  597,  Whitsunday  fell  on  the  2d  of  June, 
but  in  596  on  the  10th.  If,  therefore,  the  Whitsun  element 
enter  into  the  calculation,  the  year  of  the  death  must  be 


IXXVIII  INTRODUCTION. 

assigned  to  596,  and  Adamnan's  mode  of  computation  be  In 
verted  ;  for,  in  this  case,  the  midnight  between  Saturday  and 
Sunday  must  be  attracted  to  the  former  in  order  to  fit  the  obit 
into  the  9th,  while,  at  the  same  time,  an  opposite  process  must 
be  adopted  in  order  to  identify  the  occurrence  with  the  ensuing 
Pentecost.  This  date,  which  seems  to  follow  from  Tighernach, 
is  adopted  by  Hermannus  Contractus,  who  places  St.  Columba's 
death  at  596.  But  it  is  opposed  to  Tighernach's  own  calcula 
tion,  who  assigns  the  Saint's  birth  to  520,  and  allows  him  an 
age  of  77  years.  Dr.  Lanigan  accounts  for  this  discrepancy  by 
supposing  that  "  Tighernach  was,  probably,  prepossessed  with 
the  idea  that  596  was  the  real  year  of  his  death,  as  he  might 
have  found  it  marked  in  some  elder  annals,  which,  however, 
considering  their  mode  of  computation,  was,  in  fact,  the  same 
as  5  9  7.  Then,  finding  that  Pentecost  fell  in  5  9  6  about  the  9th  of 
June,  he  supposed  it  to  be  the  Sunday  in  which  Columba  died." 
Or,  it  may  be  urged  that,  as  Columba's  removal  to  Britain  is  said 
by  some  to  have  been  at  Whitsuntide,  Prima  nox  ejus  in  Attain 
in  Pentecosten,  an  even  period  was  assigned  to  the  term  of  his 
pilgrimage,  the  chronicler  being  desirous  to  square  the  matter, 
by  placing  the  obit  at  the  same  festival.  It  is  further  to  be 
observed  that,  supposing  Whitsunday  to  have  been  on  the  2d, 
which  it  most  probably  was,  the  Saint's  decease  was  inside  the 
week,  and  was  thus  within  the  octave  of  Whitsuntide ;  for  the 
festival  of  Trinity  Sunday  was  not  yet  instituted,  and  Easter 
and  Pentecost  were  the  two  great  ecclesiastical  seasons  of  the 
year.  Dr.  Lanigan  very  justly  observes,  that  "  Adamnan,  who 
mentions  more  than  once  this  obituary  Sunday,  never  calls  it 
Pentecost,  which,  had  it  been  so,  he  would  assuredly  have 
noticed  as  a  very  remarkable  circumstance,  combining  the 
Saint's  removal  to  heaven  with  the  celebration  of  that  great 
festivity." 

With  respect  to  the  notation  of  Tighernach  at  this  year,  it 
must  be  confessed  that  it  contradicts  the  entry.  For  it  is  K. 
ini.,  that  is,  that  the  first  of  January  fell  on  Wednesday,  which 


INTRODUCTION. 

makes  E  the  Dominical  letter,  and  thus  refers  the  occurrences 
under  that  signature  to  598,  two  years  later  than  is  deducible 
from  the  entries.  We  might  suppose  .iiii.  by  a  very  common 
mistake  put  for  .uii.,  which  would  mend  the  matter  a  little,  and 
the  antecedent  signatures  might  be  treated  in  the  same  manner ; 
but  then  the  .ii.  which  would  become  M.  would  have  .iiii.  as 
its  antecedent,  whereas  a  .i.  is  found  in  situ.  The  Annals  of 
Ulster  record  the  occurrence  thus,  Quies  Coluim  cille  v.  Id.  Jun* 
anno  etatis  sue  Ixxvi.  But  their  signature  is  vii.,  which  gives 
B  as  the  Sunday-letter,  and  indicates  595,  the  very  year  in 
their  margin,  for  where  they  say  594,  they  mean  595.  Now  it 
is  evident  that  their  record  of  the  event  has  been  advisedly 
framed  ;  and,  therefore,  it  is  hard  to  conceive  on  what  principle 
they  could  refer  the  event  to  so  early  a  year.  In  it,  Easter  fell 
on  the  3d  of  April,  and  Whitsunday  on  the  22d  of  May,  and 
the  9th  of  June  was  Thursday. 

The  choice,  then,  lies  between  596  and  597.  To  the  former 
Colgan  and  Dr.  O'Conor  incline ;  to  the  latter  the  graver  judg 
ments  of  Ussher,  OTlaherty,  and  Lanigan ;  but  the  question 
would  not  have  arisen  if  Tighernach  had  not  mentioned  Pente 
cost  ;  and  it  has  been  shown  that,  even  on  his  high  authority, 
the  introduction  of  this  element  into  the  calculation  is  irrecon 
cilable  with  the  explicit  statements  of  both  himself  and 
Adamnan. 

VI. 

It  appears  that  during  a  century,  at  least,  after  the  death  of  THE  RELIC 
St.  Columba,  his  remains  were  permitted  to  lie  undisturbed  in  °F  SAINT 

OOLUMBA. 

the  earth.1  Ven.  Bede  extends  the  period  a  little,  and  speaks 
of  the  monastery  of  Hy  "in  quo  ipse  requiescit  corpore"  (iii. 
4).  But  ere  Notker  Balbulus,  in  the  tenth  century,  borrowed 
the  expression  ubi  requiescit,  a  change  had  taken  place  in  the 
condition  of  the  Saint's  remains.  In  the  course  of  the  eighth 
century  it  is  probable  that  his  bones  were  disinterred,  and 
deposited  in  a  shrine  or  shrines.  And  once  enshrined,  they 

1  Locum  in  quo  sancta  pausant  ossa  (in.  24,  p.  217). 


Ixxx  INTRODUCTION. 

were  not  likely  to  be  restored  to  the  earth,  because  every 
passing  year  would  increase  the  veneration  which  led  to  the 
first  exposure.  Yet  we  find  mediaeval  tradition  confidently 
setting  forth  Downpatrick  as  his  resting-place,  while  an  original 
record  of  very  early  date  claims  for  the  neighbouring  church  of 
Saul  the  honour  of  his  interment.  We  might  easily  reconcile 
these  two  accounts  by  supposing  a  translation  from  Saul,  as 
soon  as  it  became  a  subordinate  church,  on  the  erection  of 
Downpatrick  into  a  bishop's  see.  The  fragmentary  memoirs  of 
St.  Patrick  contained  in  the  Book  of  Armagh  were  put  on  record 
in  the  eighth  century,  and  the  manuscript  itself  was  written 
about  the  year  807,  by  a  scribe  whose  death  took  place  in  846. 
Speaking  of  the  burial  of  St.  Patrick,  they  add,  "  Colomb  cille 
Spiritu  Sancto  instigante  ostendit  sepulturam  Patricii  ubi  est 
confirmat  id  est  in  Sabul  Patricii  id  est  in  aeclesia  juxta  mare 
pro  undecima  ubi  est  conductio  martirum  id  est  ossuum  Columb- 
cille  de  Britannia  et  conductio  omnium  Sanctorum  Hibernise 
in  die  judicii."  This  enigmatical  passage  seems  to  owe  its 
involved  construction  to  the  circumstance  of  its  having  been 
copied  from  an  earlier  authority,  in  which  a  portion  of  the 
matter  consisted  of  detached  explanations,  in  the  form  of  in 
terlinear  glosses,  which  the  copyist,  on  account  of  the  peculiar 
nature  of  his  page,  or  for  some  other  reason,  incorporated  with 
the  text.  The  following  conjectural  restoration  is  proposed,  as 
exhibiting  the  passage  in  a  more  intelligible,  and  possibly  more 
genuine  form : — 

Colombcille  Spiritu  Sancto  instigante  ostendit  sepulturam  Patricii 

.i.  in  Sabul  Patricii  .i.  in  aeclesia  juxta  mare  .i.  ossuum 

ubi  est  confirmat  pro  undecima  ubi  est  conductio  martirum  Coluimb- 

cillae  de  Brittannia  et  conductio  omnium  Sanctorum  Hiberniae 
in  die  judicii. 

The  words  pro  undecima  are  difficult  of  explanation,  but  they 
were  so  at  the  time  the  manuscript  was  written,  for  the  scribe 
has  placed  in  the  margin  opposite  pro  the  mark  of  obscurity. 
But  whatever  ambiguity  may  attend  some  words,  it  is  plain 


INTRODUCTION.  Ixxxi 

that  conductio  is  employed  to  denote  "  bringing  together,"  or 
"  transfer ; "  as  elsewhere,  in  the  same  manuscript,  "  meeting," 
"interview;"  and  that  the  passage  expresses  the  belief  as 
existing,  at  the  close  of  the  eighth  century,  that  the  bones  of 
Columkille  had,  before  that  period,  been  brought  to  Ireland 
from  Britain,  and  deposited  in  Saul. 

The  same  impression  is  conveyed  in  another  but  more  legen 
dary  record,  and  seemingly  of  a  later  date,  which  also  supposes 
St.  Columba's  remains  to  have  been  conveyed  into  the  inner 
most  part  of  Strangford  Lough,  in  the  county  of  Down,  and 
merely  differs  in  making  Downpatrick  the  destination  instead 
of  the  neighbouring  church  of  Saul.  O'Donnell's  account  of 
the  matter  is  thus  translated  by  Colgan : — 

"  Pro  operis  hujus  coronide  (quod  minime  debuit  silentio  per- 
transiri)  hie  subjicio  quomodo  corpus  hujus  S.  Patriarchae  in  Monas- 
terio  Hiensi  prius  sepultum,  fuerit  in  Hiberniam  postea  translatum, 
et  in  eodem  sepulchre  cum  sacris  exuviis  Sanctorum  Patricii  et 
Brigidae  recondition.  .  .  .  Sufficiat  memorare  modum  et  occasionem 
factae  Translationis,  quam  hoc  modo  S.  Berchanus  contigisse  refert. 
Manderus  films  Kegis  Daniae,  et  Nortmannorum  pyraticse  classis 
Dux,  ferro  et  flamraa  septemtrionales  Britannise  partes  devastans, 
venit  ad  lonam  insulam,  ubi  sacra  prophanis  Sathanae  Satellites 
miscentes  :  direptis  omnibus,  quae  occurrerant,  terram  hinc  inde 
fodiunt,  latentes,  ut  putabant,  thesauros  inquirentes ;  ac  inter  alia 
effodiunt  Sarcophagum  seu  arcam,  in  qua  verus  erat,  licet  non  cui 
illi  inhiabant,  thesaurus,  nempe  S.  Columbae  corpus.  Arcam  ad 
navem  portant,  quam  postea  versus  Hiberniam  tendentes  aperiunt  : 
et  turn  nihil  inclusum,  praeter  hominis  ossa,  ac  cineres,  reperiunt, 
clausam  in  mare  projiciunt ;  quae  Dei  nutu,  Oceani  fluctibus  agitata, 
et  per  undas  injecta,  reperitur  in  sinu  maris  Dunensi  urbi  vicino, 
undis  supernatans.  Quam  sic  repertam,  et  divina  revelatione  agni- 
tam,  aperiens  Abbas  Monasterii  Dunensis,  sanctum  thesaurum  area 
extractum,  in  eisdem  lipsanis  cum  Divorum  Patricii,  et  Columbse 
[recte  Brigidae]  sacris  exuviis  recondidit." — (Colgan,  Tr.  Th.  p.  446  a.) 

.  The  earliest  recorded  descent  of  the  Northmen  on  Hy  is  802, 
which  is  only  five  years  anterior  to  the  writing  of  the  Book  of 
Armagh. 

Notwithstanding  this  reputed  interment,  whether  in  Saul  or 
Down,  we  find  that  on  the  occasion  of  St.  Blaithmac's  martyr- 


Ixxxii  INTRODUCTION. 

dom,  in  825,  St.  Columba's  shrine,  which  was  adorned  with 
precious  metals,  was  the  chief  object  of  the  murderous  North 
men's  search ;  so  Walafridus  Strabus  states : 

"  Ad  sanctum  venere  patrem,  pretiosa  metalla 
Eeddere  cogentes,  queis  sancti  sancta  Columbae 
Ossa  jacent,  quam  quippe  suis  de  sedibus  arcam 
Tollentes  tumulo  terra  posuere  cavato, 
Cespite  sub  denso  gnari  jam  pestis  iniquse  : 
Hanc  praedam  cupiere  Dani.' — (Vita  S.  Blaithmaic.) 

How  soon,  or  by  whom,  the  shrine  was  brought  to  light  from 
its  place  of  concealment,  is  not  recorded ;  but  we  know  that  it 
was  soon  after  removed  to  Ireland,  for  in  878  it  was  transferred, 
together  with  all  St.  Columba's  minna,  to  Ireland,  for  security 
from  the  Danes,  where  it  probably  remained.  Now,  it  is  re 
markable,  that  whereas  we  hear  of  Adamnan's  relics  at  727, 
730,  within  twenty-four  years  after  his  death,  we  find  no  men 
tion  of  St.  Columba's  till  eighty  years  afterwards.  Possibly, 
indeed,  in  the  promulgation  of  the  Lex  Coluimcille  in  753,  757, 
778,  his  shrine  may  have  been  borne  about  as  the  warrant  for 
the  exaction  of  this  religious  tribute,  and  thus  an  indirect 
evidence  of  the  enshrining  may  be  afforded.  After  878  we 
hear  no  more  of  this  shrine  till  1127,  when  we  find  the  Danes 
of  Dublin  carrying  it  off,  and  restoring  it,  possibly  stripped  of 
its  gold  and  silver,  at  the  end  of  a  month.  Tighernach,  at  976, 
records  the  plundering  of  Serin  Coluimcille,  but  this  violence 
appears  to  have  been  offered  to  the  church  of  Columba's  shrine, 
namely,  Skreen  in  Meath,  where  the  precious  reliquary  may 
have  been  deposited.  In  1152,  the  mionna  or  r cliques  of  St. 
Columba  were  employed  in  conjunction  with  the  great  reli 
quary  of  Armagh,  the  Bachall  Jesu,  in  the  solemnization  of  a 
compact ;  but  the  reference  in  that  case  seems  to  be  to  the 
Soscela  Martain,  or  "  St.  Martin's  Gospel,"  which  will  be  noticed 
further  on  as  being  the  great  heirloom  of  the  monastery  of 
Deny. 

Meanwhile,  a  fresh  competitor  for  the  honour  of  possessing 


INTRODUCTION.  Ixxxiii 

St.  Columba's  remains  arose  in  Pictland,  for  according  to  the 
Pictish  Chronicle,  Kenneth  Mac  Alpin, "  septimo  anno  regni  reli- 
quias  S.  Columbae  transportavit  ad  ecclesiam  quam  construxit " 
(Pict.  Chron.)  To  which  an  English  record  adds :  "  Sanctus 
Columcylle  requiescit  in  loco  dicto  Duncahan  juxta  fluvium 
Tau."1  Hence  Pinkerton  draws  the  conclusion,  "  It  is 
evident  that  Duncahan  is  Duncaldan,  or  Dunkeld,  upon  the 
river  Tay;  so  that  the  Irish  vainly  contend  that  his  bones 
were  carried  to  Ireland,  though,  perhaps,  his  crosier,  or 
some  other  relics,  may  have  been  conveyed  thither."  Father 
Innes  declares,  "It  is  the  constant  tradition  and  belief 
of  the  inhabitants  of  Ycolmkill  and  of  the  neighbourhood  at 
this  day,  that  St.  Columba's  body  lies  still  in  this  island,  being 
hidden  by  pious  people,  at  the  time  of  the  new  Eeformation, 
in  some  secure  and  private  place  in  or  about  the  church,  as  it 
used  frequently  to  be  in  former  ages  during  the  ravages  of  the 
infidel  Danes ;  and  not  only  the  inhabitants  of  Ycolmkill,  and 
those  of  all  our  Western  Islands,  and  of  all  the  Highlands  in 
general,  but  all  the  Scots  look  upon  the  pretended  translation 
of  St.  Columba's  body  to  Ireland  as  fabulous."  But  this  is 
declamation :  for  in  the  next  page  the  writer  adduces  evidence 
for  a  translation  to  Dunkeld.  The  rational  statement  is  this  : 
— The  grave  of  St.  Columba  is  in  Hy,  where  his  remains  were 
suffered  to  lie  till  a  century  had  passed.  Meanwhile  his  dust 
had  mingled  with  the  earth,  and  dust  with  dust  continues  there 
to  this  day :  but  where  that  grave  is,  there  is  no  satisfactory 
evidence  to  show ;  and  tradition,  which  claims  for  the  island 
the  custody  of  the  body,  fails,  as  might  be  expected,  to  point 
out  the  spot  where  it  lies.  It  was  the  custom  in  the  eighth 
century,  particularly  in  the  Irish  Church,  to  disinter  and  en 
shrine  the  tangible  remains  of  the  founders  of  religious  houses. 
There  are  explicit  records  of  the  very  years  when  such  pro 
cesses  took  place;  and  that  St.  Columba's  remains  were 
dealt  with  in  like  manner,  is  a  priori  to  be  expected,  and  in 

1  See  Hickes,  Thes.  ii.  117.  for  the  original  of  this  passage. 


INTKODUCTION. 

fact  proved.  The  shrine  in  which  these  bones  were  deposited 
subsequently  became  the  title-deed  of  the  Columbian  com 
munity,  and  was  from  time  to  time  taken  over  to  Ireland  as 
the  warrant  for  levying  religious  contributions.  But  it  soon 
became  exposed  to  fresh  danger :  for  the  costliness  of  the  shrine 
which  veneration  for  the  founder's  memory  had  suggested, 
excited  the  cupidity  of  the  roving  Northmen ;  and  Ireland 
became  the  permanent  asylum  of  these  reliques,  until  it  in 
turn  suffered  from  the  same  scourge,  and  even  its  midland 
remoteness  proved  no  security  against  the  restless  Danes.  It 
is  possible  that,  during  these  constant  removals  of  the  shrine, 
portions  of  the  reliques  may  have  been  taken  out,  and  under 
the  compulsion  of  power,  or  the  inducements  of  patronage,  have 
been  shared  with  other  churches;  thus  probably  Kenneth 
Mac  Alpin  came  by  his  share ;  and  thus,  too,  the  Irish  Screens 
by  their  name.  But  the  gold  and  silver,  which  affection 
had  lavished  on  the  original  shrine,  contributed  to  defeat  its 
own  object  in  the  end,  and  subjected  the  shrine  to  the  fate 
from  which  its  fellow,  the  Great  Gospel  of  Kells,  had  so  nar 
row  an  escape — the  shell  abstracted,  and  the  substance  cast 
away. 

It  is  further  to  be  observed,  that  the  veneration  for  St. 
Columba's  remains  was  not  confined  to  Ireland  and  Scotland : 
the  cathedral  of  Durham  also  claimed  to  be  the  depository  of  at 
least  a  portion  of  his  relics.  This  appears  from  a  catalogue  of 
the  relics  at  Durham,  written  in  the  fourteenth  century,  in 
which  we  find  the  entry :  "  De  ossibus  et  reliquiis  Sancti  Colum- 
kelli  abbatis."1  A  representation  of  the  Saint  was  painted  also 
on  the  screen- work  of  the  altar  of  St.  Jerome  and  St.  Benedict, 
in  the  same  church,  with  the  inscription,  "  Sanctus  Columba 
monachus  et  abbas."2 

In  connexion  with  the  history  of  Columkill's  remains,  the 
antiquary  may  desire  to  have  a  catalogue  of  those  articles 
which  tradition  invested  with  the  repute  of  having  been  es- 

1  Hist.  Dun.  Script.  Tres.,  p.  ccccxxix.,  Surt.  Soc. 

2  Des.  An.  Mon.  Ch.  of  Durham,  p.  115,  Surt.  Soc. 


INTRODUCTION.  IxXXV 

teemed  or  used  by  the  Saint.  Adamnan  makes  mention  of  a 
Hymnal,  which  was  preserved  in  Ireland  (n.  8,  p.  43);  and  of  a 
White  Pebble,  which  was  used  as  a  charm  among  the  Picts 
(n.  34,  p.  59) ;  also  of  Books  written  by  him,  and  the  White 
Tunic  he  wore  at  the  time  of  his  death,  which  were  preserved 
in  Hy  (n.  45,  p.  74).  Some  of  these  were  afterwards  lost,  but 
later  writings  have  furnished  us  with  the  names  of  others  which 
do  more  than  supply  their  place.  Thus,  among  the  alleged  com 
positions  of  St.  Columba  contained  in  the  Laud  MS.,  is  a  poem 
in  the  form  of  a  dialogue  between  him  and  Baithene  Mor, 
son  of  Guana,  on  the  subject  of  his  chief  reliques,  to  wit,  the 
Great  Cross,  the  Cathach,  and  his  Cowl.  Besides  these,  there 
were  others  of  lesser  note,  which  will  presently  be  noticed. 

1.  THE  GREAT  CROSS. — The  following  is  the  account  of  it  in 
the  Preface  to  St.  Columba's  hymn,  Altus  Prosator: — 

"  At  a  time  that  Columcille  was  in  Hy,  without  any  attendant, 
but  Baithene  only,  it  was  revealed  to  him  that  guests  had  arrived, 
namely,  seven  of  Gregory's  people,  who  had  come  to  him  from 
Eome  with  gifts,  to  wit,  the  Great  Gem  of  Columcille  (which  is  a 
cross  at  the  present  day),  and  the  Hymns  of  the  Week,  that  is  [a 
book  with]  Hymns  for  each  night  of  the  week,  and  other  gifts."— 
(Colgan,  Tr.  Th.,  p.  473). 

The  date  of  Gregory  the  Great's  accession  is  Sept.  3,  590,  within 
seven  years  of  which  this  alleged  occurrence  may  be  supposed 
to  have  taken  place.  In  O'Donnell  the  circumstances  of  the 
gift  are  told  more  in  detail,  and  he  ends  the  account  by  saying 
that  the  reliquary  was  preserved,  at  the  time  when  he  wrote 
(1532),  in  the  island  of  Tory :  "  Estque  illud  celebre  monumen- 
tum  quod  in  Torachia  occidua  Hiberniae  insula  in  memoriam 
Columbse  asservatum  Crux  magna  vulgo  appellatur"  (ib.  p.  412). 
This  altar  cross  is  not  now  known  to  exist,  but  from  the  descrip 
tion  it  would  seem  that  it  was  cased  in  metal,  and  adorned  with 
crystal  bosses,  like  the  cross  of  Cong  preserved  in  the  Museum 
of  the  Eoyal  Irish  Academy. 

2.  THE  CATHACH.— This  name,  which  is  interpreted  Prceliator, 
is  derived  from  cath,  "  battle,"  for  the  reason  given  by  O'Don 
nell  in  the  passage  cited  at  p.  xlii,  supra.     It  is  questionable 


IxXXVi  INTRODUCTION. 

whether  the  writing  of  the  manuscript  be  as  old  as  St.  Columba's 
age,  though  its  claim  to  be  considered  in  the  handwriting  of 
St.  Columba  derives  some  weight  from  the  great  veneration  in 
which  it  was  formerly  held,  notwithstanding  the  total  absence 
of  decoration.  It  is  a  curious  particular  in  its  contents,  that 
the  reading  of  Psal.  xxxiii.  11,  differs  from  that  which  is  cited 
by  Adamnan  as  the  subject  of  St.  Columba's  last  act  of  pen 
manship.  Of  the  silver  case,  which  is  now  its  most  attractive 
feature,  it  is  unnecessary  to  offer  any  description  here,  as  a  de 
tailed  account,  with  drawings  sufficiently  accurate  to  give  a 
fair  idea  of  its  structure,  can  easily  be  consulted.1  The  inscrip 
tion,  however,  which  runs  along  three  sides  of  the  margin  of 
the  under  surface,  is  worthy  of  being  correctly  recorded : — 

Oroit  do  CatJibarr  ua  Domnaill  las  i  ndernad  in  cumtach  \sa\ 

7  do  Sittriuc  mac  meic  Aeda  do  rigne  7  do  Dom  [nail]  mac  Eola 

rtaig  do  comarla  Cenansa  las  i  ndernad. 

Which  may  be  interpreted  : — 

ORATIO  PRO  CATHBARRO  UA  DOMNAILL  PER  QUEM  FACTUM   EST  TO 

COOPERIMENTUM  HOC,  ET  PRO  SITRICO  FILIO  FILII  AIDI  QUI  FECIT, 

ET  PRO   DOMNALLO   MAC  ROBARTAIGH  PRO   COMARBANO  KENLISLE 

PER  QUEM  FACTUM  EST. 

Cathbarr  O'Donnell,  son  of  Gillachrist  [ob.  1038],  son  of 
Gathbarr,  son  of  Domhnall  Mor,  the  progenitor  of  the  O'Donnells, 
was  chief  of  the  Cinel  Luighdech,  and  died  in  1 106.  Domhnall 
Mac  Eobhartaigh,  successor  of  Columba  at  Kells,  died,  accord 
ing  to  the  Four  Masters,  in  1098.  His  name  occurs  also  in 
the  charters  which  are  entered  in  the  blank  pages  of  the  Book 
of  Kells.2  Sitric  was  son  of  Mac  JEdha,  who  was  surnamed 
Cerd,  that  is,  "  Artificer,"  in  the  Charters  of  Kells,  where  men 
tion  is  made  of  Fland  mac  Mic  Aedha  also.  The  family  of 
Mac  Aedha  seem  to  have  been  the  hereditary  mechanics  of 
Kells.  It  is  interesting  to  observe  the  relation  here  recorded 
as  subsisting,  through  the  Columbian  system,  between  remote 
parts  of  Ireland:  O'Donnell  being  lord  of  a  territory  in  the 

1  Betham's  Ant.  Res.,  i.  p.  109.  2  Misc.  Ir.  Ar.  Soc.,  pp.  130,  140. 


INTRODUCTION.  Ixxxvii 

extreme  north  of  the  island,  yet  associated  with  the  abbot  of  a 
midland  monastery;  and  that  abbot  the  member  of  a  family 
which  also  was  seated  in  the  remote  north,  supplying  herenachs 
to  two  churches  in  St.  Columba's  region  of  Tirconnell,  and 
occasionally  appearing  in  the  administration  of  St.  Columba's 
church  of  Derry.  In  1497  the  Cathach  was  employed  for  mili 
tary  purposes,  but  failed  of  procuring  victory  for  its  possessors. 
Con  O'Donnell  led  an  army  into  Moylurg  in  Connaught,  to 
attack  Mac  Dermott,  but  was  defeated  at  the  battle  of  Bealach- 
buidhe.  Mac  Kobhartaigh,  the  keeper  [maor]  of  the  Cathach 
of  Columcille,  was  slain,  and  the  Cathach  taken  from  the 
Tirconallians.  Two  years  after,  it  was  restored. — (Four  Mas 
ters.)  In  the  early  part  of  the  sixteenth  century  it  was  still 
the  great  reliquary  of  Tirconnell ;  and  in  the  following  century 
it  continued  to  be  in  the  custody  of  the  family  of  Mac  Eobhar- 
taigh,  the  official  keepers  under  the  Lord  of  Tirconnell.  When 
it  reappears  in  the  next  century,  it  is  found  in  the  posses 
sion  of  the  head  of  the  O'Donnell  family,  who  recorded 
his  guardianship  in  an  inscription  on  the  silver  frame  which  he 
made  for  its  preservation:  IACOBO  3.  M.  B.  REGE  EXULANTE, 

DANIEL  0  DONEL  IN  XTIANISSO0  IMP0  PRCEFECTUS  REI  BELLICCE 
HUSUSCE  HCERADITARII  SANCTI  COLUMBANI  PIGNORIS  VULGO  CAAH 
DICTI  TEGMEN  AEGENTEUM  VETUSTATE  CONSUMPTUM  RESTAURAUIT 

ANNO  SALUTIS  1723.  This  most  remarkable  reliquary,  com 
bining  so  many  exciting  associations,  is  the  property  of  Sir 
Eichard  Annesley  O'Donnell,  Bart.,  a  descendant  of  the  Cath- 
barr  Ua  Domhnaill,  whose  name  is  engraved  upon  the  case, 
between  whom  and  the  present  possessor  four-and-twenty 
generations  of  this  illustrious  house  have  passed  by.  The  Caah 
is  at  present  in  the  Museum  of  the  Eoyal  Irish  Academy, 
through  the  liberal  indulgence  of  its  distinguished  owner. 

3.  THE  CocEALL.—Cochall  is  the  Irish  form  of  cuculla,  a 
word  which  occurs  in  the  text  at  p.  168,  where  there  is  evi 
dence  to  show  that,  even  so  early  as  Adamnan's  time,  the 
garment  expressed  by  it  was  supposed  to  have  been  endowed 


Ixxxviii  INTRODUCTION. 

with  supernatural  virtue.     The  old  Irish  Life,  treating  of  St. 
Columba's  reception  at  Kells,  by  Aedh  Slaine,  proceeds  to  say : 

"  He  consecrated,  therefore,  a  cowl  for  him ;  and  he  said  that 
he  could  not  he  wounded  while  he  had  it  on  him.  Aedh  Slane, 
however,  committed  fratricide,  contrary  to  Columcille's  admonition, 
on  Suibhne,  son  of  Colman.  At  the  end  of  four  years  he  went  on 
an  expedition.  He  forgot  his  cowl.  He  was  slain  that  day." 

The  legend  in  the  Book  of  Lecan,  cited  at  p.  39  (Orig.  Ed.), 
represents  Aedh,  son  of  Ainmire,  as  the  recipient  of  the  favour. 
O'Donnell  copies  both  statements,  and  exhibits  the  two  Aedhs 
as  provided  respectively  with  charmed  vestments. 

4.  THE  CUILEBADH. — The  Annals  of  Ulster,  at  1034,  record 
that— 

"  Macnia  Ua  hllchtain,  lecturer  of  Kells,  was  lost  on  his  voyage 
from  Scotland ;  and  Columcille's  Culebadh,  and  three  of  Patrick's 
reliques,  and  thirty  men  with  him." 

The  old  English  version,  suppressing  the  first  syllable  of  the 
word  in  question,  and  reading  lebar  for  the  rest,  translates  it 
"  booke ;"  while  the  Eour  Masters  omit  the  preceding  conjunc 
tion,  and,  dismembering  the  word,  read  cu  lebhadh,  cum  lecto, 
thus  referring  us  to  the  "nuda  petra"  of  p.  213.  This  liberty 
they  took  with  the  original,  not  knowing,  it  would  seem,  what 
culebadh  meant.  They  found  the  word  again  in  the  following 
passage  of  the  Annals  of  Ulster,  which  relates  an  outrage 
committed  by  Tighernan  O'Euairc  in  1128,  but  they  have 
omitted  the  whole  passage  : 

"  The  successor  of  Patrick  was  openly  outraged  in  his  presence ; 
for  his  retinue  were  plundered,  and  some  of  them  were  killed ;  and 
a  clerical  student  of  his  own  people,  who  bore  a  culebadh,  was 
slain  there." 

Thus  it  appears  that  the  word  was  a  general  term.  We  are 
brought  a  step  further  towards  the  meaning  of  it  by  a  passage 
in  the  Preface  to  the  Amhra  Coluim-cille  : 

"  And  the  way  that  Columcille  came  was,  with  a  cere-cloth 
over  his  eyes,  and  his  culpait  over  that,  and  the  hood  of  his  cowl 
over  that ;  so  that  he  should  neither  behold  the  men  nor  women 
of  Erin." 


INTRODUCTION.  Ixxxix 

O'Donnell  gives  the  legend,  with  the  addition  that  means 
were  taken  to  prevent  Columba  from  setting  foot  on  Ireland, 
but  he  omits  the  desired  word  : 

"  There  was  a  sod  of  the  earth  of  Alba  under  his  feet : 
There  was  a  cere- cloth  over  his  eyes  : 
There  was  his  woollen- cap  drawn  over  that : 
There  was  his  hood,  and  his  cowl,  over  these  outside." 

The  Annals  of  Tighernach,  at  1090,  have  the  following 
curious  entry : 

"  The  reliquaries  of  Columcille,  viz.,  the  Bell  of  the  Kings,  and 
the  Cuillebaigh,  came  from  Tirconnel,  with  120  ounces  of  silver, 
and  Aongus  O'Domnallain  was  the  one  who  brought  them  from 
the  north  [to  Kells]." 

There  remains  another  notice  of  this  monastic  habit,  in  an 
extravagant  tale  called,  "  The  Sea-wanderings  of  Snedgus  and 
Mac  Eigail,  two  of  Columcille's  priests :" 

"  And  the  bird  gave  a  leaf  of  the  leaves  of  that  tree  to  the 
clerics,  and  it  was  as  large  as  the  hide  of  a  great  ox ;  and  told  the 
clerics  to  take  it  with  them,  and  place  it  on  the  altar  of  Columcille. 
And  that  is  the  Cuilefaidh  of  Columcille  at  this  day.  And  it  is  at 
Kells  that  it  is." 

In  the  foregoing  extracts  the  word  is  variously  written  cule- 
ladh,  cuilebadh,  culpait,  and  culefaidh  ;  and  in  a  curious  diagram 
which  occurs  in  a  tract  on  Ogham-writing  in  the  Book  of 
Ballymote,  we  find  the  word  cuilibad  in  conjunction  with  the 
names  Colum  cilli  and  Ceallach.  Cormac's  Glossary,  cited  by 
O'Eeilly,  explains  culpait  quasi  cail  fuit  or  fuaclit,  "  a  defence 
from  cold."  Still  there  is  good  reason  for  supposing  that,  as 
cochall  is  the  Irish  form  of  cuculla,  so  culebadh  is  of  cololium, 
and  that  it  represents  the  tunica  of  p.  188. 

5.  DELG  AIDECHTA. — The  legend  of  St.  Columba's  visit  to 
Eome,  mentioned  in  the  Notes  on  B.  in.  c.  9,  has  the  following 
passage : 

"  Columcille  tarried  with  Gregory,  and  brought  Gregory's  brooch 
away  with  him,  and  it  is  the  Testamentary  Brooch  of  the  Coarb 
of  Columcille  to  this  day.  And  he  left  his  style  with  Gregory." 


XC  INTRODUCTION. 

This  delg  probably  belonged  to  that  class  of  ornament  of 
which  so  many  and  such  beautiful  specimens  have  been  found 
in  Ireland. 

6.  MOR  BACHALL. — The  pastoral  staff,  which  St.  Columba 
confided  to  Scanlann,  prince  of  Ossory,  on  the  occasion  of  his 
liberation  after  the  convention  of  Drumceatt. 

"  Pedum  suum  ei  tradit,  tanquam  in  lubrico  verum  baculum,  et 
in  omni  adversitate  prsesidium;  in  Domino  fideliter  promittens 
ipsum  illius  munimine,  earn  virtutem  Christo  conferente,  per  ob- 
jecta  pericula  salvum  et  incolumem  evasurum,  et  monens  ut  ipsum 
demum  baculum  S.  Laisreno  discipulo  suo,  Monasterii  Darmagensis 
tune  rectori,  retradat."— (Vit.  iii.  13,  Colg.  Tr.  Th.,  p.  433  b.) 

From  the  last  line  we  learn  that  this  reliquary  was  preserved 
in  Durrow. 

7.  CAMBO  KENTIGERNI. — Jocelin  gives  an  account  of  a  visit 
which  St.  Columba  paid  to  his  celebrated  contemporary,  St. 
Kentigern  of  Glasgow,  and,  having  related  a  miracle  performed 
by  the  latter,  proceeds  to  say : 

"  In  illo  loco  ubi  istud  miraculum  per  Sanctum  Kentegernum 
factum,  in  conspectu  Sancti  Columbse,  et  aliorum  multorum,  inno- 
tuit;  alter  alterius  baculum,  in  pignus  quoddam  et  testimonium 
mutuse  dilectionis,  in  Christo  suscepit.  Baculus  vero  quern  Sanctus 
Columba  dederat  Sancto  pontifici  Kentegerno,  in  ecclesia  Sancti 
Wilfridi  episcopi  et  confessoris  apud  Bipum,  multo  tempore  conser- 
vabatur  ;  et  propter  utriusque  sanctitatem,  dantis  videlicet  et  reci- 
pientis,  magnae  reverentise  habebatur." — (Vit.  Kent.,  c.  40.) 

We  further  learn  from  Fordun  (Bowar)  that,  at  the  com 
mencement  of  the  fifteenth  century,  this  reliquary  was  still  to 
be  seen  at  Eipon  : 

"  Ac  nunc  cambo,  quern  beatus  Kentigernus  a  beato  Columba 
receperat,  in  ecclesia  Sancti  Wilfridi  de  Bipoun,  aureis  crustulis 
inclusus,  ac  margaritarum  diversitate  circumstellatus,  cum  magna 
reverentia  adhuc  servatur." — (Scotichron.,  iii.  30.) 

8.  GOSPEL  OF  MARTIN, — Concerning  this  reliquary  the  old 
Irish  Life  briefly  says  : 

"  He  went  at  another  time  from  Deny  to  Tours  of  Martin,  and 
brought  away  the  Gospel  that  lay  on  Martin's  breast  in  the  ground 
for  a  hundred  years,  and  he  left  it  in  Derry." 


INTRODUCTION.  XC1 

In  the  twelfth  century  it  was  the  chief  reliquary  of  the 
church  of  Derry,  and  we  find  recorded  in  the  Annals  of  Ulster, 
at  1166,  the  violation  of  a  contract  which  had  been  solemnized 
in  presence  of  the  Coarb  of  Patrick  with  the  Bachall  Jesu,  and 
of  the  Coarb  of  Columcille  with  the  Gospel  of  Martin.  But  it 
was  lost  soon  after;  for,  in  1182,  "Donnell,  son  of  Hugh 
O'Loughlin,  marched  with  an  army  to  Dunbo,  in  Dal-Eiada, 
and  there  gave  battle  to  the  English.  The  Kinel-Owen  were 
defeated ;  and  Eandal  O'Breslen,  Gilchreest  O'Kane,  and  many 
others,  were  killed.  On  this  occasion  the  English  carried  off 
with  them  the  Gospel  of  St.  Martin."  The  legend  concerning 
the  invention  of  this  manuscript  is  borrowed  by  0 'Donnell 
from  the  Acts  of  St.  Eugenius  of  Ardstraw  and  St.  Mochonna, 
or  Machar,  the  patron  saint  of  Aberdeen.  It  relates  that  the 
people  of  Tours  had  lost  the  clue  to  the  exact  spot  where  St. 
Martin's  remains  were  buried,  and  that  on  the  occasion  of  St. 
Columba's  visiting  their  city  they  applied  to  him  to  point  out 
the  place  where  the  body  of  their  patron  saint  lay,  which  he  con 
sented  to  do  on  condition  that  he  should  receive  for  his  portion 
everything  found  in  the  grave,  except  the  bones  of  Martin. 

"  Conditione  facile  admissa,  vir  Sanctus  locum,  in  quo  sacrum 
corpus  jacebat,  indigitat,  in  eoque  mox  defosso  simul  cum  deside- 
ratis  exuviis  cum  Missarum  reperiretur  liber;  factse  sponsionis 
Turonenses  prope  pcenituit,  detrectantes  inventum  Missale  Columbae 
poscenti  consignare,  nisi  ille  priori  beneficio  alteram  adhuc  adderet 
gratiam,  et  Turonensi  Ecclesiae  administrandae  aliquem  e  suis  sociis 
virum  sanctum  et  idoneum  prseficiendo  relinqueret.  Quod  ipsum 
posteaquam  vir  Sanctus  annuerat,  et  Sanctum  illis  Mochonnam 
velut  jam  antea  a  summo  Pontifice  pro  Turonensi  sede  destinatum, 
prsesentarat,  assecutus  est  desideratum  B.  Martini  librum." 1 

Now,  though  it  is  very  unlikely  that  St.  Columba  ever 
travelled  beyond  the  British  islands,  the  above  legend  is  inter 
esting  as  an  indication  of  the  early  connexion  which  existed 
between  Ireland  and  the  church  of  Tours.  St.  Martin  is  repre 
sented  as  St.  Patrick's  grand-uncle,  and  as  a  principal  agent  in 
his  mission  to  Ireland.  In  the  next  age  his  body  is  reported 

1  Colgan,  Tr.  Th.,  p.  436  a. 


XC11  INTRODUCTION. 

to  have  been  discovered  by  the  great  monastic  patron  of  Ire 
land,  and  his  ritual  transferred  from  Tours  to  Derry.  And  in 
later  times  the  holy  wells  of  Derry,  called  Tobar  Martain,  Tobar 
Adhamhnain,  and  Tobar  Coluim,  preserved  the  local  association 
of  his  name  with  those  of  the  fathers  of  the  Columbian  order. 

Another  account  of  the  origin  of  this  ancient  manuscript  (for 
that  such  a  book,  whether  Martin's  or  Patrick's,  was  preserved 
in  the  diocese  of  Derry,  is  unquestionable)  is,  that  it  had  be 
longed  to  St.  Patrick,  who,  as  the  Tripartite  Life  says,  when 
"  morti  vicinus,  librum  Evangeliorum,  quo  ipse  dum  viveret, 
utebatur,  illi  velut  Euangelii  observantissimo  cultori,  testa- 
mento  legaverit,  ex  suo  etiam  in  Ardmachia  successori  manda- 
verit  certain  quotannis  pensionem  pro  eodem  seponere.  Prse- 
fatus  vero  Euangeliorum  codex  ad  Columbse  manus  devenit, 
sive  illi  fuerat  per  S.  Brigidam  Virginem,  penes  quam  depositus 
scribitur,  consignatus ;  sive,  quod  aliqua  habent  exemplaria, 
Angelico  illi  ministerio  allatus  ex  D.  Patricii  tumulo,  in  quo 
jubente  Patricio,  ne  in  aliquas  iniquas  manus  incideret,  conditus 
existimatur."1  To  the  discovery  of  the  manuscript  in  St. 
Patrick's  grave,  the  following  entry  in  the  Annals  of  Ulster, 
copied  from  a  chronicle  called  the  Book  of  Guana,  refers : 

"The  relics  of  Patrick  were  enshrined  sixty  years  after  his 
death  by  Columcille.  Three  precious  reliquaries  were  found  in 
the  tomb,  sc.  the  Cup,  the  Angel's  Gospel,  and  the  Bell  of  the 
Will.  The  angel  directed  Columcille  to  divide  the  three  reliquaries 
thus:  the  Cup  to  Down,  the  Bell  of  the  Will  to  Armagh,  the  Gospel 
of  the  Angel  to  Columcille  himself.  And  it  is  called  the  Gospel 
of  the  Angel,  because  Columcille  received  it  at  the  Angel's  hand." 

O'Donnell  has  transferred  this  anecdote  into  his  narrative, 
which  Colgan  has  imperfectly  translated.  That  the  Gospel  of 
St.  Martin  and  the  Gospel  of  the  Angel  were  supposed  to  be 
identical,  appears  from  a  poem  in  the  Laud  MS.  (p.  81)  begin 
ning  Taiscfidter  mo  shoiscela,  "  My  gospel  shall  be  preserved,"  in 
which  St.  Patrick  is  represented  as  describing  the  future  great 
ness  and  holiness  of  St.  Columba;  where  the  gloss  remarks 
that  the  Gospel  of  St.  Martin  is  alluded  to. 

1  Colgan,  Tr.  Th. ,  p.  390  b. 


INTRODUCTION.  xciii 

9.  BOOK  OF  DURROW. — Thus  noticed  by  Archbishop  Ussher  : 

"  In  Regio  comitatu  ea  est,  Durrogh  vulgo  appellata :  quae 
monasterium  habuit  S.  Columbse  nomine  insigne ;  inter  cujus 
KeifjLij\ui  evangeliorum  codex  vetustissimus  asservabatur,  quern 
ipsius  Columbse  fuisse  monachi  dictitabant :  ex  quo,  et  non  minoris 
antiquitatis  altero,  eidem  Columbse  assignato,  quern  in  urbe  Kelles 
sive  Kenlis  dicta  Midenses  sacrum  habent,  diligenti  cum  editione 
vulgata  Latina  collatione  facta,  in  nostros  usus  variantium  lectionum 
binos  libellos  concinnavimus."1 

Henry  Jones,  Bishop  of  Meath,  subsequently  became  possessed 
of  it,  and  presented  it  to  Trinity  College,  Dublin,  of  which 
institution  he  was  Vice-Chancellor.  The  silver-mounted  case 
in  which  this  book  was  preserved  has  been  lost ;  but  its  absence 
is  the  less  to  be  deplored,  as  a  record  of  the  inscription  which 
it  bore  is  entered,  in  the  handwriting  of  the  famous  Koderic 
OTlaherty,  on  the  fly-leaf  of  the  manuscript : 

"  Inscriptio  Hibernicis  literis  incisa  cruci  argentese  in  operimento 
hujus  Libri  in  transversa  crucis  parte,  nomen  artificis  indicat ;  et 
in  longitudine  tribus  lineis  a  sinistra  et  totidem  dextra,  ut  se- 
quitur  : 

>|<  OROIT  ACUS  BENDACHT  CHOLUIMB  CHILLE  DO  FHLAND  MACC 
MAILSECHNAILL  DO  RIGH  ERENN  LAS  A  NDERNAD  A  CUM- 
DACH  SO. 

"  Hoc  est  Latine  : 

^  ORATIO  ET  BENEDICTIO  S.  COLUMB^  CILLE  SIT  FLANNIO  FILIO 
MALACHLE  REGI  HIBERNLE  QUI  HANG  (OPERIMENTl)  STRUC- 
TURAM  FIERI  FECIT. 

"  Flannius  hie  Rex  Hibernise  decessit  8  Kal.  Maii  et  die  Sabbati 
ut  in  MS.  Cod.  Hib.  quod  Chronicon  Scotorum  dicitur  anno  serse 
Christianas  vulgaris  916.  Hanc  inscriptionem  interpretatus  est  Ro. 
Flaherty  19  Jun.  1677." 

Thus  it  appears  that  the  book  was  venerable  in  age,  and  a 
reliquary  in  916. 

The  remarkable  colophon,  which  is  cited  at  p.  242  (Orig. 
Ed.),  appears  on  the  last  page  of  the  capitula  of  St.  John's 
Gospel,  which  originally  closed  the  volume,  but  which  has 
improperly  been  made  the  twelfth  folio  by  the  hands  of  a 

1  Brit.  EC.  Ant.,  c.  15. 


XC1V  LNTEODUCT10N. 

modern  binder.  Dr.  Charles  O'Conor  has  given  an  excellent 
facsimile  of  a  page  of  this  remarkable  manuscript :  but  he  has 
fallen  into  the  strange  error  of  confounding  the  Book  of  Kells 
with  it,  and  of  mixing  up  Lhuyd's  notices  of  the  two.1 

10.  BOOK  OF  KELLS. — This  wonderful  manuscript  was  pre 
served  at  Kells,  in  the  county  of  Meath,  at  the  time  that  Arch 
bishop  Ussher  wrote  his  Antiquities  of  the  British  Churches, 
as  appears  from  his  words  cited  in  the  preceding  article.     It 
had  existed  there  for  many  centuries,  and  was  traditionally 
called  the  Book  of  Columcille.     The  costly  shrine  with  which 
it  was  enclosed  nearly  proved  its  destruction  in  the  beginning 
of  the  eleventh  century,  as  we  learn  from  the  Annals  of  Ulster, 
as  also  the  Four  Masters  at  1006,  where  it  is  related  that  "the 
Great  Gospel  of  Columcille  was  stolen  at  night  from  the  western 
sacristy  of  the  great  church  of  Cenannus.     This  was  the  prin 
cipal  relic  of  the  western  world,  on  account  of  its  remarkable 
cover.     And  it  was  found  after  two  months  and  twenty  days, 
its  gold  having  been  stolen  off,  and  a  sod  over  it."     Fortunately 
the  manuscript  itself  sustained  little  injury  (it  received  more 
from  the  plough  of  a  modern  bookbinder),  and  in  the  course  of 
the  following  century  its  blank  pages  were  considered  a  fit 
depository  for  copies  of  certain  charters  of  the  eleventh  and 
twelfth  centuries,  connected  with  the  endowments  of  Kells. 
Archbishop  Ussher  became  possessed  of  this  manuscript,  and 
after  his  death  it  was  in  great  danger  of  being  lost :   but  it 
escaped,  and  on  the  Eestoration  it  came,  with  what  remained 
of  the  Archbishop's   library,   "ex   dono  Caroli   n."   into  the 
custody   of  Trinity   College,   Dublin,   where   it  remains,  the 
admiration  and  astonishment  of  every  one  who  examines  it. 

11.  THE  MISACH. — A  manuscript,  but  of  what  is  unknown; 
for,  conversely  to  the  fate  of  the  Books  of  Kells  and  Durrow, 
the  case  remains,  but  its  contents  are  gone.     The  custody  of 
this  reliquary  was  hereditary  in  the  family  of  O'Morison,  who 

1  Her.  Hib.  SS.,  vol.  i.,  Ep.  N.  p.  180,  and  Prol.  p.  185. 


INTRODUCTION.  XCV 

were  the  herenachs  of  Clonmany,  a  parish  in  Inishowen,  and  it 
continued  in  their  possession  till  the  abolition  of  the  old  church 
tenures  reduced  them  to  a  state  of  penury,  and  they  were 
induced  to  part  with  it.  The  case  is  of  wood,  overlaid  with 
wrought  silver,  and  is  ornamented  with  ecclesiastical  figures 
resembling  those  on  the  case  of  the  Cathach,  as  may  be  seen 
in  the  published  drawing.1  An  inscription  in  two  lines  appears 
on  the  upper  side  in  these  words : 

Brian  mac  Briain  i  Muirgiussa  d 
o  cumdaig  me  A.  D°.  M°CCCCC°XXXIIII. 
"  Brian,  son  of  Brian  O'Muirguissan,  covered  me, 
Anno  Domini  1534." 

The  keeper  of  the  reliquary  in  1609  was  Donogh  O'Morison, 
who  was  a  juror  at  an  inquisition  sped  that  year  at  Lifford, 
where  it  was  found  that  a  quarter  named  Donally  was  "  free  to 
Donnogh  O'Morreesen,  the  abbots'  corbe  and  the  busshop 
Derrie's  herenagh  of  those  three  quarters  :  that  the  other  three 
quarters  of  the  said  six  quarters  church  land  were  given  by  the 
ODogherties  and  ODonnells  to  Collumkill,  as  a  dedication 
towards  his  vestiments  when  he  went  to  warre,  which  said 
three  quarters,  beinge  free,  were  given  to  the  auncestors  of  the 
said  Donogh  O'Morreeson,  whoe  in  those  daies  were  servaunts 
to  Collumkills  :  and  in  the  said  parishe  are  sixe  gortes  of  glebe, 
whereof  three  gortes  belonge  to  the  viccar,  and  thother  fower 
gortes  to  the  keeper  of  the  missagh  or  ornaments  left  by 
Columkill."  By  this  it  appears  that  the  word  misach,  being 
interpreted  "ornaments,"  was  supposed  to  be  the  plural  of 
maise,  "an  ornament,"  and  not  derived,  as  the  form  of  the 
word  would  indicate,  from  mis,  "  a  month."  This  interesting 
reliquary  having  often  changed  hands,  and  having  been  carried 
away  to  England,  finally  became  the  property  of  the  present 
Earl  of  Dunraven,  who  generously  presented  it  to  the  College 
of  St.  Columba  near  Dublin,  where  it  is  now  preserved.  The 
following  extract  from  an  ancient  tale,  called  The  Death  of 

1  Betham,  Ant.  Res.,  i.  213. 


XCV1  INTRODUCTION. 

Muircertach  mac  Erca,  contains  the  earliest  allusion  to  this 
reliquary : — 

"  Cairnech  blessed  them,  and  left  them  gifts,  i.e.  to  the  Clanns 
Conaill  and  Eoghain.  That  when  they  should  not  be  chiefs,  or 
kings  of  Erin,  their  influence  should  extend  over  every  province 
around  them ;  and  that  the  coarbship  of  Ailech,  and  Tara,  and 
Ulster,  should  be  with  them ;  and  that  they  should  not  accept  hire 
from  any  one,  because  the  sovereignty  of  Erin  was  their  own  in 
herent  right ;  and  that  their  hostages  should  not  be  locked  up, 
and  that  decay  should  come  upon  the  hostages  who  should  abscond ; 
and  that  they  should  have  victory  in  battle,  if  fought  in  a 
just  cause,  and  that  they  should  have  three  standards,  viz.,  the 
Cathach,  and  the  Bell  of  Patrick,  i.e.  the  Bell  of  the  testament,  and 
Cairnech1  s  Miosach  ;  and  that  the  virtue  of  all  these  should  be  on 
any  one  reliquary  of  them  in  time  of  battle,  as  Cairnech  bequeathed 
them ;  ut  dixit"  etc. 

12.  DUBH  DUAIBSEACH. — A  bell,  which  St.  Columba  is  fabled 
to  have  employed  in  his  conflict  with  the  demons  of  Sengleann.1 
It  was  probably  preserved  in  the  parish  of  Glencolumkille,  in 
Donegal. 

13.  GLASSAN. — A  bell,  which  formerly  belonged  to  Drum- 
columbkille  in  Sligo,  and  was  reputed  to  hava  been  given  by  the 
Saint  to  his  disciple  Finbarr,  the  first  minister  of  that  church.2 

14.  DUBH  DIGLACH.— A  bell  of  St.  Columba's,  mentioned  in 
an  old  poem  of  the  Laud  manuscript  (p.  28). 

1 5.  CLOCK  KUADH.— The  "Bed  Stone,"  about  which  O'Donnell 
records  the  strange  legend  :  "  Simul  etiam  cum  partu  enixa  est 
mater  [Columbse]  quasi  lapillum  quendam  rubrum,  vulgo  Clock 
Euadh  dictum,  teretemque  mali  aurei  magnitudine,  qui  in  eodem 
prsedio  religiose  asservatur."3     The  Donegal  Inquisition  of  1609 
finds  that  two  gorts  in  Gartan  were  held  by  "  O'Nahan,  who 
carrieth  Collumkillie's  read  stoane."     In  the  Laud  MS.  (p.  95) 
there  is  a  poem  ascribed  to  St.  Columba  on  the  virtues  of  the 
Eed  Stone,  wherewith  he  banished  the  demons  from  Sengleann. 
O'Donnell  calls  the  latter  a  "blue  stone,  and  speaks  of  it  as  pre 
served  in  Glencolumkille.4 

1 6.  MOELBLATHA. — The  legend  in  the  Preface  to  the  hymn 

1  Colgan,  Tr.  Th.,  p.  403  b.        2  Ib.  p.  406  b.        3  Ib.  p.  393  a.        4  Ib.  p.  403  b. 


INTRODUCTION.  XCV11 

Altus  Prosator  (Leabhar  Breac,  fol.  109  a),  speaking  of  the  mill 
at  Hy,  says  : — 

"  Then  Columkille  himself  lifted  up  the  sack  from  the  stone  which 
is  in  the  refectory  at  Hy,  and  the  name  of  that  stone  is  Moelblatha  ; 
and  he  left  prosperity  on  all  food  which  should  be  placed  upon  it." 

This  may,  in  after  times,  have  been  one  of  the  Black  Stones  of  Hy 
which  Martin  makes  mention  of  as  objects  of  religious  awe. 

17.  BRECBANNOCH. — Between  the  years  1204  and  1211,  King 
William  the  Lion  granted  to  the  monks  of  Arbroath  "  custodiam 
de  Brachbennoche,"  and  "  cum  predicta  Brechbennoche  terram 
de  Forglint  datam  Deo  et  sancto  Columbe  et  le  Brachbennache," 
on  the  tenure  "  faciendo  inde  servicium  quod  michi  in  exercitu 
debetur  de  terra  ilia  cum  predicta  Brachbennache."  This 
grant  is  recited  in  the  charter  of  Arbroath,  passed  by  the  same 
king  in  1211-1214;  and  substantially  repeated  in  a  confirma 
tion  by  King  Alexander  II.  in  1214-1218.  In  1314  the  con 
vent  grants  to  Malcolm  of  Monimusk  "  totam  terram  nostram 
de  Forglen  que  pertinet  ad  Bracbennach  cum  omnibus  pertin- 
enciis  suis  una  cum  jure  patronatus  ecclesie  ejusdem  terre. 
.  .  .  Dictus  vero  Malcolmus  et  heredes  sui  facient  in  exer 
citu  domini  Eegis  nomine  nostro  servicium  pro  dicta  terra  quod 
pertinet  ad  Bracbennach  quociens  opus  fuerit."1  From  the 
Monimusks  the  lands  of  Forglen,  with  the  custody  of  the 
Bracbennach,  passed  by  inheritance  to  the  Urrys  and  the 
Frasers,  in  the  latter  of  which  families  they  were  found  in  1388. 
In  1411  they  were  surrendered  to  the  convent,  and  about  1420 
they  were  conferred  on  Sir  Alexander  Irvine  of  Drum.  In 
~1$47  they  had  passed  to  his  grandson,  who  held  them  of  the 
abbot  and  convent  by  service  of  ward  and  relief,  and  "  ferendi 
vexillum  de  Brekbennach  in  exercitu  Eegis,"  and  the  payment 
of  the  annual  rent  of  40  shillings.  In  1481  Alexander  Irvine 
did  homage  for  these  lands  and  purtenances  to  the  abbot,  who 
"  dixit  et  constituit  ut  tenentes  regalitatis  dicti  monasterii  de 

1  Reg.  Vet.  Aberbrothoc,  pp.  10,  5,  73,  296 ;    Collections  of  Aberdeen, 
pp.  511-514,  515-516,  517. 


XCVlll  INTRODUCTION. 

Aberbrothoc  ubicumque  existentes  cum  dicto  Alexandra  ad 
exercitum  domini  nostri  Eegis  sub  le  Brecbennoch  videlicet  sub 
vexillo  dictorum  abbatis  et  conventus  meabunt  et  equitabunt 
cum  requisiti  fuerint  per  dictum  dominum  abbatem  et  conven- 
tum  dicti  monasterii  et  suos  successores  pro  defensione  Eegis 
et  regni."  In  1483  Alexander  Irvine  had  a  charter  of  the  lands 
of  Forglen,  with  the  advowson  of  the  church  "  faciendo  in  ex- 
ercitu  domini  nostri  Eegis  servicium  de  le  Brekbannach  debitum 
et  consuetum."  And  lastly,  in  1494  it  was  found  that  Alex 
ander  Irvine  was  the  lawful  heir  of  Alexander  Irvine  of  Drum, 
his  father,  in  the  lands  of  Forglen,  with  the  advowson  of  the 
church,  held  as  above.  From  these  notices  we  learn  that  this 
reliquary  was  a  banner,  and  held  so  sacred  in  the  beginning  of 
the  thirteenth  century  that  it  was  named  in  the  dedication 
clause  of  the  earliest  charter.  Also,  that  it  was  coupled  with 
St.  Columba's  name,  not  because  the  abbey  of  Arbroath  was 
under  his  invocation,  for  it  was  under  that  of  St.  Thomas  of 
Canterbury ;  nor  because  he  was  patron  saint  of  the  parish,  for 
St.  Adamnan  was  reputed  to  be  so  ;  but,  as  we  may  conceive, 
because  this  banner  was  in  some  way  connected  with  St. 
Columba's  history,  either  by  use  or  blessing.  Possibly  it  was 
like  the  Vexillum  Sancti  CuMerti,  so  fatal  to  the  Scots  at 
Neville's  Cross. 

"  Ther  did  appeare  to  Johne  Fossour,  the  Prior  of  the  Abbey 
at  Durham,  a  vision  commanding  him  to  take  the  holie  Corporax 
Cloth,  which  was  within  the  corporax,  wherewith  Saint  Cuthbert 
did  cover  the  chalice,  when  he  used  to  say  masse,  and  to  put  the 
same  holie  relique,  like  unto  a  Banner,  upon  a  speare  point." l 

The  name  Brecbannach  seems  to  be  formed  from  breac 
beannaighthe,  "  maculosum  benedictum,"  and  denoted  some 
thing  like  the  bratacha  breac-mergeada,  pallia  maculatorum 
vexillorum,  which  were  carried  in  the  battle  of  Magh 
Eath.  The  Brecbannach  probably  served  a  double  purpose, 
being,  like  the  Banner  of  Cuthbert,  "  shewed  and  carried  in 
the  abbey  on  festivall  and  principall  daies,"  and  also  "pre- 

1  Des.  Anc.  Mon.  of  Durham  (Surt.  Sue.),  p.  20. 


INTKODUCT10N.  XC1X 

sented  and  carried  to  any  battle,  as  occasion  should  serve." 
Whence  King  William  obtained  the  reliquary  is  not  stated. 
Probably  it  had  been  kept  in  the  parish  of  Forglen  by  the 
hereditary  tenants  of  the  .church  lands.  Between  1172  and 
1180  the  king  granted  to  the  Canons  of  Holyrood  the  rights, 
tithes,  and  obventions  of  four  churches  in  Cantyre,  which  had 
previously  been  enjoyed  by  the  abbey  of  Hy  ;  and  his  grant  of 
this  reliquary,  with  its  appurtenances,  to  Arbroath,  may  have 
been  a  transfer  of  a  like  nature. 

18.  CATH-BHUAIDH. — That  is,  Battle-victory.  This  was  the 
name  of  a  crosier,  the  existence  and  veneration  of  which  we 
learn  from  the  following  passage,  belonging  to  the  year  918, 
which  is  extracted  from  an  anonymous  collection  of  Irish 
Annals  preserved  in  the  Burgundian  Library  at  Brussels  (7.  c. 
n.  17,  p.  66):— 

"  About  the  same  time  the  Fortrenns  and  Lochlanns  fought  a 
battle.  Bravely  indeed  the  men  of  Alba  fought  this  battle,  for 
Columkille  was  aiding  them ;  for  they  had  prayed  to  him  most 
fervently,  because  he  was  their  apostle,  and  it  was  through  him 
that  they  received  the  faith,  One  time,  when  Imhar  Coming  was 
a  young  man,  he  came  to  Alba,  with  three  great  battalions,  to 
plunder  it.  The  men  of  Alba,  both  lay  and  clerics,  fasted,  and 
prayed  till  morning  to  God  and  Columcille ;  they  made  earnest 
entreaty  to  the  Lord  ;  they  gave  great  alms  of  food  and  raiment  to 
the  churches  and  the  poor,  received  the  body  of  the  Lord  at  the 
hands  of  their  priests,  and  promised  to  do  all  kinds  of  good  works, 
as  their  clergy  would  order  them,  and  that  their  standard  in  going 
forth  to  any  battle  should  be  the  crosier  of  Columkille.  Where 
fore  it  is  called  the  Cath-bhuaidh  from  that  day  to  this.  And  this 
is  a  befitting  name  for  it ;  for  they  have  often  gained  victory  in 
battle  by  it,  as  they  did  at  that  time,  when  they  placed  their  hope 
in  Columbkille.  They  did  the  same  on  this  occasion.  The  battle 
was  bravely  fought  at  once.  The  Albanians  gained  victory  and 
triumph,  killed  many  of  the  Lochlanns  after  their  defeat ;  and  their 
king  was  slain  on  the  occasion,  namely,  Ottir,  son  of  larngna.  It  was 
long  after  until  either  the  Danes  or  Lochlanns  attacked  them ;  but 
they  were  at  peace  and  harmony  with  them." 


INTRODUCTION. 


VII. 

THE  St.  Columba's  history  belongs  to  the  period  of  the  Irish  Church 
OF  HT  when  the  Secundus  Ordo  of  saints  prevailed,  and  his  name,  with 
those  of  the  Brendans,  Comgall,  and  Cainnech,  whom  Adanman 
records  with  honour  as  his  special  friends,  appears  in  the  cata 
logues  of  its  worthies.  This  order  may  be  regarded  as  the 
development  of  a  native  ministry,  whose  system  possessed  more 
nationality  than  that  of  their  predecessors,  and  took  a  deeper 
impress  from  the  customs  and  condition  of  the  country.  Its 
characteristics  were :  "  Pauci  episcopi,  et  multi  presbyteri ; 
diversas  missas  celebrabant,  et  diversas  regulas  ;  unum  Pascha 
xiv.  Luna;  unam  tonsuram  ab  aure  ad  aurem;  abnegabant 
mulierum  administrationem,  separantes  eas  a  monasteriis."  The 
diversity  of  liturgical  practice  probably  arose  from  the  mixed 
character  of  the  Primus  Ordo,  which  was  composed  of  Eomans, 
Francs,  Britons,  and  Egyptians ;  and  their  conventual  discipline 
varied  in  intensity  with  the  tempers  or  ascetic  habits  of  the 
framers.  They  agreed,  however,  in  their  preference  of  the  pres- 
byterate ;  their  observance  of  the  old-fashioned  Easter ;  the 
anterior  Eastern  tonsure ;  and  seclusion  from  female  society. 
It  is  a  remarkable  fact  that  many  of  the  monastic  churches, 
which  grew  in  after  times  to  be  bishops'  sees,  were  founded  by 
presbyters :  Clonard,  by  Finnian ;  Clonmacnois,  by  Ciaran ; 
Clonfert,  by  Brendan ;  Aghabo,  by  Cainnech ;  Glendaloch,  by 
Kevin ;  Lismore,  by  Carthach  ;  and  Derry,  Kaphoe,  and  Hy,  by 
Columba.  The  great  promoters  of  the  conventual  system 
sought  no  higher  order  than  such  as  would  enable  them,  con 
sistently  with  the  vows  of  humility,  to  administer  the  sacra 
ments,  and  conduct  the  ordinary  devotions  of  their  fraternities. 
The  abbatial  office  gave  them  all  the  jurisdiction  of  the  episco 
pate,  without  its  responsibilities ;  and  little  more  was  left  to 
the  bishop  than  the  essence  of  his  office,  the  transmission  of 
holy  orders,  with  the  personal  reverence  which  was  due  to  the 
holder  of  so  important  a  commission.  Another  element  in  the 
Irish  monastic  system  was  its  social  connexions.  Every  great 


INTRODUCTION.  Cl 

monastery  was  a  centre  of  family  relation,  and  served  as  a 
school  or  asylum  for  all  who  were  of  patron's  or  founder's  kin. 
This  particular  was  most  strikingly  exemplified  in  the  case  of 
Hy,  as  may  be  seen  in  the  genealogical  table  of  the  early 
abbots  annexed  to  this  Introduction,  which  shows  that  the  abbacy 
was,  with  one  or  two  exceptions,  strictly  limited  to  a  branch  of 
the  Tir-Conallian  family.  It  shows,  also,  that  there  was  no  lineal 
succession  in  Hy,  as  there  was  in  many  other  Irish  monasteries, 
where  secular  interests  so  far  prevailed  as  to  make  the  abbacy 
hereditary,  and  ultimately  to  frustrate  the  founder's  intention 
by  the  extinction  of  conventual  observance,  and  the  virtual 
transference  of  the  endowments  to  lay  possession,  as  in  Bangor, 
or  by  the  repetition  of  irregularities  such  as  St.  Bernard  com 
plains  of  in  the  case  of  Armagh.1 

These  sixth-century  monasteries  were  as  rapid  in  their 
growth  as  they  were  numerous  in  their  creation.  St.  Finnian's 
of  Clonard  is  said  to  have  numbered  3000  members,  St.  Corn- 
gall's  of  Bangor  the  same  amount,  and  St.  Brendan's  parochia 
3000  more.  The  ramifications  of  these  houses  spread  exactly 
in  the  same  manner  as  St.  Columba's,  and,  for  a  time,  were  fully 
equal  in  extent  to  his;  but  they  wanted  the  severalty  of  position 
which  the  Columbian  centre  enjoyed ;  they  had  no  Pictish  race 
to  convert ;  and,  above  all,  they  had  no  Adamnan  to  perpetuate 
the  honours  of  their  founders. 

Whether  St.  Columba  or  any  of  his  contemporaries  composed 
and  promulgated  a  systematic  rule  like  St.  Benedict's  is  very 
doubtful.  Eeyner  expressed  his  opinion  in  the  negative ;  and 
though  Fleming  and  O'Conor  have  condemned  him  for  the 
assertion,  they  have  failed  in  proving  the  affirmative  of  the 
question.  Wilfrid,  indeed,  spoke  at  the  synod  of  Whitby  of 
regula  acprcecepta  of  Columba,2  and  in  the  Lives  of  some  of  the 
Irish  saints  the  term  regula  occurs,  but  generally  in  the  sense 
of  "  discipline  "  or  "  observance ; "  while  the  mention  of  written 
rules  is  rare  and  legendary.  There  certainly  existed,  in  the 
middle  ages,  not  only  a  great  diversity  in  monastic  practice, 

1  Vit.  S.  Malachiae,  caps.  5  and  7.  2  Berle,  Hist.  EC.,  iii.  25. 


Cll  INTRODUCTION. 

but  also  an  understanding  that  the  fathers  of  the  Irish  Church 
had  established  and  denned  a  variety  of  orders.  An  ancient 
Life  of  Ciaran  of  Clonmacnois  limits  them  to  eight,  and  enume 
rates  them  under  the  names  of  "  S.  Patricii,  Brandani,  Kierani 
Cluanensis,  Columbae  Hiensis,  cujus  ordo  dicebatur  Pulchrce 
Societatis,  Comgalli,  Adamnani,  Brigidse,  Molassi  seu  Lisriani;"1 
but  the  recital  is  evidently  arbitrary,  for  St.  Adamnan,  instead 
of  being  the  author  of  a  new  rule,  was  unable  to  induce  the 
society  of  which  he  was  ninth  abbot  to  accept  the  reformed 
Paschal  canon.  Possibly,  the  biographer  supposed,  as  did 
Ussher  in  a  later  age,  and  others  after  him,  that  the  Lex  of 
Adamnan,  Patrick,  Ciaran,  Brendan,  etc.,  mentioned  in  the 
Irish  Annals,  denoted  formulas  of  monastic  government.  Ussher 
further  states  that  the  rules  of  Columbakilli,  Comgall,  Mochutta, 
and  Albe  were  extant  in  the  manuscript  from  which  he  pub 
lished  his  catalogue  of  the  saints,  but  "  Hibernico  sermone 
antiquissimo  exaratse  et  nostris  temporibus  pene  ignorabili." 2 
It  was  probably  from  this  or  a  similar  collection  that  the  Irish 
Rules,  preserved  in  the  Brussels  MS.,  were  transcribed.  Through 
the  exertions  of  the  Eev.  Dr.  Todd,  copies  of  them  have  been 
obtained  in  this  country,  and  by  his  kind  permission  the  present 
writer  was  enabled,  in  1850,  to  print  the  Eule  of  St.  Columba 
in  the  Appendix  to  Colton's  Visitation  of  Deny  (p.  109).  It 
differs  from  the  others  in  being  written  in  prose.  They  are  all 
very  ancient  compositions,  but  totally  insufficient  to  convey  any 
definite  idea  of  the  peculiarities  of  the  orders  to  which  they 
profess  respectively  to  belong.  Colgan,  who  lived  before  the 
dispersion  of  Irish  records,  and  had  the  best  opportunity  of 
discovering  such  literary  monuments,  was  not  aware  of  the 
existence  of  any  other  Eule  of  St.  Columba  but  the  one  just 
mentioned,  and  it  is  evident  that  he  attached  but  little  import 
ance  to  it,  as  he  has  omitted  to  print  it  among  St.  Columba's 
supposed  compositions,  and  contents  himself  with  stating  that 
he  had  sent  a  Latin  translation  of  it  to  a  contemporary  writer. 
The  Eule  of  St.  Columbanus  and  the  Pcenitentials  of  him  and 

1  Colgan,  Tr.  Th.,  p.  471  b.  a  Usslier,  Brit.  EC.  Ant,  c.  17. 


INTRODUCTION.  ciii 

Cummian,  are  the  only  remains  of  Irish  monastic  discipline 
which  have  descended  to  us,  and  these  have  probably  been 
modified  by  the  peculiar  institutions  of  the  countries  where  they 
were  observed ;  and  when  they  are  compared  with  the  Bene 
dictine  Rule,  in  all  its  beauty  of  piety,  eloquence,  and  method, 
it  is  to  be  wondered  how  a  lesser  light  could  shine  beside  it, 
and  even  the  one  meagre  Irish  Rule  have  been  transmitted  to 
us.  When  saying  that  Columbanus's  is  the  only  Irish  Rule 
which  has  descended  to  us,  it  may  be  well  to  mention  that 
Lucas  Holstenius  has  printed  two  Rules — one  intituled  Cu- 
jusdam  Patris  Regula  ad  Monachos,  consisting  of  thirty-two 
chapters ;  and  the  other,  Cujusdam  Patris  Eegula  ad  Virgines, 
of  twenty-four  chapters — which  Calmet  has  attributed  to  St. 
Comgall,  but  Holstenius's  editor  to  St.  Columba.  This,  how 
ever,  is  mere  conjecture,  which  is  not  supported  even  by  the 
style  or  matter  of  the  compositions.  In  the  same  collection 
there  is  an  Ordo  Monasticus,  purporting  to  be  an  ancient  rule  of 
discipline,  "  ab  antiquis  monachis  Scotis  sub  exordio  susceptse 
Christianas  religionis  observatus,"  and  which  Holstenius's  editor 
considers  the  most  ancient  monument  of  all  the  monks  of  the 
West,  and  worthy  of  ranking  next  to  the  institutions  of  Cassian, 
and  the  rule  of  Pachomius.  But  a  document  which  opens,  as 
it  does,  with  an  account  of  the  Culdees  of  Culros,  and  derives 
the  term  Keledeus  from  cella,  however  venerable  it  may  appear 
to  a  German,  must  savour  to  a  Scot  of  mediaeval  antiquity, 
especially  when  it  is  found,  almost  totidem  vcrbis,  in  Ricemarch's 
Life  of  David,  as  the  discipline  of  the  Menevian  saint. 
>  It  is  not  necessary  to  reprint  in  this  Introduction  the  only 
existing  ftegula  Choluim-chille,  because  it  is  a  formula  intended 
more  for  a  hermit  than  a  member  of  a  social  community,  and 
the  book  in  which  it  is  printed  can  readily  be  consulted.  The 
following  scheme,  which  is  entirely  new  in  its  construction,  is 
derived  principally  from  Adamnan,  to  whose  narrative  re 
ference  is  made  by  the  number  of  the  page  in  the  present 
edition.  Bede  and  other  authorities  afford  some  particulars  of 
information  which  are  acknowledged  in  their  place. 


CIV  INTRODUCTION. 

1.  CONSTITUTION  OF  THE  COMMUNITY. 

Conventual  life  was  considered  a  special  militia  Christi 
(133,  159),  and  they  who  adopted  it  were  looked  upon  as  Christi 
milites  (116,  215  passim),  in  reference  to  their  Leader,  and  com- 
militaries  (139,  171,  173,  196)  as  regarded  one  another.  Each 
one  professed  his  readiness  Deo  exhibere  hostiam  (133),  by  with 
drawing  from  the  cares  of  the  world,  and  a  willingness  to  enter 
it  only  as  an  athleta  Christi  (Vit.  Munnae)  in  the  propagation  of 
the  Gospel  (Bede,  iii.  3).  The  society,  termed  ccenobialis  coetus 
(111),  or  collegium  monachorum  (Bede,  iii.  5),  consisted  essentially 
of  an  Abbot  and  Family. 

The  Abbot,  called  abbas  (113),  or  pater  (106,  213),  or  sanctus 
pater  (1 1 5),  or  sanctus  senior  (1 1 5, 137),  and,  in  the  founder's  case, 
patronus  (1 07, 1 1 5, 1 9 1, 2 1 1,  2 14,  2 1 6),  had  his  seat  at  the  matrix 
ecclesia  (1 1 9),  which  was  situate  in  Hy,  the  insula primaria  (1 1 1) 
of  his  society ;  but  his  jurisdiction  equally  extended  over  the 
affiliated  churches,  which  either  he  in  person  (116,  143,  147, 
182),  or  his  disciples  (132,  135,  173)  founded  in  Ireland 
(xlix-lx)  or  in  Scotland  (Ix-lxxi),  which  he  occasionally 
visited  (116,  147),  and  regulated  (127,  187),  and  ministered  in 
(205),  and  whose  respective  Superiors,  prcepositi  (131, 132,  140, 
163),  received  their  charge  from  him  (131,  143),  and  were 
subject  to  his  orders,  even  when  ministering  in  churches  of 
their  own  foundation  (132,  136).  In  ecclesiastical  rank  he  was 
a  presbyter,  and  officiated  at  the  altar  (142,  201,  205,  211), 
and  pronounced  absolution  (131),  but  was  not  a  bishop ;  hence 
he  was  emphatically  styled  abbas  et  presbyter.  But  this  observ 
ance,  which  had  its  origin  in  choice,  and  its  continuance  in 
precedent,  by  no  means  implied  a  usurpation  or  disregard  of 
the  episcopal  office;  for  there  were  at  all  times  bishops  con 
nected  with  the  society,  resident  at  Hy  or  some  dependent 
church,  who  were  subject  to  the  abbot's  jurisdiction — that  is, 
who  rendered  him  conventual  obedience,  agreeably  to  their 
monastic  vow ;  whose  acts  were  performed  on  the  responsi 
bility  of  the  abbot,  or  in  the  name  of  the  community ;  and  who 


INTRODUCTION.  CV 

were  assigned  their  stations,  or  called  in  to  ordain,  very  much 
as  the  bishops  of  the  Unitas  Fratrum  in  the  present  day,  being 
regarded  as  essential  to  the  propagation  of  the  Church  rather 
than  its  maintenance;  and  who,  therefore,  had  as  little  authority 
in  the  internal  economy  of  the  society  as  the  bishop  had  in  the 
Irish  monastery  of  Bobio,  or  the  diocesan  in  the  universities 
of  Oxford,  Cambridge,  or  Dublin.  Still  the  essential  function 
of  the  episcopal  office  was  scrupulously  maintained :  when  a 
presbyter^was  to  be  ordained,  the  bishop  was  called  in ;  when 
a  distant  province  was  to  be  brought  within  the  Christian  pale, 
a  bishop  was  consecrated  for  the  creation  of  a  local  ministry, 
and  successors  to  him  ordained  and  sent  forth  from  time  to 
time ;  and  when  an  accredited  candidate  came  even  from 
Ireland  to  Hy,  he  in  like  manner  was  invested  with  the  highest 
ecclesiastical  orders.  Nor  was  this  an  observance  of  mere  form, 
while  the  office  was  held  in  low  esteem ;  on  the  other  hand,  the 
great  founder  set  the  example  of  veneration  for  the  episcopate 
(152),  and,  as  the  ninth  presbyter-abbot  relates  (142),  in  the 
service  of  his  own  mother-church  and  from  the  altar,  disclaimed 
all  pretensions  to  equality  with  one  of  episcopal  rank.  This 
was  no  more  than  was  to  be  expected  from  a  presbyter  who  had 
served  as  a  deacon  (152,  169)  in  a  monastery  where  presbyters, 
called  from  their  chief  function  ministri  altaris  (152),  lived 
under  the  presidency  of  a  bishop  (152,  196) ;  one  who  received 
the  hospitality  of  another  bishop  (147);  one  who  instituted  a 
feast  in  memory  of  a  bishop  who  was  carus  amicus  (202) ;  and 
whose  own  institution  was  frequented  by  bishops  from  Ireland 
(119, 142)  for  communion  and  edification.  The  abbot  was  wont 
on  extraordinary  occasions  to  summon  the  brethren  to  the 
oratory  (120,  187),  even  in  the  dead  of  night  (127),  and  there 
address  them  from  the  altar  (120, 127, 187,  202),  and  solicit  their 
prayers.  Occasionally  he  instituted  a  festival,  published  a  holi 
day,  and  enjoined  the  celebration  of  the  Eucharist  (201,  202) ; 
as  occasion  offered,  he  dispensed  with  a  fast  (129, 130),  or  relaxed 
penitential  discipline  (127),  or  regulated  its  intensity  (180).  He 

ff 


CV1  INTRODUCTION. 

gave  licence  of  departure  (119),  which  he  signified  by  his  bene 
diction  (116,  125,  126,  133,  143,155).  He  was  saluted  by  pro 
stration  (115).  He  forbade,  at  pleasure,  admission  to  the  island 
(128).  When  he  thought  fit,  he  despatched  a  chosen  brother 
on  a  distant  mission  (125,  132,  154,  156,  179),  or  for  monastic 
purposes  (139,  153).  He  had  the  control  of  the  temporalities 
(140, 153, 180).  When  at  home  he  was  attended  (129,  131, 135, 
203,  208,  209),  except  when  he  signified  his  wish  to  be  alone 
(204,  206,  208).  When  abroad,  he  was  accompanied  by  a  party 
(131, 134, 164, 170, 173, 174, 177, 191,  203)  who  were  styled  mri 
sociales  (164) ;  and  he  preached  (173)  or  baptized  (134, 159, 173, 
203)  as  occasion  offered.  The  founder  inaugurated  the  first 
independent  king  of  Scotch  Dalriada  in  Hy  (197),  and  the 
ceremony  was  probably  continued  as  an  honorary  function  of 
the  abbot  (213).  The  founder  also  named  his  own  successor 
(1 1 5,  2 1 3),  who  had  been  his  alumnus  (1 1 5,  206),  and  a  prcepositus 
(126),  whose  qualifications  were  that  he  was  sanctus,  sapiens, 
affabilis,  peregrinis  appetibilis  (115),  and  experienced  non 
solum  docendo  sed  etiam  scribendo  (213).  The  third  abbot  had 
been  &prcepositus  (131).  In  the  election,  preference  was  given 
to  founder's  kin ;  and  hence  it  happened  that  of  the  eleven 
immediate  successors  of  the  founder  there  is  but  one  (Suibhne, 
sixth  abbot)  whose  pedigree  is  uncertain,  and  but  one  (Conna- 
mail,  tenth  abbot)  whose  descent  was  confessedly  from  another 
house.  The  surrender  of  the  old  Easter  and  Tonsure,  in  7 1 6, 
broke  down  family  prescription,  and  henceforward  the  abbacy 
became  an  open  appointment.  The  Table  annexed  to  this 
Introduction,  which  has  been  constructed  from  the  genealogies 
in  the  Book  of  Lecan  and  in  Colgan,  will  show  to  the  reader  at 
a  glance  the  connexion  which  existed  between  the  early  abbots, 
and  their  relation  to  the  royal  family ;  and  while  it  proves  that 
abbacy  was  not  transmitted  in  lineal  succession,  it  will  demon 
strate  the  existence  of  clanship  even  in  a  religious  community. 
The  Family,  vernacularly  called  muintir,  and  in  Latin  familia 
(An.  Ult.  640,  690,  716,  748),  consisted  offratres  (112, 155,  208) 
or  commemibrcs  (187),  whom  the  founder  styled  mei  familiare-s 


INTRODUCTION.  evil 

-monaehi  (211,  212,  216),  or  mei  electi  monacki  (183),  and 
endearingly  addressed  as  filioli  (171,  207,  213,  216).  They 
were  at  first  twelve  in  number  (Ixxi,  196),  and  natives  of 
Ireland ;  but  their  society  soon  increased,  and  included  Britons 
(198)  and  Saxons  (201,  209).  The  brethren,  of  tried  devoted- 
ness,  were  called  senior  es  (188,  200) ;  those  who  were  strong  for 
labour,  operarii  fratres  (210) ;  and  those  who  were  under 
instruction,  junior es  (116),  alumni  (208),  or  pueri  familiares 
(117).  Besides  the  congregation,  or  collectio  (200),  of  professed 
members,  there  were  generally  present  peregrini  (133, 143, 198), 
who  were  sometimes  called  proselyti  (129,  132,  133,  142);  or 
pcenitentes(\W,  131,  180);  or  hospites  (118,  123,  124),  whose 
sojourn  was  of  varied  length  (133,  180,  198). 

2.  DISCIPLINE. 

The  principle  of  Obedience  is  embodied  in  the  precept  of 
Columbanus,  "Ad  primum  verbum  senioris  omnes  ad  obedi- 
endum  audientes  surgere  oportet,  quia  obedientia  Deo  exhibetur, 
dicente  Domino  nostro  Jesu  Christo  :  Qui  vos  audit  me  audit ;" 
and  the  measure  of  obedience  is  defined  to  be  usque  ad  mortem^ 
It  is  reasonable  to  suppose  that  this  essential  of  monastic  order 
was  strictly  observed  in  the  Columbian  system.  Hence  the 
readiness  of  the  brethren  to  prepare  on  the  shortest  notice  for  a 
long  and  wearisome  journey  (132),  or  a  distant  and  hazardous 
voyage  (125, 154,  156,  179),  or  to  do  the  service  of  the  monastery 
(153),  or  to  submit  to  exposure  in  out-door  work,  at  the  local 
Superior's  desire,  during  the  most  inclement  weather  (131),  or  to 
undertake  an  office  of  responsibility,  though  by  a  nephew's 
order  (143).  Hence  the  acquiescence  in  an  injunction  to  intermit 
a  custom  (204),  and  the  severe  rebuke  which  attended  a  viola 
tion  of  his  command  (204,  205,  210).  The  obedientia  sine  mora 
of  the  Benedictine  Eule  was  evidenced  in  Hy  by  the  alacrity 
with  which  the  abbot's  orders  were  executed  (145, 156, 162),  and 
the  speed  with  which  a  distant  brother  forsook  the  church  of 
his  sojourn,  and  hastened,  at  the  abbot's  call,  to  Hy,  there  to 

1  Regula,  cap.  i. 


CV111  INTRODUCTION. 

abide  in  vera  obedientia  (132).  Obedience,  however,  had  its 
limit  to  things  lawful ;  for  Adamnan,  when  abbot,  was  unable 
to  effect  a  change  in  the  observance  of  Easter. 

The  members  had  all  things  common.  Personal  property 
was  disclaimed,  according  to  the  injunction  in  Columba's  here- 
mitical  Eule :  Imnochta  do  gres  do  sechem  ar  Christ  ocus  ar  na 
soscela,  "  Be  always  naked  in  imitation  of  Christ,  and  [in  obe 
dience  to]  the  precepts  of  the  Gospel."1  Similar  to  this  was  the 
maxim  of  Columbanus,  "  Nuditas  et  facultatum  contemptus 
prima  perfectio  est  monachorum,"  after  the  precept,  "si  quis 
vult  post  me  venire,  abneget  semetipsum."2 

Though  St.  Columba  was  desirous  to  promote  conjugal  happi 
ness  (184,  185),  and  he  was  held  in  veneration  by  the  other 
sex  (156,  181,  184),  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  celibacy  was 
strictly  enjoined  on  his  community,  and  the  condition,  "  virgo 
corpore  et  virgo  mente,"3  held  up  for  imitation.  Hence  we  find 
a  monk  discharging  an  office  usually  assigned  to  women  (162), 
and  hence  the  total  absence  of  anything  like  hereditary  succes 
sion  in  the  abbacy  of  Hy.  A  learned  and  ingenious  writer  in 
a  modern  journal  has  proved  to  a  demonstration,  from  the  native 
Annalists,  that  a  lineal  succession  of  abbots  existed  in  many  of 
the  Irish  monasteries  during  the  ninth  and  following  centuries, 
but  he  has  failed  to  include  the  coarbs  of  Columba  in  the  class; 
and  a  comparison  of  his  premises  with  the  Genealogical  Table 
annexed  to  this  Introduction  will  show  that  he  has  mistaken 
names  for  persons.  Marriage,  no  doubt,  existed  among  the 
secular  clergy,  but  the  practice  seems  to  have  been  disapproved 
of  by  the  regulars ;  and  thus  we  may  qualify  the  story  told  of 
St.  Comgall's  preceptor,  "  Quadani  nocte  cum  Clericus  ille  cum 
muliere  dormisset ; "  and  Adamnan's  narrative  of  the  clericus  of 
Magh  Breg,  "dives  et  honoratus  in  plebe,"  who  died  "cum 
meretrice  in  eodem  lectulo  Cubans"  (138). 

In  their  intercourse  with  one  another,  the  monks  of  this  order 
appear  to  have  been  virtually  regulated  by  the  precept  of  Colum- 

1  Eeeves's  Colt.  Visit.,  p.  109.  2  Reg.,  c.  4.  3  77>.  c.  6. 


INTRODUCTION.  cix 

banus,  "Cura  cautela  et  ratione  loquendum  est."  Of  such  reserve 
the  anecdote  told  of  the  monks  and  Baithene  (136,  137)  affords 
an  example.  Between  the  abbot  and  the  brethren  there  seems  to 
have  been  no  restraint  (186,  200) ;  and  as  regards  the  society  at 
large,  the  objects  of  their  system  were  too  practical,  and  their 
engagements  too  much  characterized  by  common  sense,  to  im 
pose  any  restraint  in  conversation  but  such  as  conduced  to  the 
purity  or  decorum  of  the  members. 

Another  monastic  principle  was  Humility,  which  was  exem 
plified  both  in  demeanour  towards  superiors  and  in  dejection 
after  sin.  A  visitor  on  bended  knees  bowed  down  before  the 
founder  (198)  and  his  successor  (115);  and  even  before  a  sub 
ordinate  senior  the  brethren  made  known  their  wishes  upon 
their  knees  (137).  The  penitent  fell  on  his  knees  weeping  (132). 
St.  Benedict's  injunction  was  "  Omnibus  venientibus  sive  dis- 
cedentibus  hospitibus,  inclinato  capite  vel  prostrate  omni  corpore 
in  terra,  Christus  in  eis  adoretur  qui  et  suscipitur."1  To  the 
same  principle  may  be  attributed  the  custom  which  was  common 
to  St.  Benedict  and  St.  Comgall,  and  which  probably  extended 
to  St.  Columba,  as  a  received  observance  of  the  time,  "  Si  quis 
frater  pro  quavis  minima  causa,  ab  abbate  vel  a  quocunque 
priore  suo  corripiatur,  sine  rnora  tandiu  prostratus  in  terra  ante 
pedes  ejus  jaceat  satisfaciens  usque  dum  benedictione  sanetur 
ilia  commotio."2  St.  ComgalTs  Life  says,  "Mos  erat  in  monas- 
terio  sancti  patris  Comgalli,  ut  si  quis  alium  increparet,  quamvis 
Hie  esset  culpabilis  aut  inculpabilis,  statim  qui  increpabatur 
genua  humiliter  flecteret."  3  The  strict  observance  of  this  regula 
tion  is  exemplified  by  legends  showing  the  extraordinary  lengths 
to  which  compliance  with  the  letter  of  the  precept  was  carried. 

Hospitality,  so  leading  a  feature  in  ancient  monasticism,  was 
developed  in  Hy  in  the  fulness  of  national  generosity :  hence, 
a  large  portion  of  Adamnan's  anecdotes  have  reference  to  the 
entertainment  of  strangers;  and  the  story  of  the  heron  (145) 
serves  as  a  lively  illustration  of  the  kind  reception  which  was 

1  Reg.,  cap.  53.         »  Reg.,  cap.  71.         3  Cap.  23  (Flem.  Coll.,  p.  307  6). 


CX  INTRODUCTION. 

always  in  store  for  the  visitor.  "When  a  stranger  arrived,  he 
was  sometimes  introduced  at  once  to  the  abbot,  by  whom  he 
was  kissed  (129,  133);  sometimes  the  interview  was  deferred 
(115,  180).  When  an  expected  guest  arrived,  the  abbot  and 
brethren  went  to  meet  and  welcome  him  (118,132,143).  He  was 
conducted  to  the  oratory  (117, 177, 186),  and  thanks  returned  for 
his  safety.  From  this  he  was  led  to  a  lodging,  hospitium  (133), 
and  water  prepared  to  wash  his  feet  (118).  If  the  visitor  happened 
to  arrive  on  an  ordinary  fast- day  of  the  week,  the  fast  was  re 
laxed  in  his  favour  (130),  consolatio  cibi  (127)  was  allowed,  and  he 
was  said  jejunationem  solver e  (130).  Almsgiving  was  held  in  high 
esteem  (166),  and  the  founder,  on  several  occasions,  befriended 
the  poor  (164,  178).  An  instance  is  recorded  where  valuable 
presents,  under  the  name  of  xenia,  were  sent  to  a  man  in 
need  (140).  Itinerant  beggars,  who  went  about  with  wallets 
(165),  were  not  held  in  such  esteem.  The  monastery  was 
resorted  to  for  medical  relief  also  (130).  Grievous  transgressors 
were  excluded  (128). 

As  regarded  Divine  Worship,  the  days  of  the  year  were  either 
ordinary  or  solennes  (152,  202).  On  the  former  it  is  likely  that 
the  customary  cursus  or  synaxis  was  performed  at  the  canonical 
hours;  for,  although  Adamnan  is  silent  on  the  subject,  the 
Life  of  St.  Cainnech  mentions  a  case  in  which  None  was 
observed  in  Hy,  and  it  is  not  likely  that  the  Columbian  usage 
would  have  differed  from  the  general  monastic  practice  of  the 
age.  The  brethren  who  were  employed  on  the  farm  were  not 
required  to  attend  during  the  day  (136),  and  fatigue  after  their 
labour  would  probably  demand  unbroken  sleep  at  night.  The 
congregation  was  summoned  to  the  oratory  signno  personate 
(187,  202),  that  is,  by  the  sound  of  the  bell  (120,  214),  both  on 
stated  and  extraordinary  occasions.  Being  assembled,  they 
proceeded  to  the  oratory,  sometimes  in  attendance  on  the  abbot 
(202),  sometimes  with  less  regularity  (120,  214).  At  night  they 
carried  lanterns  with  them  (214). 

The  dies  solennes  were  the  dies  Dominicce  and  Sanctorum 
natales  (190,  201),  which  were  solemnized  in  the  same 


INTRODUCTION.  Cxi 

manner,  by  rest  from  labour,  the  celebration  of  the  Eucharist, 
and  the  use  of  better  food  (155).  The  festival  commenced 
after  the  sunset  of  the  preceding  day  (190,  201,  211),  and 
its  stated  services  were  the  Vespertinalis  missa  (15G,  195,  213), 
Matutini  (214),  Prime  (201),  Tierce,  Sext  (190),  and  probably 
None  (145,  160,  179).  The  chief  service,  missarum  solemnia 
(139,  201,  206),  was  sometimes  at  Prime  (201),  or  at  Sext  (190) : 
on  such  an  occasion  the  cantores  (202)  chanted  the  wonted 
office,  in  the  course  of  which  there  was  a  commemoration  by 
name  of  certain  saints  (202).  In  the  sacra  Eucharistice  minis- 
teria  (201),  also  called  sacra  mysteria  (202,  206),s#mg  ollationis 
mysteria  (139),  or  obsequia  (201,  202),  wine  (152),  and  water, 
which  was  drawn  by  the  deacon  and  set  down  in  an  nrceus 
(152),  and  bread  (142),  were  provided  :  the  priest  (139)  standing 
before  the  altar  (206)  proceeded  to  consecrate,  sacra  Eucharistice 
consecrare  mysteria  (205),  sacram  oblationem  consecrare  (206), 
sacra  Eucharistice  mysteria  conficere  (139),  Christi  corpus  conftcere 
(142).  When  several  priests  were  present,  one  was  selected 
for  the  office  (139,  205),  who  might  invite  a  presbyter  ut  simul 
Dominicum  panemf  ranger ent  in  token  of  equality  (142).  When 
a  bishop  officiated  at  the  altar,  he  brake  the  bread  alone,  in 
token  of  his  superior  office  (142).  The  brethren  then  approached 
the  altar,  and  partook  of  the  Eucharist  (180,  181). 

On  extraordinary  occasions  the  abbot  summoned  the  brethren 
by  the  sound  of  the  bell  to  the  oratory  (120,  187,  202),  even  in 
the  dead  of  night  (127),  on  which  occasions  he  addressed  them 
as  they  stood  in  their  places  (187),  and  having  asked, their 
prayers  ($.),  he  kneeled  down  himself  at  the  altar  ($.),  and 
sometimes  prayed  with  tears  (ib.)  Sometimes  the  abbot 
(161,  184,  207),  or  a  brother  (207,  208),  rose  from  his  bed  even 
in  a  winter  night  (205,  207),  and  proceeded  alone  to  the  oratory 
for  private  devotion  (ib.\  and  if  the  door  was  closed,  prayed 
outside  (208).  Occasionally  the  founder  retired  in  the  day 
time  to  a  thicket  to  pray  (170),  and  even  in  Hy,it  was  his  prac 
tice  to  retire  in  winter  nights  to  lonely  places  for  prayer 
(199,  205).  In  all  these  cases  the  secular  abode  was  avoided  ; 


CXil  INTRODUCTION. 

but  in  cases  of  sickness  the  abbot  was  wont  to  pray  beside  the 
patient's  bed,  in  a  standing  (172,  173,  198)  or  kneeling  (173) 
posture. 

The  chief  Festival  was  the  Paschalis  solemnitas  (180,  210), 
on  which  occasion  the  Eucharist  was  celebrated  (181),  and  the 
season  was  specially  regarded  as  Icetitice  festimtas  (211).  The 
period  which  elapsed  between  Easter-day  and  Whitsunday  was 
called  Paschahs  dies  (158),  and  it  was  the  term  of  the  greatest 
indulgence  during  the  year.  Eor  a  considerable  time  after  the 
rectification  of  the  Paschal  rule  in  the  Church  of  Eome,  the 
Columbian  society  tenaciously  adhered  to  the  observance  of 
their  founder,  whereby  there  was  sometimes  as  much  as  a 
month's  interval  between  their  Easter  and  that  of  other 
churches;  and  it  was  not  until  A.D.  716  that  they  acquiesced 
in  the  general  practice.  The  Natalitium  Domini  (158)  was 
another  sacred  festival,  for  which  some  made  preparation  during 
the  forty  days  immediately  preceding. 

In  the  exercise  of  Fasting,  the  founder  is  said  (108)  to  have 
shown  continual  diligence.  Every  Wednesday  (129)  and  Friday 
throughout  the  year,  except  in  the  interval  between  Easter  and 
Whitsunday,  was  a  fast-day,  and  no  food  was  taken  till  the 
nona,  unless  where  the  prior  claims  of  hospitality  demanded 
an  exception  to  the  rule  (130).  Lent  was  strictly  kept  as  a 
preparation  for  Easter  (181),  and  during  this  season  the  fast 
was  prolonged  every  day  except  Sunday  till  evening,  when  a 
light  meal,  consisting  of  such  food  as  bread,  diluted  milk,  and 
eggs,  was  taken. 

The  sacrament  of  Baptism  was  administered  to  adult  con 
verts,  after  due  instruction  in  the  faith;  sometimes  by  the 
tibbot  on  his  missionary  travels,  to  a  whole  family  (173,  203), 
sometimes  to  an  individual,  a  little  before  death  (134,  203). 

Holy  Orders  were  conferred  by  a  bishop  only.  Young  men 
were  admitted  to  the  Diaconate  while  students  (169),  and  part 
of  their  duty  was  to  wait  upon  the  ministers  of  the  altar  (152). 
Priests'  Orders  were  conferred  by  the  bishop  (135),  but  the 
previous  imposition  of  the  abbot's  right  hand  was  required  as 


INTRODUCTION.  cxiii 

the  bishop's  warrant  for  his  interference  (135).  The  consecra 
tion  of  the  bishops  Aidan,  Finan,  Colman,  Cellach,  and  Colum- 
bauus  at  Hy  manifestly  proves  the  presence  of  a  bishop  in  the 
island.  If  they  were  canonically  consecrated,  there  must  have 
been  at  least  three  bishops  there  at  one  time.  When  Finan 
afterwards  consecrated  Cedd,  he  called  two  other  bishops  to 
his  assistance  j1  and  when  Cedda  was  consecrated  by  Vim,  two 
British  bishops  took  part  in  the  ceremony.2  If,  however,  the 
services  of  one  were  judged  sufficient,  the  usage  would  not 
have  been  without  precedent.  St.  Serf  is  said  to  have  been 
consecrated  by  Palladius  singly;  St.  Kentigern  was  consecrated 
by  an  individual  bishop,  who  was  invited  from  Ireland  for  the 
purpose ;  and  even  St.  Columba  himself  is  said  in  legend  to 
have  been  sent  to  Bishop  Etchen  in  order  to  receive  from  him 
episcopal  orders,  instead  of  which,  through  mistake,  the  order 
of  priest  only  was  conferred  upon  him.  Lanfranc  complained 
of  single  episcopal  ordination  as  a  practice  existing  in  Ireland 
in  1074  ;  and  Anselm,  in  1100,  repeated  the  charge. 

Persons  retiring  from  the  world,  to  live  as  associates  or 
probationers  in  the  monastery,  were  said  sumere  clericatus 
Ifiahitum  (135,  180),  or,  as  the  natives  expressed  it,  gabhail  cleir- 
ceachta,  and  this  course  was  often  taken  as  a  voluntary  pen 
ance  (135),  ad  delenda,  peccamina  (180).  Whenever  any  one 
desired  admission  to  the  order,  the  application  was  submitted 
to  the  abbot,  with  whom  it  was  discretionary  to  receive  into 
communion  immediately  (133),  or  extend  the  probation  over  as 
long  a  period  as  seven  years  (183).  At  the  appointed  time, 
the  candidate  was  conducted  to  the  oratory,  where  on  his 
knees,  he  repeated,  after  the  abbot,  the  monachicum  votum  (133, 
183),  the  solemn  asseveration  being  per  nomen  excelsi  Dei  (142). 

After  the  commission  of  an  offence,  the  penitent  was  required 
cwam  omnibus  peccantiam  suam  confiteri  (132,  139),  generally 
on  his  knees  (132, 147),  and  thus,  promising  amendment,  pceni- 
tentiam  agere  (147).  In  such  case  the  abbot  either  absolved 

1  Bede,  Hist.  EC.,  iii.  22.  2  Ib.  iii.  28. 


cxiv  INTRODUCTION. 

him  on  the  spot  (132),  or  enjoined  a  more  lengthened  discipline, 
juxta  judicationem  (128),  which  was  termed  the  leges  pcenitentice 
(128,  180),  and  sometimes  extended  to  an  abode  of  seven  years 
at  a  prescribed  station  (180),  sometimes  even  to  twelve,  occa 
sionally  accompanied  by  self-mortification,  and  perpetual  exile 
from  father-land  (128).  The  penitent  who  fulfilled  the  injunc 
tion  salutem  exercuit  animce  suce  (182). 

The  Tonsure  of  the  Secundus  Ordo,  in  which  the  founder 
was  reckoned,  was  db  aure  ad  aurem,  that  is,  the  anterior  half 
of  the  head  was  made  bare,  but  the  occiput  was  untouched. 
This  usage  existed  in  St.  Patrick's  time,  who  may  have  found 
it  in  the  country ;  it  was  adopted  by  St.  Columba,  and  con 
tinued  in  his  Order  until  718,  when  the  coronal  tonsure  was 
received  by  the  society  of  Hy.  This  occurred  two  years  after 
the  Paschal  change  ;  for,  though  Bede  refers  the  joint  reforma 
tion  to  716,  the  practical  adoption  of  a  new  style  of  tonsure 
would  require  a  longer  preparation  than  a  mere  ritual  ob 
servance.  The  Greek  tonsure  was  total,  and  was  styled  St. 
Paul's,  and  the  Eoman,  which  was  coronal,  was  styled  St.  Peter's, 
but  the  Irish  fashion,  in  order  to  its  being  brought  into  dis 
repute,  was  opprobriously  ascribed  to  Simon  Magus  ;  and  when 
Ceolfrid  cast  this  up  to  Adamnan,  the  latter,  instead  of  repu 
diating  the  name,  is  represented  as  acquiescing  in  the  reproach, 
for  his  apology  was  etsi  Simonis  tonmram  ex  consuetudine  patria 
habeam.1  Another  scandal  circulated  against  it  was  of  its 
introduction  ^into  Ireland  by  the  swine-herd  of  Laeghaire,  the 
Pagan  king,  who  resisted  Patrick.  In  the  St.  Gall  copy  of 
Adamnan  there  is  a  representation  of  St.  Columba,  but  it  gives 
him  the  coronal  tonsure,  a  mistake  into  which  a  continental 
manuscript  of  the  ninth  century  might  fall. 

The  sign  of  the  cross  was  very  generally  employed  as  a 
siynum  salutare  (162) ;  hence  it  was  customary,  before  milking, 
to  cross  the  pail  (163) ;  before  tools  were  used,  to  cross  them 
(172).  The  sign  of  the  cross  was  considered  effectual  to  banish 


1  Bede,  Hiat.  EC.,  v.  21. 


INTRODUCTION.  CXV 

demons  (163),  to  restrain  a  river-monster  (171),  to  prostrate 
a  wild  beast  (170),  to  unlock  a  door  (176),  to  endow  a  pebble 
with  healing  virtues  (1 74).  Hence  the  readiness  to  erect  the 
substantial  vexillum  crucis  on  the  site  of  any  remarkable  occur 
rence  (143,  212) ;  a  tendency  which  got  full  credit  for  its 
development,  when  Hy  was  celebrated  for  her  360  crosses. 
Even  at  sea,  the  cruciform  relation  of  the  masts  and  yards  was 
regarded  as  conducive  to  a  favourable  voyage  (190).  In  the 
founder's  lifetime  there  was  also  an  extensive  employment  of 
charms,  which  were  produced  by  his  blessing  on  such  objects 
as  panis  (154,  157),  pinea  capsella,  numeri  (156),  sal  (157), 
aqua  (154,  157),  cuculla  (168),  pugio  (172),  sudes  (178),  albus 
lapillus  (175),  and  this  virtue  survived  him  on  earth,  as  in 
the  laudum  carmina  (113),  tunica  (188),  libri  (155,  158,  188). 
Such  belief,  however,  was  peculiar  neither  to  the  founder  nor 
his  nation :  it  was  professed  in  equal  variety  and  firmness  by 
the  venerable  father  of  Saxon  history. 

The  Burial  of  the  Dead  was  a  religious  office,  which  involved 
a  regard  to  the  future  as  well  as  the  present.  The  lively  faith 
in  the  Eesurrection  (215)  rendered  it  a  consideration  of  impor 
tance  to  be  buried  among  the  honoured  members  of  the  society 
(183),  and  as  the  day  of  dissolution  was  regarded  as  the  natalis 
(190,  201),  so  the  object  in  the  choice  of  a  burial-place  was 
ubi  resurgere  (Ixxix,  183).  The  body  of  the  deceased  was  laid 
out  in  the  cell  (216),  wrapped  in  linen  clothes  (ib),  where  it 
remained  during  the  exequice  (ib),  which  lasted  for  three  days 
and  nights  (ib.),  in  the  course  of  which  the  praises  of  God  were 
sung  (ib)  The  body  was  then  borne  to  the  grave  in  solemn 
procession,  and  buried  with  due  reverence  (ib.) 

The  stated  employment  of  the  community,  besides  their 
religious  services,  were  Eeading,  Writing,  and  Labour,  accord 
ing  to  the  example  of  the  founder,  who  allowed  no  time  to 
pass  quo  non  aut  orationi,  aut  lectioni,  vel  scriptioni,  vel  etiam 
alicui  operationi  incumberet  (108). 

The  primary  subject  of  study  was  lectio  sacrce  Scriptures  (152), 
as  well  with  the  abbot  (184),  as  the  junior  members  of  the 


CXVl  INTRODUCTION. 

society  (169,  208);  and,  in  particular,  the  committing  to 
memory  the  Book  of  Psalms.  Besides  the  Holy  Scriptures, 
there  was  the  study  scripturarum  tarn  liberalium  quam  ecclesias- 
ticarum,  the  former  including  the  Latin  and  Greek  languages, 
the  latter  ecclesiastical  writings.  Adamnan's  two  remaining 
Latin  works  give  proof  of  his  classical  attainments,  and  Cum- 
mian's  Paschal  Epistle  is  a  remarkable  specimen  of  the 
ecclesiastical  learning  of  the  day.  To  the  English  students  who 
frequented  Ireland  in  the  seventh  century,  the  natives  supplied 
libros  ad  legendum,  and  Hy  was  not  likely  to  fall  short  in  its 
literary  provision.  Eor  collective  reading,  they  were  probably 
furnished  with  the  lives  of  saints — Adamnan  quotes  Sulpicius 
Severus's  Life  of  St.  Martin  (3),  and  Constantino's  Life  of  St. 
Germanus  (149) — which  were  collected  in  a  mixtum  ;  and  it  is 
very  likely  that  for  this  kind  of  reading  the  Life  of  the  founder, 
as  written  by  Adamnan,  was  reduced  to  the  form  in  which  it  is 
found  in  the  shorter  recension,  where  the  titles  of  the  chapters 
and  most  proper  names  are  omitted  as  calculated  to  interrupt 
or  encumber  the  tenor  of  the  narrative.  St.  Benedict  prescribed 
the  reading,  after  supper,  of  collationes  vel  vitas  Patrum,  aut 
certe  aliquid  quod  cedificet  audientes  (cap.  42). 

Writing  formed  a  most  important  part  of  the  monastic 
occupations;  the  founder  was  much  devoted  to  it  (172,  203, 
213),  and  many  of  his  books  were  preserved  (158,  188).  His 
successor  also  practised  it  (128,  213).  Besides  the  supply  of 
service  books  for  the  numerous  churches  that  sprung  into 
existence,  and  which,  probably,  were  written  without  embel 
lishment,  great  labour  was  bestowed  upon  the  ornamentation 
of  some  manuscripts,  especially  the  sacred  writings ;  and  the 
Books  of  Kells  and  Durrow  are  wonderful  monuments  of  the 
conception,  the  skill,  and  the  patience  of  the  Columbian 
scribes  in  the  seventh  century.  Giraldus  Cambrensis's  glow 
ing  description  of  the  Gospels  of  Kildare1  is  hardly  strong 
enough  to  express  the  excellencies  of  the  Book  of  Kells.  Of 

1  Top.  Hib.,  Dist.  ii.  c.  38. 


INTRODUCTION.  CXvii 

their  ordinary  Latin  hand  in  the  eighth  century,  Cod.  A.  of 
Adamnan  is  a  fine  specimen.  This  manuscript  contains  also  some 
examples  of  the  Greek  hand,  which  was  then  in  vogue  among  the 
Irish.  It  was  a  common  practice  with  them  to  write  Latin 
matter  in  Greek  letters  (144,  191),  as  is  remarkably  illustrated 
in  the  Book  of  Armagh.  The  style  of  the  letter  is  peculiar  to 
the  Irish  school,  and  the  family  likeness  can  be  traced  in 
manuscripts  which  are  now  found  in  situations  very  remote 
from  one  another.  It  is  very  probable  that  a  chronicle  of 
events,  especially  obits,  was  kept  in  the  monastery  (135),  and 
that  from  it  the  Irish  Annals  derived  a  few  particulars  which 
they  have  recorded  concerning  Hy. 

The  stated  Labour  was  agriculture,  in  its  various  branches, 
as  aratio  (153,  188),  seminatio  (188),  messio  (136),  trituratio 
(130),  portatio  (137):  there  were,  moreover,  the  diver sa  monasteri 
opera  (201),  such  as  mulsio  (162),  opus  pistorium  (201),  fabri- 
catio  (131,  153,  204),  legatio  (123),  on  sea  (125,  153,  155)  and 
land  (123,  132,  183).  Besides,  we  may  presume  that  there  was 
the  preparing  of  food,  and  the  manufacture  of  the  various 
articles  required  for  personal  or  domestic  use. 

The  individual  wants  of  the  members  were  the  subject  of 
discipline  as  well  as  their  conduct,  and  the  three  great  require 
ments  of  the  body,  Refectio,  Habitus,  and  Requies,  were  supplied 
according  to  conventual  measure,  prescribed  and  practised  by 
the  founder,  and  afterwards  established  by  usage. 

The  ordinary  refection  (127)  was  very  simple,  consisting  of 
bread  (154,  155),  sometimes  made  of  barley  (153);  milk  (162, 
179,  212);  fish  (164,  215);  eggs  (Bede  iii.  2);  and,  probably, 
seal's  flesh  (139).  On  Sundays  and  Festivals  (202),  and  on  the 
arrival  of  guests  (127),  there  was  an  improvement  of  diet,  con- 
solatio  cibi  (127,  131),  refectionis  indulgentia  (127),  which  con 
sisted  in  an  addition  to  the  principal  meal,  prandioli  adjectio 
\  (201) ;  on  which  occasions  it  is  probable  that  flesh-meat  was  served 
up,  as  mutton  (140),  or  even  beef  (1 72).  The  number  of  meals 
in  the  day,  and  their  hours,  can  only  be  conjectured.  Colum- 
banus's  Eule,  which  is  little  more  than  a  record  of  the  Bangor 


CXV111  INTRODUCTION. 

observance,  seems  to  recognise  but  the  evening  meal;  and 
Ratramm  of  Corby1  states  that  it  was  the  general  practice  of 
the  Scotic  monasteries  to  delay  refection  till  nona,  or  evening, 
except  on  Sundays  and  Holydays.  St.  Cainnech's  prandium 
(161)  was  not  taken  till  post  nonam  (161) ;  but  this  may  have 
been  at  a  special  season,  such  as  Lent,  or  a  fast-day.  At  this 
chief  meal  the  xenia  (147),  or  contributions  of  the  faithful 
(147),  were  partaken  of  (160).  It  is -likely,  however,  that  St. 
Columba's  discipline  was  milder  than  that  of  St.  Comgall,  and 
that  it  resembled  St.  Benedict's,  which  allowed  dinner  at 
twelve,  and  supper  at  evening,  every  day  between  Easter  and 
Pentecost ;  and  after  Pentecost,  on  every  day  except  Wednes 
days  and  Fridays,  when  the  first  meal  was  taken  at  nona; 
from  the  middle  of  September  till  the  beginning  of  Lent,  the 
first  meal  continually  after  nona  ;  and,  during  Lent  only,  the 
first  meal  was  delayed  till  the  last  light  of  day  (cap.  41). 

The  ordinary  Garments  were  two:  the  cuculla  (168),  of 
coarse  texture,  made  of  wool,  and  of  the  natural  colour  of  the 
material ;  and  the  tunica  (1 70),  an  under-garment,  which  was 
occasionally  white  (188).  Instead  of  the  former,  when  the 
weather  required,  was  worn  a  warmer  garment  called  amphi- 
lahis  (117,  157).  The  cuculla,  sometimes  called  casula  and 
capa,  consisted  of  the  body  and  the  hood,  the  latter  of  which 
was  sometimes  specially  termed  the  casula.  When  working  or 
travelling,  they  wore  calcei  (160,  201),  which  were  ficones* 
or  sandals,  and  which  it  was  customary  to  remove  before  sitting 
down  to  meat  (1 60).  The  femoralia  and  pedules  of  the  Benedic 
tine  Rule  (cap.  55)  do  not  appear  to  have  been  used  by  the  Irish. 

In  severe  weather,  or  after  hard  labour,  the  Superior  allowed 
the  labourers  otiari  (131).  The  monks  slept  on  lectuli  (1 72, 1 99), 
which  were  distributed  through  the  several  cells.  Each  bed 
was  provided  with  a  pallet,  sir  amen  (213),  probably  of  straw,  and 
a  pulvillus  (1 1 2,  2 1 3).  What  the  coverlets  were  is  not  recorded, 
but  few  probably  were  required,  as  the  monks  slept  in  their 
ordinary  clothes. 

1  Ussher,  Brit.  Eccl.  Ant,,  c.  16.  -  See  Note  on  B.  ir.  cap.  12. 


INTRODUCTION.  Cxix 

3.  ECONOMY. 

The  Monastery  proper  was  the  space  enclosed  by  the  Vallum, 
and  embraced  the  Ecclesia^Refectorium,  Coquina,  and  Hospitia, 
lining  the  Platea  ;  the  Armarium,  and  probably  the  Officina 
fdbri  ;  together  with  the  furniture  and  utensils  belonging  to  the 
several  departments  of  the  institution.  Its  extent  was  not  great 
(213),  and  it  seems  to  have  been  incapable  of  receiving  many 
strangers  (167, 1 80) ;  yet  a  visitor  might  be  in  the  monastery  for 
several  days  without  having  been  seen  by  the  abbot  (105,  180). 

The  most  important  building  was  the  sacra  domus  (207), 
indifferently  called  ecclesia  Qtodoratorium  (184,187).  It  was 
provided  with  an  altarium  (142,  181,  187),  remote  from  the 
door  (214);  and  on  it  the  customary  vessels,  namely,  the 
discus  and  calix.  On  extraordinary  occasions  reliquaries  were 
placed  upon  the  altar  (189).  Attached  to  the  building  on  one 
side,  and  communicating  with  it  by  a  door,  was  a  oubiculwn 
(207),  or  separatum  conclave,  called  exedra  or  exedriola  (207), 
which  probably  served  as  a  sacristy  (188,  189),  and  opened 
externally  as  well  as  internally.  Here  may  have  been  kept 
the  clocca  (120,  214),  by  which  the  congregation  were  summoned 
to  the  sacred  offices. 

The  Eefectory  of  Aghabo,  with  its  meiisula  (160),  is  men 
tioned  by  Adamnan ;  and,  no  doubt,  there  was  a  similar  pro 
vision  in  Hy.  The  preface  to  the  Altus  expressly  names  it  by 
the  term  proinntig  (xcvii),  an  Irish  compound,  signifying  and 
derived  from  prandii  tectum.  Here  were  probably  kept  the 
collus  (125),  hauritorium  (ib.),  biberce  (174),  and  such  f err  amenta, 
as  pugiones  (172),  and  cultelli  (Eeg.  Ben.  55). 

Adjoining  the  refectory  we  might  expect  to  find  the  Kitchen, 
called  in  Irish  coitchenn,  or  cuicin.  Here  were  the  utensils  for 
cooking,  such  as  the  craticula  (127),  sartago,  cacabus,  and  hydria 
(129),  the  ddbJiach,  or  water-pot,  of  the  Irish.  In  very  cold 
weather  the  focus  (129)  seems  to  have  been  resorted  to  for  heat 
during  the  hours  of  study. 

Tli ere  was  most  likely  a  Chamber  for  the  preservation  of  the 


CXX  INTRODUCTION. 

books,  and  other  literary  apparatus,  as  the  tabula  (135),  or 
waxed  tablets ;  the  graphia1  or  styles ;  the  calami  (172),  or  pens : 
the  cornicula  atramenti  (129),  or  ink-horns.  The  books,  at  least 
those  which  were  intended  for  carriage,  were  suspended  in 
pelliceis  sacculis  (157)  from  the  walls.2  Among  these  were  the 
sacra  volumina  (206,  212)  of  utraque  canon,  or  Old  and  New 
Testaments,  possibly  in  the  form  of  a  UUiofheca  or  Bible; 
ecclesiastical  writings ;  and  profane  authors. 

Within  the  enclosure  was  a  plateola  (198),  or  faitJiche, 
surrounding  or  beside  which  were  the  Lodgings,  hospitia,  of 
the  community.  They  appear  to  have  been  detached  huts, 
originally  formed  of  wattles  (153),  or  of  wood  (189).  External 
authorities  call  them  botha,  cello?,  cellulce.  Adamnan  makes 
frequent  mention  of  the  abbot's  domus  (206,  208),  or  hospitium 
(216),  or  hospitiolum  (208,  213),  which  he  styles  a  tugurium 
(2 13),  or  tuguriolum  (129,  135,  162,  203),  at  some  distance  from 
the  others  (208),  built  with  joists  (129),  and  situate  on  an 
eminence  (209).  Here  the  founder  sat  and  wrote  (162,  172, 
203),  or  read  (183),  having  one  attendant  (129,  142,  172),  who 
occasionally  read  to  him  (135);  or  by  two,  who  stood  at  the 
door,  awaiting  his  orders  (203,  209).  Here  was  his  lectulus 
(213).  The  door  was  provided  with  a  lock  and  key  (206,  208). 
When  a  stranger  arrived,  a  hospitium  (118,  180)  was  prepared 
for  him.  When  a  member  died,  he  was  laid  out,  and  waked  in 
his  lodging  (216). 

There  was  a  Smithy,  probably  inside  the  enclosure ;  and  in 
an  institution  where  timber  was  so  generally  used,  there  must 
have  been  a  carpenter's  workshop.  We  may  conclude  that  there 
was  such  an  appointment  near  the  beach  also,  for  large  beams 
of  timber,  in  their  rough  state,  were  sometimes  floated  from  the 
shores  of  the  mainland  to  the  island,  and  fashioned  there  into 
boats  (189). 

All  these  buildings  were  embraced  by  a  rampart  and  fosse, 
called  the  vallum  (172),  which,  in  other  Irish  monasteries,  was 

1  See  Note  on  B.  in.  c.  9.  2  See  Note  on  B.  IT.  c.  8. 


INTRODUCTION.  CXXl 

of  a  circular  figure,  and  was  intended  more  for  the  restraint 
than  the  security  of  the  inmates.  It  is  doubtful  whether  the 
cemetery  was  within  the  vallum;  probably  it  was,  and,  if  so, 
the  position  of  the  Eeilig  Odhrain  would  help  to  determine  the 
site  of  the  monastery,  and  to  assign  it  to  the  space  now  partially 
occupied  by  the  Cathedral  and  its  several  appendages. 

Outside  the  vallum  were  the  various  offices  and  appointments 
subsidiary  to  the  monastery ;  as  the  Bocetum,  with  its  cows ; 
the  Horreum,  with  its  grain ;  the  Canaba,  with  its  appurtenances ; 
the  Molendinum,  with  its  pond  and  mill-stream ;  the  Proedium, 
with  its  horse  and  cart ;  and  the  Portus,  with  its  craft  of  various 
sizes.  These  appendages  occupied  different  situations,  accord 
ing  to  local  convenience. 

The  pasture-ground,  with  its  bocetum  or  byre  (212),  called  by 
the  Irish  luailidli  or  looley,  was  situate  on  the  eastern  side  of  the 
island,  at  some  distance  from  the  monastery ;  and  for  this  reason 
the  lactaria  vascula  (162,  212)  were  usually  conveyed  on  a  horse's 
back  (212).  The  milk-pail  had  an  operculum  (162),  which  was 
secured  by  a  gergenna  (ib.),  passing  through  Una  foramina  in 
the  sides  (ib.)  The  Barn,  called  sdbJiall  in  the  Irish  Life,  was  an 
out-office  of  considerable  importance  (211).  Here  the  grain, 
when  sequestratus  (211)  or  winnowed,  was  stored  in  heaps  (ib.) 
We  may  presume  that  it  was  situate  near  the  kiln  and  the  mill. 

The  Kiln  was  employed  both  for  the  trituratio  frugum  (130), 
and  ad  spicas  siccandas  (88  n.}  Orig.  Ed.)  The  latter  process 
was  conducted  in  a  large  sieve,  rota  de  virgis  contexta  (ib.) 
This  building  stood  near  the  path  which  led  from  the  monastery 
to  the  landing-place  (143). 

Adainnan  does  not  mention  the  Mill,  but  he  speaks  of  the 
baker,  and  of  bread.  A  stream,  which  flows  eastwards,  a  little 
to  the  north  of  the  monastery,  is  still  called  Sruth-a-mkuilinn, 
or  "  Mill-stream."  It  rises  in  a  bog  called  the  Loclian  mor,  or 
"  Great  Lakelet,  which  may  have  served  as  a  linn  in  rnuilind, 
or  mill-pond."  The  stream  is  small  now,  because  the  Lochan 
is  nearly  drained ;  but  there  are  no  traces  of  a  weir,  and  the 

h 


CXX11  INTRODUCTION. 

wheel  of  the  mill  was  possibly  a  horizontal  one.  In  the  founder's 
time,  the  bro,  or  "  quern,"  may  have  been  the  mill  in  use,  for 
such  was  the  grinding  apparatus  at  the  school  where  he  was 
taught. 

The  land  on  the  east  side  of  the  island  seems  to  have  been 
used  as  pasture,  while  the  tillage  was  conducted  in  the  more 
productive  plain  on  the  west  (1 3 6, 204).  To  the  latter,  in  harvest- 
time  (136),  the  messores  operarii  repaired  in  the  morning,  and 
returned  in  the  evening,  carrying,  from  the  messis  (136)  to  the 
monastery,  loads  of  corn  on  their  backs  (137).  The  caballus  or 
equus  ministrator  (212),  called  gerran  in  the  Irish  Life,  grazed 
near  the  monastery  (212).  ThQplaustrum  (171,  210)  had  rotce 
or  orbitce  (188),  secured  to  the  axion  by  dbices  (187),  or  rosetce 
(172^.,  Orig.  Ed.) 

The  geographical  situation  of  Hy,  fluctivago  suspensa  solo,  de 
manded  a  constant  supply  of  nautical  appointments,  and  an 
acquaintance  with  navigation.  The  names  of  the  little  bays  on 
the  east  coast  are  indicative  of  frequent  resort  to  the  island : 
Port-na-Mairtear,  "  Martyr's  Bay ;"  Port-Bonain,  "  Konan's 
Bay;"  Port-an-Diseart,  "Hermitage  Bay;"  Port -na-Fr any, 
"  Frenchman's  Bay ;"  Port-na-muinntir,  "  People's  Bay,"  tell 
their  own  history.  The  chief  landing-places,  portus  insulce  (128, 
132, 143, 162, 190),  were  Port-Eonain  and  Port-na-Mairtear,  on 
the  east  (132),  and  Port-a-Churaich,  on  the  south  (note  on  n. 
46).  The  supply  of  craft,  naves  (160,  179,  182,  190),  navigia 
(119,  176),  seems  to  have  been  large  and  varied,  for  it  some 
times  afforded  a  navalis  emigratio  (189).  There  were  onerarice 
naves  (153),  or  longce  naves  (189),  or  rates  (182),  some  of  which 
were  of  wood  (189),  some  of  wicker-work  covered  with  hides 
(186),  caUed  curucce  (189,  275  Orig.  Ed.),  or  scaphce  (189); 
and  capacious,  furnished  with  masts,  antennw,  rudentes  (182, 
190),  vela  (126,  190),andpztefo?(189);  having  carmen,  latera, 
puppes,  prorce  (186),  and  capable  of  being  served  both  by 
wind  and  oar,  and  formed  to  hold  a  crew  (160).  There  were 
small  portable  boats,  naviculce,  navicellce,  for  crossing  rivers 


INTRODUCTION.  CXxiii 

(134,  171),  or  for  inland  lochs  (111),  or  cruising  (112),  or  for 
the  transfretatio,  or  ferrying,  of  the  Sound  of  Hy  (139,  216), 
sometimes  called  caupalli,  cobles  (1 70),  or  cymbce,  or  cymbulce 
(176).  Barcce  occasionally  arrived  from  distant  countries  (131), 
commanded  by  naucleri  (ib.)  All  the  vessels  of  the  society 
were  provided  with  navalia  instrumenta,  among  which  were 
utres  lactarii  (179).  They  were  manned  by  nautce  (118,  160, 
176),  nautici  (182),  navigatores  (122,125),  oiremiges  (126),  some 
of  whom  were  monks  (182),  some  apparently  not  (125). 

The  Officers  and  Servants  of  the  community  were  at  first  but 
few :  however,  as  the  system  became  developed,  duties  became 
defined,  and  agents  in  the  various  departments  multiplied. 
Those  which  are  recorded  were,  the  Abbot,  Prior,  Bishop,  Scribe, 
Anchorite,  Butler,  Baker,  Cook,  Smith,  Attendant,  Messengers  ; 
to  whom  was  added,  in  after  times,  the  President  of  the  Culdees. 

The  abbot  was  supreme,  and  the  founder's  successor  was 
styled  comharla  Coluim-cille,  or  Hceres  Columlce-cille  (Ult.  853). 
When  Hy  lost  its  supremacy,  and  the  principal  Columbian 
station  was  in  Ireland,  the  chief  of  the  order  was  said  to  be 
comharba  Cholaim  cille  ittir  Erinn  acus  Albain,  "  Successor  of 
Columcille  both  in  Ireland  and  Scotland"  (Ult.  979,  1062),  and 
the  election  lay  with  "  the  men  of  Erin  and  Alba"  (Ult.  988, 
1164,  1203).  When  infirmity  of  the  abbot,  or  other  exigency, 
demanded,  a  coadjutor-successor  was  elected,  called  the  tanaisi 
abbaidh  (F.  M.  935),  who  was  said  thereupon  tenere  principatum 
(Ult.  706,  721),  or  cathedram  Ice  (ib.  712),  or  cathedram  Co- 
lumbce  suscipere  (ib.  715).  When  a  vacancy  occurred,  the  new 
abbot  in  primatiam  successit  (Tig.  724),  and  the  term  of  his 
office  was  his  principatus  (Ult.  800).  When  local  Superior  of 
Hy,  but  not  Coarb  of  Columcille,  he  is,  in  one  instance,  styled 
aircinnech  or  Erenach  of  la,  in  the  early  Annals  (Ult.  977),  for 
which  the  later  compilations  substitute  Abbot  of  la-choluimcille 
(F.  Mast.  976).  In  one  instance  we  find  the  expression  Coarb 
of  la  (Ult.  1025). 

As  in  the  associate  monasteries  there  were  p>*cepositi  (132, 


CXxiv  INTRODUCTION. 

135,  163),  who  were  subject  to  the  abbot-in-chief,  or  archiman 
drite,  so  in  Hy  there  appears  to  have  been  an  officer  who  assisted 
the  abbot  (136),  when  he  was  at  home,  and  took  his  place  in  the 
administration  when  he  was  absent.  He  was  sometimes  called 
Custos  monasterii,  sometimes  (Economus,  and  his  Irish  name  was 
FertigJiis.  The  obit  of  one  ceconomus  of  Hy  is  recorded  in  782, 
whom  the  Four  Masters  style  yyrioir  (A.C.  777). 

A  member  of  the  society  is  occasionally  recorded  under  the  title 
of  Bishop  (Ult.  711).  Sometimes  the  function  was  associated 
with  that  of  Scribe  (F.  M.  961,  978) ;  sometimes  with  the  condi 
tion  of  Anchorite  (ib.  964);  and,  in  one  instance,  with  the  office 
of  Abbot  (ib.  978).  At  a  much  later  period  we  meet  with  the 
office  of  Sagart  mor,  "  Great  Priest"  (Ult.  1164),  which  might, 
from  the  generic  application  of  sacerdos,  be  supposed  to  express 
the  idea  of  Bishop ;  but  it  rather  seems  to  denote  the  priest 
whose  sanctity  or  other  qualifications  gave  him  precedence 
among  the  presbyters  of  the  society. 

Expertness  in  writing  was  considered  an  accomplishment  in 
the  founder  (108,  213),  and  an  important  qualification  in  his 
successor  (128,  213).  Dorbene,  the  abbot-elect  in  713,  was  the 
writer  of  Cod.  A.,  and  probably  had  been  scribe  of  the  monas 
tery.  So  honourable  was  the  employment,  that  the  title  is 
frequently  added  to  enhance  the  celebrity  of  an  abbot  or  bishop. 
In  961,  the  bishop  of  the  Isles  of  Alba  was  a  scribhnidh,  "  scribe" 
(F.  Mast.) ;  the  abbot  of  Hy,  in  797,  was  a  scribhneoir  toghaidhe, 
"  choice  scribe"  (F.  Mast.) ;  and,  in  978,  a  scribe  and  bishop  (ib.) 
Generally,  however,  the  office  was  a  distinct  one ;  and  when,  in 
after  times,  instruction  in  literature  was  added  to  the  practice 
and  teaching  of  penmanship,  the  more  honourable  name  of 
ferleighinn  (vir  lectionis),  or  prselector,  was  adopted  (Ult.  1164). 

Those  who  desired  to  follow  a  more  ascetic  life  than  that 
which  the  society  afforded  to  its  ordinary  members,  withdrew 
to  a  solitary  place  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  monastery, 
where  they  enjoyed  undisturbed  meditation  without  breaking 
the  fraternal  bond.  Such,  in  634,  was  Beccan  the  solitarius; 


INTRODUCTION.  CXXV 

and  such,  in  Adaninan's  time,  was  Finan  the  recluse  of  Burrow 
(146),  and  Fergna  of  Muirbulcmar  in  Himba  (215).  At  Hy  an 
anchorite  held  the  abbacy  in  747  (F.  Mast.) ;  an  anchorite  was 
abbot-elect  in  935  (F.  M.) ;  and  another,  bishop  in  964  (F.  M.). 
The  abode  of  such  was  called  a  disert,  from  the  Latin  desertum ; 
and  as  the  heremitical  life  was  held  in  such  honour  among  the 
Scotic  churches,  we  frequently  find  the  word  Desert  an  element 
in  religious  nomenclature.  There  was  a  Disert  beside  the 
monastery  of  Deny  (Ult.  1122)  ;  and  that  belonging  to  Hy  was 
situate  near  the  shore  in  the  low  ground  north  of  the  Cathedral, 
as  may  be  inferred  from  Port-an-Diseart,  the  name  of  a  little 
bay  in  this  situation.  The  individual  who  presided  here  was 
styled  the  Disertach,  or  cenn  an  Disirt,  "  Superior  of  the  Hermit 
age;"  and  the  name  of  one  such  officer  at  Hy  is  on  record 
(Ult.  1164).  In  1101  the  Four  Masters  record  the  endowment 
of  a  similar  institution  at  Cashel  for  craibhdech  or  devotees.  We 
learn  from  the  charters  of  the  Columbian  house  of  Kells,  that  a 
Disert  existed  there,  which,  about  1084,  was  endowed  with  two 
townlands  and  their  mills  at  Leyney,  in  the  county  of  Sligo.  It 
was  founded  expressly  for  err  aid  dewaid, "  wandering  pilgrims;" 
and  the  conditions  were  :  Ro  edpairset  didu  na  Tiuli  sin  Disiurt 
Gholuim  chille  hi  Cenunnus  cona  lulgortan  do  Dia  ocus  do  Deo- 
radaib  craibdechaib  do  gres  cen  sheilb  ndilis  do  nack  erraid  ann 
trea  biuthu  co  ro  chinne  a  bethaid  do  Dia  ocus  corop  craidbech, 
"  These  have  all  granted  for  ever  Disert-Columcille  in  Kells, 
with  its  vegetable  garden,  to  God  and  devout  pilgrims,  no 
wanderer  having  any  lawful  possession  in  it  at  any  time  until 
he  surrender  his  life  to  God,  and  is  devout."  ^Engus  O'Don- 
nellan,  who  brought  the  Cuilebadh  and  other  reliquaries  of 
Columkille  from  the  north  in  1090,  was  the  Coarb  of  Disert- 
Columbkille.  It  was  probably  to  enter  on  such  a  manner 
of  life  that  Muiredhach  Ua  Cricain,  in  1007,  resigned  the  suc- 
cessorship  of  Columcille  ar  Dia,  "  for  God,"  i.e.  uninterrupted 
devotion. 

The   Butler,  pincerna   (125),  or   cellerarius,  had   charge   of 


CXXV1  INTRODUCTION. 

the  refectory  and  its  appointments.  In  primitive  times  his 
office  sometimes  coincided  with  that  of  the  ceconomus.  The 
cellarius  of  the  Benedictine  Eule  was  a  functionary  of  great 
importance,  on  account  of  the  extensive  trust  reposed  in  him : 
"  omnia  vasa  monasterii,  cunctamque  substantiam,  ac  si  altaris 
vasa  sacrata  conspiciat"  (cap.  31). 

The  Baker,  pistor  (201),  was  a  member  whose  services  were 
likely  to  be  constantly  required  in  a  society  whose  food  was 
chiefly  cereal.  The  only  one  who  is  spoken  of  by  Adamnan,  as 
"  opus  pistorium  exercens,"  was  a  Saxon. 

The  Cook  is  not  mentioned  in  the  Latin  memoirs,  but  the 
Irish  Life  tells  of  St.  Columcille's  coic,  and  it  is  not  likely  that 
an  officer  found  in  other  Irish  monasteries,  and  who,  in  some 
instances,  has  found  his  way  into  the  Calendar,  would  be  want 
ing  in  this.  In  the  Benedictine  Eule,  the  members  who  pre 
pared  the  food  did  duty  for  a  week  at  a  time,  and  were  styled 
septimanarii  coquince  (cap.  35). 

Adamnan  tells  of  a  pugio  (172),  and  a  machera  (181),  which 
were  probably  of  home  manufacture.  The  process  of  fusing  a 
piece  of  iron  through  the  ferramenta  (172)  of  the  establishment, 
certainly  indicates  the  existence  of  workers  in  metal.  With  the 
gobha,  or  "  smith,"  was  probably  associated  the  cerd,  or  "  brazier." 

The  abbot  had  a  private  attendant  called  the  minister  (211, 
212),  and  ministrator  (120),  who  waited  on  him;  ministravit 
(130),  was  a  frequent  companion,  and  an  object  of  tender  soli 
citude  (172). 

Certain  brethren,  active  and  expert  seamen,  were  employed 
as  legati  (132, 156)  on  particular  occasions.  These  seem  to  have 
been  specially  charged  with  the  care  of  the  boats  and  marine 
appointments. 

Late  in  the  history  of  the  Columbian  order  comes  under 
notice  the  society  called  Culdees.  They  had  no  particular  con 
nexion  with  this  order  any  more  than  had  the  DeoradJis  or  the 
other  developments  of  conventual  observance.  The  system 
however,  whatever  its  peculiarities  may  have  been,  was  ad- 


INTRODUCTION.  CXXVii 

mitted  in  Hy,  and  the  name  of  one  Gen  Cele-nDe,  "  Superior  of 
Culdees,"  like  the  Prior  Colideorum  of  Armagh,  is  recorded  in 
the  Annals  of  the  order  (Ult.  1164). 

The  original  grant  of  Hy,  whether  Scottish  or  Pictish,  or 
both,  was  soon  extended  to  the  adjacent  islands,  as  insulce 
Ethica,  Elena,  Hiriba,  and  the  founder  speaks  of  the  marini 
nostri  juris  mtuli  (139);  and  his  successor  forbids  a  stay  in  nostris 
insulis  (116).  In  spirituals  the  parent  institution  not  only  en 
joyed  a  principatus  among  all  the  monasteries  of  the  order,  both 
among  the  Scots  and  Picts,  but  served  as  a  caput  et  arx  (Bede, 
iii.  3,  21),  exercising  an  extensive  control  over  the  people  at 
large.  In  successive  ages  this  authority  was  gradually  cir 
cumscribed.  Much  of  it  was  lost  when  Naiton,  king  of  the 
Picts,  expelled  the  Columbian  clergy  from  his  dominions ;  and 
the  forfeiture  was  completed  among  the  Picts  when  diocesan 
jurisdiction  became  defined  and  established.  Even  among  the 
Scots,  the  prestige  of  Hy  declined  in  proportion  as  rival  in 
fluences  grew;  remote  endowments  were  cut  off;  and  the 
surviving  rights  in  temporals  and  spirituals  were  narrowed 
to  the  adjacent  lands  of  Mull,  or  a  few  of  the  Western 
Islands.  Finally,  when  the  Bishops  of  the  Isles  made  Hy  their 
episcopal  seat,  the  monastic  character  of  the  institution  merged 
in  diocesan  authority.  The  privileges  of  Armanach  and  Frag- 
ramanach,  so  called  from  AT  manach  (Aratio  monachorum),  and 
Freagra  manach  (Responsio  monachorum),  which  existed  at  Hy 
in  the  fourteenth  century,  were  probably  the  vestiges  of  ancient 
rights  of  the  monastery  to  duty-work  from  the  tenants  of  its 
lands,  or  the  neighbours  of  its  churches,  which  titularly  had 
passed  to  the  Lords  of  the  Isles,  in  consideration  of  a  stated 
endowment  as  a  commutation  for  an  undefined  exaction. 

VIII. 

Adamnan's  practice,  with  regard  to  the  names  of  islands,  is  THE  TOPO- 
to  put  them  in  the  adjective  form  agreeing  with  insula  ;  and 
thus  he  deals  with  Hy  on  the  sixty  occasions  where  he  makes 


CXXV111  INTRODUCTION. 

mention  of  it.  In  all  these  instances  the  unmistakeable  read 
ing  in  Cod.  A.  is  loua  insula ;  and  the  same  prevails  in  Codd. 
C.  F.  S.  The  more  modern  manuscripts,  B.  and  D.,  which  are 
less  precise  in  orthography,  and  very  loose  in  the  distinction  of 
n  and  u,  always  read  lona;  but  the  probability  is,  that  their 
writers  either  mistook  the  name  in  the  original,  or  desired  to 
conform  to  a  prevailing  style. 

That  the  word  as  it  stands  in  Adamnan  is  an  adjective,  was 
suggested  by  Colgan,  although,  from  a  faulty  transcript  of 
Cod.  A.,  he  was  led  into  the  error  of  supposing  lona  to  be  the 
correct  form  of  it.  He  observes  : — 

"  A  Tigernaco  in  Annalibus,  Quatuor  Mag.  et  aliis  passim  do- 
mesticis  nostris  Scriptoribus  communiter  la,  et  aliquando  To,  et 
utrobique  per  unam  syllabam,  seu  dipthongum,  vocatur :  et  a  dic- 
tione  ilia  Io,  derivatum  reor  adjectivum  lona ;  quod  licet  apud  S. 
Cumineum,  S.  Adamnanum  et  alios  priscos  non  legatur  nisi  per 
modum  adjectivi,  cum  apud  eos  non  legatur  dictio  lona  absque 
adjuncta  voce  insula ;  hinc  usu  postea  evenit,  ut  pro  substantivo 
proprioque  illius  nomine  usurpetur.  Nobis  passim  prsefixa  H, 
vocatur  Hia :  et  parum  refert  sive  Hya  ;  sive  lona  vocetur." x 

Tighernach,  the  second  native  authority  in  whom  a  liberal 
use  of  the  name  is  found,  employs  the  form  la  twice ;  on  one 
of  the  occasions  annexing  the  qualifying  Colaim-cille  ;  lae,  the 
genitive,  governed  by  abbas,  five  times;  and  le,  in  the  same 
construction,  four  times ;  lea  (if  O'Conor's  text  can  be  relied  on), 
after  albas,  thirteen  times ;  hie,  once ;  hi,  once  ;  and  Eo,  once. 

The  Annals  of  Ulster  have  the  genitive  lae,  governed  by 
insulam,  or  alias,  thirty-six  times  ;  la,  five  times  ;  hi  Coluim- 
cille,  twice  ;  I  Choluim-cille,  once  ;  /,  once ;  and  Eoa,  agreeing 
with  civitate,  once. 

The  Annals  of  Inisfallen  have  lae,  in  the  genitive,  seven 
times ;  lae  Coluim-cille,  three  times  ;  and  hli,  once. 

The  Annals  of  Boyle  also  have  la. 

All  these  Annals  contain  mixed  texts ;  that  is,  in  which 
Latin  and  Irish  are  interwoven,  and  Irish  names  are  occasionally 
subjected  to  Latin  inflexion. 


1  Colgan,  Tr.  Th.,  p.  495,  b. 


INTRODUCTION.  CXxix 

The  Four  Masters  purport  to  exhibit  a  purely  Irish  text,  but 
sometimes  borrow  the  Latinized  names  from  the  earlier  records. 
Thus,  they  have  lae  after  abb  seventeen  times ;  lae  Coluim-cille 
after  abb,  twelve  times ;  la  after  all,  three  times ;  la  'Coluim- 
cille,  once  ;  hi,  five  times ;  hi  Coluim-cille,  three  times  ;  hlae, 
once ;  and  /  Coluim-cille,  once. 

In  the  Calendars  of  Marian  Gorman,  Tamlacht,  and  Donegal, 
we  find  the  form  la. 

In  many  Irish  narratives,  however,  and  some  of  them  pre 
served  in  very  ancient  manuscripts,  we  meet  with  hi  and  hli ; 
and  these  are  the  prevailing  forms  of  the  name  among  Irish 
writers. 

Again,  in  Latin  compositions,  we  observe  considerable  variety. 
Cummian  addresses  his  Paschal  Epistle,  A.D.  634,  "  ad  Segienum 
Huensem  abbatem,"  probably  regarding  Hu  or  Hua  as  his  sub 
stantive.  Cummine  Ailbe,  circ.  660,  employs  in  his  Life  of  St. 
Columba  loua  insula,  the  expression  adopted  by  Adamnan. 
Ven.  Bede,  on  the  other  hand,  uses  HU,  from  which  he  forms 
the  adjective  Hiiensis.  In  like  manner,  li  and  Hii  are  found 
in  the  Saxon  Chronicle.  Walafridus  Strabo,  circ.  831,  using  a 
form  which,  as  has  been  observed,  occurs  once  in  Tighernach, 
designates  the  island  as  "  Fluctivago  suspensa  salo,  cognominis 
Eo"  Hermannus  Contractus  has  Hu.  The  Chronicle  of  Man, 
which  is  a  much  later  production,  has  Hy  and  lona. 

In  the  biographies  of  various  Irish  saints,  the  dates  of  which 
are  uncertain,  but  probably  range  from  the  tenth  to  the  twelfth 
centuries,  we  find  occasional  mention  of  the  island.  In  the 
Lives  of  SS.  Aidus,  Ciaran,  Fintan,  and  Forannan,  the  usual 
name  is  Hya ;  in  that  of  St.  Columb  of  Tirdaglas,  Hi;  in  St. 
Brendan's  of  Birr,  /;  in  that  of  St.  Cadroe,  Euea  insula ;  while 
the  Lives  of  SS.  Euadhan  and  Geraldus  employ  the  debased 
form  of  lona  and  lonensis  dbbatia.  Colgan,  being  impressed 
with  the  notion,  "  mendose  loua  pro  lona"  has  printed  lona  in 
all  the  shorter  Lives  of  his  collection,  as  also  in  his  abridgment 
of  O'Donnell,  although  the  reading  was  probably  different  in 
the  originals. 


CXXX  INTRODUCTION. 

Of  Scottish  authorities,  the  earliest  is  the  Life  of  St.  Kenti- 
gern,  which  has  insula  Yi.  Monastic  registers  have  Hii-coluim- 
chille  and  Hy.  The  first  record  where  we  find  the  name  lona, 
or  Yona,  is  in  an  old  catalogue  of  Scottish  kings  printed  by  T. 
Innes.  Fordun  supposes  it  to  be  an  adaptation  of  St.  Columba's 
Hebrew's,  name  :  "  Insula  I.  vel  lona  Hebraice,  quod  Latine  co- 
lumba  dicitur,  sive  I  Columkill."1  Elsewhere  he  calls  it  Hy, 
Hii,  I,  I  Columkyl ;  but  lona  is  his  favourite  form. 

In  the  monumental  records  of  the  island,  we  find  Fto  be 
the  prevailing  name.  Thus :  Crux  Lachlanni  Mac  Fingone  et 
ejus  filii  lohannis  Abbatis  de  Hy,  facia  A.D.  1489;  Fingonius 
Prior  de  Y,  A.D.  1492;  Hie  jacent  quatuor  prior es  de  Y,  A.D. 
1500  ;  Prior  de  Y ;  Hie  jacet  loannes  Mac  Fingone  Abbas  de  Y, 
qui  obiit  A.D.  1500;  Soror  Anna  Abbatissa  de  Y.  There  is  but 
one  exception,  and  that  of  a  more  recent  date :  Hie  jacet  Domina 
Anna  Donaldi  Terletifilia,  quondam  Priorissa  de  lona,  quce  obiit, 
anno  1 543.2  The  Breviary  of  Aberdeen,  printed  in  1509-10,  and 
adjusted  a  short  time  before,  adopts  the  book-name  Yona,  or 
lona.  Still,  however,  the  old  forms  Icolmkill,  Ycplmkill,  and 
Ecolmkill,  were  almost  universally  employed  in  legal  docu 
ments  ;  while  in  vernacular  use  Ee-choluim-chille  has,  from  time 
immemorial,  been  the  only  recognised  name  of  the  island  among 
the  Gaelic  population. 

A  parish  in  Lewis,  in  the  modern  union  of  Stornoway,  is 
called  Ey  or  Y. 

The  conclusion,  therefore,  to  be  come  to  regarding  lona  is, 
that  it  is  a  word  which  was  suggested  by  an  error  in  writing, 
and  was  confirmed  by  a  supposed  connexion  with  one  of  St. 
Columba's  names ;  while  the  genuine  form  loua  is  to  be  regarded 
as  an  adjective  with  a  feminine  termination,  the  root  of  which 
is  lou,  like  Eo  of  Tighernach  and  Walafridus,  which  was  sounded 
in  one  syllable  something  like  the  English  yeo.  Thus  Conall 
Macgeoghegan,  in  his  old  English  version  of  the  Annals  of 
Clonmacnoise,  writes  the  name  Hugh  (569,  590,  etc.) 

1  Fordun,  B.  u.  c.  10.  2  Graham's  lona,  pp.  8,  13,  17,  20,  25. 


INTRODUCTION.  CXXX1 

The  island  of  Hy,  vulgarly  called  lona,  lies  off  the  Boss  of 
Mull  on  the  south-west,  being  separated  from  it  by  a  channel 
about  an  English  mile  broad,  called  by  Adamnan  fretum  louce 
insulce  (129,  conf.  118,  133,  141),  in  after  times  named  the  Bay 
of  Finfort,  and  now  commonly  known  as  the  Sound  of  lona. 
The  island  lies  N.E.  and  s.w.,  is  about  three  miles  long,  and 
varies  in  breadth  from  a  mile  to  a  mile  and  a  half.  The  earliest 
reference  to  its  extent  is  in  Bede,  who,  according  to  the  vague 
mode  of  calculation  current  in  his  day,  says :  "  Neque  enim 
magna  est,  sed  quasi  familiarum  qiiinque,  juxta  sestimationem 
Anglorum"  (H.  E.  iii.  4) ;  that  is,  v.  hydce,  "  five  hides  of  land," 
as  his  Saxon  interpreter,  and  the  Saxon  Chronicle  (An.  565), 
express  it.  Fordun,  and  others  after  him,  represent  the 
length  as  two  miles.  The  superficial  extent  is  estimated 
at  2000  imperial  acres,  600  of  which  are  under  cultivation, 
and  the  remainder  hill  pasture,  morass,  and  rocks.  The  surface 
is  very  uneven,  and  for  the  most  part  consists  of  small  green 
patches,  alternating  with  rocky  projections,  which  in  the  northern 
half  of  the  island  are  more  high  and  craggy,  being  intersected 
with  deep  ravines,  but  in  the  southern  half,  where  the  general 
level  is  higher,  are  more  continuous,  and  present  to  the  eye  an 
undulating  expanse  of  a  grey,  barren  waste.  The  object  which 
first  marks  the  island  in  the  distance  is  Dunn,  its  highest 
ground,  a  round  hill,  in  the  northern  part,  which  has  an  eleva 
tion  of  330  feet.  There  are  several  other  eminences,  but  none 
of  them  attain  to  200  feet.  The  population,  between  the  years 
1782  and  1842,  increased  from  277  to  500 ;  but  the  consequences 
of  the  potato  blight  have  of  late  greatly  reduced  its  amount. 
The  people  are  chiefly  collected  into  a  little  village  on  the 
eastern  side,  and  any  dwellings  which  are  detached  are  in  the 
arable  portions  of  the  northern  half,  for  the  southern  district  is 
uninhabited.  Previously  to  the  Eeformation  the  island  formed 
a  distinct  parish,  the  church  of  which,  called  Tempull-Konaig, 
stood  within  the  precincts  of  the  nunnery.  Subsequently  it 
was  annexed  to  the  great  union  of  Kilfinichen  and  Kilviceuen, 


CXXX11  INTRODUCTION. 

in  the  adjacent  part  of  Mull,  and  so  continues,  except  in  its 
quoad  sacra  relations. 

The  local  features  of  the  island  alluded  to  by  Adamnan  are 
but  few,  and  incidentally  mentioned ;  they  are  follows  :  Munitio 
Magna  (154);  Mons  gui  monasterio  eminus  super eminet  (131); 
Monticellus  monasterio  supereminens  (213);  Monticellus  qui  occi- 
dentali  super  eminet  campulo  (204);  Colliculus  angelorum  (188, 
205) ;  Cuul-Eilne  (136);  Campulus  occidentalis  (136,  171,  204); 
and  Portus  insulce  (143,  162,  190). 

I.  ANTIQUITIES  OF  THE  ISLAND. 

1.  Churches. 

Archdeacon  Monro  speaks  of  "  a  monastery  of  mounckes,  and 
ane  uther  of  nuns,  with  a  paroche  kirke,  and  sundrie  uther 
chapells."  The  Description,  1693,  tells  of  "many  chapells;" 
and  another  old  authority  says,  "  in  this  island  are  many  other 
small  chapells."  Dr.  Johnson  and  Mr.  Bos  well,  in  1773,  state 
that  St.  Oran's  chapel  and  four  others  were  then  standing,  while 
three  more  were  remembered.  The  compiler  of  the  Orig.  Paroch. 
conjectures  that  the  four  here  spoken  of  may  refer  to  the  four 
small  chapels  within  the  choir  of  the  cathedral  (vol.  ii.  p.  300) ; 
but  it  is  unnecessary  to  have  recourse  to  portions  of  the 
principal  church. 

1.  St.  Oran's  Chapel,  situate  in  the  principal  cemetery,  called 
the  Reilig  Odhrain.     This  is  the  oldest  structure  remaining  in 
the  island,  and  is  referable  to  the  close  of  the  eleventh  century. 
It  is  a  plain  oblong,  measuring  29  feet  8  by  15- 10  in  the  clear. 
Has  no  east  window,  but,  instead,  two  narrow  lights  in  the  side 
walls  near  the  eastern  angles,  that  in  the  north  2  feet  high,  that 
in  the  south  3  feet.    It  is  roofless,  and  the  walls  are  fast  decay 
ing.     The  great  object  of  interest  is  the  Romanesque  circular- 
headed  west  door  decorated  with  what  is  called  the  beak-head 
ornament.     This  building  was  probably  the  "  larger  Columcille 
chapel,"  and  the  result  of  Queen  Margaret's  liberality. 

2.  St.  Mary's  Church,  commonly  called  the  Cathedral,  and  in 


INTRODUCTION.  CXXXiil 

Gaelic,  Eachis  Mor.  It  is  an  edifice  of  the  early  part  of  the 
thirteenth  century,  consisting  of  nave,  transepts,  and  choir,  with 
sacristy  on  north  side  of  choir,  and  side  chapels  on  the  south. 
The  capitals  of  some  of  the  columns  exhibit  bas-reliefs  similar 
to  many  found  in  Ireland.  The  inscription  on  the  capital  of  a 
column  under  the  tower  has  been  already  alluded  to.  In 
Graham's  lona  are  good  views  of  the  East  and  West  Fronts 
(plates  30,  31),  and  drawings  of  the  bas-reliefs  (plates  40-42). 
Adjoining  the  Cathedral,  on  the  north,  are  the  ruins  of  the 
conventual  buildings,  of  which  the  portion  called  the  chapter 
house  is  the  most  ancient  and  remarkable.  Over  it  is  said  to 
have  been  the  library.  See  the  plate  in  Graham's  lona  (No.  38). 
Near  the  west  entrance,  seemingly  beside  the  adjacent  angle  of 
the  cloister,  was  a  small  chamber  called  St.  Columb's  Tomb,  i 

3.  The  Nunnery,  a  venerable  pile,  much  dilapidated,  but  still 
retaining  the  evidence  of  former  elegance.     See  Muir's  lucid 
description  (Eccles.  Notes,  p.  5).     There  is  no  record  of  its 
foundation,  and  the  first  writer  who  mentions  it  is  Fordun 
(B.  n.  c.  10).     The  Macdonald  MS.,  apparently  borrowing  from 
an  earlier  authority,   states  that  Beatrix,   only  daughter  of 
Sommerled  (giri  ob.  1164),  was  prioress  of  Icollumkill  (Collectan. 
p.  287).    This  indicates  the  existence  of  a  nunnery  in  the  island 
circ.  1200. 

4.  Tempul  Bonain,  the  parish  church,  first  mentioned  A.D. 
1561,  in  the  Eental  of  the  Bishopric,  where  is  an  entry  of  "  the 
teindis  of  Ecolmkill  callit  the  personaige  of  Tempill-Eonaige." 
Its  situation  is  shown  by  the  following  references : — "  About 
quarter  of  a  Mile  further  South  [that  is,  of  the  Eeilig  Grain] 
is  the  Church  Eonad,  in  which  several  Prioresses  are  buried  " 
(Martin,  p.  262).     "The  Nunnery  Church  is  quite  entire;  one 
end  of  it  is  arched,  and  is  very  beautiful.     Here  also  stands 
what  was  called  the  parish  church.    It  is  yet  [A,D.  1795]  entire, 
but  tottering"  (Old  Stat.  Ac.,  xiv.  p.  202).     What  is  now  con 
sidered  the  parish  church  is  the  building,  about  the  size  of 
Oran's  chapel,  on  the  N.E.  of  the  Nunnery,  inside  its  enclosure. 


CXXX1V  INTRODUCTION. 

The  patron  saint  was  probably  the  St.  Eonan,  commemorated 
at  St.  Eonan' s  of  Ness,  in  Lewis,  and  from  whom  the  island  of 
Rona,  situate  50  miles  N.  of  the  Butt  of  Lewis,  derives  its  name. 
Port  Eonain  also,  the  principal  landing-place  in  Hy,  is  named 
after  him. 

5.  Cill-Chainnich,  or  Church  of  Cainnech,   a  small  chapel 
which  stood  close  to  the  site  of  the  present  Parish  Church. 
The  foundations  were  removed  some  years  ago,  and  a  few  tomb 
stones  are  all  that  remain  to  mark  the  cemetery.     The  patron 
saint  was  Cainnech,  the  intimate  friend  of  Columba  (118,  160, 
205),  from  whom  also  the  neighbouring  island  of  Inch  Kenzie, 
formerly  a  dependant  of  Hy,  derives  its  name. 

6.  Caibeal  Muire,  or  Mary's  Chapel,  situate  a  short  distance 
to  the  south-east  of  the  cathedral.     It  is  in  ruins,  the  gables 
having  fallen,  but  it  seems  to  have  been  of  about  the  same  size 
as  St.  Oran's  chapel.     The  interior  was  used  for  burial  in  Pen 
nant's  time  (iii.  p.  254),  and  several  tombstones  have  been  found 
in  it,  but  without  any  inscription. 

7.  Nameless  Chapel,  measuring  33  feet  by  16,  situate  near  the 
Chapter-House  of  the  Cathedral  on  the  north-east,  and  marked 
E  in  Graham's  Ground-plan  of  the  Abbey  (lona,  Plate  32). 

8.  Grleann-an-Teampull,  "  Glen  of  the  Church,"  the  name  of 
a  remarkable  valley  commencing  in  the  middle  of  the  island,  at 
the  back  of  Cnocmor,  with  a  level  floor,  and  walled  in  on  either 
side  with  a  well-defined  range  of  hill,  inclining  towards  the 
south-west,  and  opening  out  on  the  northern  part  of  the  Machar. 
The  name  has  long  been  a  subject  of  local  speculation  as  to  its 
origin ;  but  possibly  the  occurrence  recorded  in  the  Irish  Annals, 
at  1203,  may  both  account  for  the  name,  and,  with  it,  for  the 
total  absence  of  all  ecclesiastical  remains  in  the  place.     "  A 
monastery  was  erected  by  Cellach,  without  any  legal  right,  and 
in  despite  of  the  family  of  Hy,  in  tlie  middle  of  Cro-Hy,  and  did 
much  damage  to  the  town.     The  clergy  of  the  north  of  Ireland 
passed  over  into  Hy,  and,  in  accordance  with  the  law  of  the 
Church,  they  pulled  down  the  aforesaid  monastery"  (p.  clxxxiii). 


INTRODUCTION.  CXXXV 

2.  Cemeteries. 

1.  Eeilig  Odhrain,  that  is,  Sepulchretum  Orani,  the  ancient 
burial-place  of  the  monastery.     The  name  is  still  in  common 
use,  but  it  is  very  ancient,  as  it  occurs  in  the  gloss  on  the  Feilire 
of  ^Engus  the  Culdee  (note  on  B.  m.  c.  6).     St.  Odhran's  name 
was  given  to  it,  probably  as  he  was  the  first  interred  therein. 
His  relationship  to  St.  Columba  is  shown  in  the  Table  of  Abbots. 
Fordun,  in  one  of  the  anachronisms  so  frequent  in  Scotch 
hagiology,  states  of  Gouran,  father  of  king  Aidan,  "  cujus  ad 
sepeliendum  corpus  ad  ecclesiam  Sancti  Orani  delatum  est; 
ubi  patris  et  avi  funera  quiescunt  in  Hy  insula"  (iii.  24),  thus 
dating  the  religious  history  of  St.  Oran  and  the  place  from  a 
period  long  anterior  to  St.  Columba's  birth.     The  oldest  tomb 
stones  in  the  cemetery  are  the  two  with  the  Irish  inscriptions, 
Or  ar  anmin  Eogain,  Oratio  super  anima  Eogani.   ^  Or  do 
Mailfataric,  Oratio  pro  Maelpatricio.     Here,  it  is  said,  were 
buried  the  Scotch  kings  down  to  Malcolm  Ceann-more;  here 
Ecgfrid,  the  Northumbrian  king,  was  buried  in  684  (Hist.  Dun. 
EC.)  :  hither  were  removed  the  remains  of  king  Godred  in  1188 
(Chron.  Mann.),  and  of  Haco  Ospac  in  1228  (ib.)     Of  these  kings 
no  monuments  remain,  and  the  chief  part  of  the  interesting  tomb 
stones  that  are  found  there  belong  to  the  Clanns  Finnguine, 
Gilla-Eoin,  and  Guaire,  since  known  as  the  M'Kinnons,  M'Leans, 
and  M'Quarries,  whose  pedigrees,  still  preserved,  attest  their 
noble  extraction  from  the  House  of  Loarn. 

2.  Cathedral  enclosure.     At  the  western  end,   close  to  St. 
Martin's  Cross  on  the  south,  are  two  tombstones,  and  other 
sepulchral  remains. 

3.  Cladh  Eonain,  "  Burial-ground  of  Bonan,"  the  cemetery 
attached  to  the  church  inside  the  Nunnery  precincts. 

4.  Kilchainnich.    Now  disused,  but  the  site  is  marked  by 
some  tombstones. 

5.  Cill-ma-Grho'bhannain,   called   also    Cill-ma-Neachdain,   a 
small,  unenclosed,  triangular  space,  at  the  northern  extremity 
of  the  old  green  bank  to  the  north  of  the  cathedral.     To  this 


CXXXV1  INTRODUCTION. 

Martin  refers,  where  he  says : — "  There  is  an  empty  piece  of 
ground  between  the  Church  and  the  Gardens,  in  which  Mur 
derers  and  Children  that  died  before  Baptism  were  buried" 
(p.  258).  Speaking  of  the  same  green  bank,  Pennant  says  :— 
"  At  the  end  is  a  square  containing  a  cairn,  and  surrounded 
with  a  stone  dyke.  This  is  called  a  burial-place  :  it  must  have 
been  in  very  early  times  cotemporary  with  other  cairns,  perhaps 
in  the  days  of  Druidism.  For  Bishop  Pocock  mentions  that  he 
has  seen  two  stones,  7  feet  high,  with  a  third  laid  across  on 
their  tops,  an  evident  Cromlech"  (iii.  258).  There  is  no  struc 
ture  there  now,  but  there  are  many  stones  spread  over  the 
space. 

6.  Cladh-an-Diseart,  "  Burial-ground  of  the  Desert,"  called 
sometimes  Cladh  Iain,  "  John's  burial-ground."     It  is  situated 
some  distance  to  the  north-east  of  the  Cathedral,  in  the  low 
ground  towards  the  water-edge,  and  near  it  on  the  south  is 
Port-an-Diseart,  "  Port  of  the  Desert."     These  names  seem  to 
determine  the  site  of  the  Desert  treated  of  at  p.  cxxv,  supra. 
Here  Langland's  map  of  the  island  marks  "  Burial  Place,"  near 
which,  on  the  south,  are  some  large  stones,  indicative  of  some 
rude  erection. 

7.  Cladh-nan-Druineach,  "  Burial-ground  of  the  Druids,"  at 
Martyr's  Bay,  near  the  Free  Church.    Anything  relating  to  the 
Druids  has  always  had  great  charms  for  the  island  folk ;  hence 
this  place,  now  an  undistinguishable  part  of  a  potato  plot,  is 
thus  carefully  described : — "  An  oblong  enclosure,  bounded  by  a 
stone  dike,  called  Clack  nan  Druinach,  and  supposed  to  have 
been  the  burial-place  of  the  Druids,  for  bones  of  various  size 
are  found  there.     I  have  no  doubt  that  Druidism  was  the 
original  religion  of  this  place ;  yet  I  suppose  this  to  have  been 
rather  the  common  cemetery  of  the  people  of  the  town,  which 
lies  almost  close  to  the  Bay  of  Martyrs"  (Pennant,  iii.  p.  245). 
In  1795  the  clergyman  of  the  parish  writes: — "  A  green  emi 
nence,  close  to  the  sound  of  I,  is  to  this  day  called  the  Druid's 
burial-place  (Claodh  nan  Druineach).     A  cottager,  some  years 


INTRODUCTION  cxxxvii 

ago,  planting  potatoes  in  this  spot,  and  digging  earth  to  cover 
them,  brought  up  some  bones,  which  the  people  of  the  island 
immediately  concluded  to  be  the  bones  of  the  Druids"  (Old 
Stat.  Acct.  xiv.  p.  199)! 

8.  Cladh-na-Meirghe.     Near  Cnoc-na-Meirghe,  at  the  head 
of  Gleann-an-Teampull,  where  unbaptized  children  used  to  be 
buried. 

9.  Nameless  cemetery.     At  Culbhuirg,  on  the  north-west  side 
of  the  island,  an  old  burying-ground  was  exposed  some  years 
ago,  in  which  layers  of  bones  were  found  mingled  with  char 
coal.     There  was  no  tradition  of  its  existence,  so  that  it  had 
no  name. 

3.  Crosses. 

Their  number  was  great,  indeed,  if  the  anonymous  writer  of 
1693  be  deserving  of  credit : — "  In  this  ile  was  a  great  many 
crosses,  to  the  number  of  360,  which  vas  all  destroyed  by  one 
provinciall  assembly,  holden  on  the  place  a  little  after  the  Ee- 
formation.  Ther  fundations  is  yett  etant ;  and  two  notable  ons, 
of  a  considerable  height  and  excellent  work,  untouched"  (New 
Stat.  Act.  vii.  pt.  2,  p.  314).  Sacheverell,  as  cited  by  Pennant, 
states  that  "  the  synod  ordered  60  crosses  to  be  thrown  into  the 
sea"  (iii.  p.  251).  It  is  also  alleged  that  multitudes  of  them 
were  carried  away  to  different  parts  of  western  Scotland,  and 
among  them  the  two  beautiful  crosses  of  Inverary  and  Camp- 
belton.  This  is  all  very  irrational :  it  only  wants  a  5  instead 
of  the  cypher,  in  the  total  360,  to  complete  its  absurdity.  There 
probably  never  were  more  than  two  dozen  real  crosses  standing 
at  any  one  time ;  and  if  every  tombstone  in  the  cemeteries  which 
ever  had  a  cross  of  any  form  inscribed  on  it  were  included,  the 
number  360  would  not  be  arrived  at.  If  some  were  thrown 
into  the  sea,  why  any  left  standing  ?  If  the  rest  were  deported, 
who,  at  that  moment,  unlocked  the  shores  of  Hy,  or  created  an 
appetite  not  hitherto  felt  abroad  ?  Or,  if  there  were  no  fine 
crosses  previously  to  1560  elsewhere,  how  came  Hy  to  have 


cxxxvni  INTRODUCTION. 

created  an  art  unknown  in  other  places,  or,  if  known,  to  mono 
polize  its  development  ?  Mr.  David  Laing  justly  observes,  that 
there  are  grounds  for  "  believing  that  the  statements  so  fre 
quently  and  confidently  repeated  by  later  writers,  from  the 
time  of  Sacheverel  in  1688,  of  the  number  of  360  Stone  Crosses 
having  existed  in  the  Island,  should  be  considered  as  very 
apocryphal,  and  their  alleged  destruction  by  the  Eeformers  as, 
at  best,  a  vague  tradition"  (Letter  to  Lord  Murray,  1854,  p.  12). 

1.  St.  Martin's  Cross,  opposite  the  west  door  of  the  Cathedral, 
a  noble  monument,  fourteen  feet  high.     It  has  been  described 
by  Martin  (p.  259),  Pennant  (iii.  p.  254),  and  best  by  Graham, 
who  has  given  a  drawing  of  the  east  face  in  his  lona  (PI.  39), 
and  has  subsequently  published  a  drawing  of  the  west  face  also. 

2.  Maclean's  Cross.     On  the  wayside,  proceeding  from  the 
Nunnery  towards  the  Cathedral.     The  shaft  is  10  feet  4  inches 
high.    Its  name  is  plainly  a  vulgar  misnomer.    See  the  drawing 
in  Graham's  lona  (PL  43). 

3.  St.  John's  Cross,  of  which  only  a  portion  remains,  stood  in 
the  Cathedral  ground  north  of  St.  Martin's.     Graham  gives  a 
drawing  (PI.  40).    "  In  a  field  upon  the  west  side  of  the  church, 
there  is  a  cross  which  appears  to  be  of  very  ancient  date.     It  is 
of  one  stone,  near  eight  feet  high,  and  twenty  inches  broad,  set 
on  a  pedestal  of  granite"  (New  Stat.  Acct.  vii.  pt.  2,  p.  335). 

4.  St.  Matthews  Cross.    A  fragment  in  the  same  enclosure, 
bearing  this  name. 

5.  St.  Adamnan's  Cross.    A  spot  at  the  north  end  of  the 
village,  opposite  Port  a  Chrossain,  bears  this  name,  although 
the  object  which  gave  occasion  to  it  is  gone. 

6.  St.  Brandon's  Cross,  stood  near  Tobar  Grain,  a  little  way 
east  of  the  Free  Church  Manse.     There  is  no  trace  remaining. 

7.  Torr  Abb.    On  the  top  of  this  eminence,  opposite  the  west 
entrance  of  the  Cathedral,  the  socket  of  a  cross  is  said  to  have 
been  observed. 

8.  Na  Crossan  Mor,  "  The  great  Crosses,"  is  the  name  of  a 
spot  on  the  left  of  the  walk  running  northwards  from  the 


INTRODUCTION.  CXXX1X 

Cathedral.     There  are  no  remains  there  now,  but  the  place  is 
spoken  of  as  the  site  of  two  large  crosses,  long  since  removed. 

9.  Besides  the  above,  some  nameless  fragments  serve  as  tomb 
stones  in  the  Eeilig  Odhrain.  Mr.  Huband  Smith  was  "  unable 
to  discover  at  lona  the  remains  of  more  than  fifteen  or  twenty 
crosses"  (Proceed.  E.  Ir.  Acad.  vi.  392). 

4.  Houses. 

1.  Cdbhan  Cuildich,  spelt  CotJian  Cuildich,  and  interpreted 
"  Culdee's  Cell,"  or  "  Couch,"  in  the  Old  Stat.  Acct.  (xiv.  p.  200). 
This  building,  whatever  it  was,  stood  in  a  hollow  between  Dunii 
and  Dunbhuirg,  and  but  faint  vestiges  of  it  now  remain.     In 
1795  it  is  described  as  "  the  foundation  of  a  small  circular 
house,  upon  a  reclining  plain.     From  the  door  of  the  house,  a 
walk  ascends  to  a  small  hillock,  with  the  remains  of  a  wall 
upon  each  side  of  the  walk,  which  grows  wider  to  the  hillock. 
There  are  evident  traces  of  the  walls  of  the  walk  taking  a 
circuit  round,  and  enclosing  the  hillock"  (ib.)     The  foundation 
is  not  quite  circular,  but  measures  about  1 6  feet  by  1 4. 

2.  Laithrichean.     That  is,  "  foundations,"  or  "  ruins."     A 
small  bay,  lying  west  of  Port-a-churraich,  derives  its  name 
from  several  circles  of  stone  foundations   scattered  over  it. 
These  are  the  traces  of  by  far  the  oldest  buildings  in  the  island. 
The  spot  is  a  beautiful  recess,  enclosed  by  high  rocks  all  round, 
and  open  only  to  the  sea,  where  the  inclination  of  the  ground 
towards  the  water  is  remedied  by  an  artificial  terrace  made 
across  the  mouth  of  the  little  bay,  bringing  the  level  of  the 
floor  to  an  elevation  of  seventy  or  eighty  feet  over  the  sea. 
Over  the  sward  in  this  sequestered  spot  are  the  circular  enclo 
sures  spoken  of,  the  remains  of  some  very  early  habitations. 
There  is  no  tradition  of  their  use,  but  they  remind  one  of  the 
remark  made  in  the  Old  Stat.  Acct.  concerning  the  adjacent 
part  of  Mull : — "  There  are  in  the  parish  many  of  the  round 
towers  said  to  be  Danish.    They  are  set  upon  the  sea-coast,  and 
in  sight  of  one  another"  (xiv.  p.  203).     One  of  the  circles  in 


Cxi  INTRODUCTION. 

Port   Laithrichean  is  thirty  yards  in   circumference,   another 
thirteen. 

3.  Dun-lhuirg.     This  is  the  name  of  a  well-defined,  abrupt, 
rocky  eminence  in  the  north-west  of  the  island,  on  the  top  of 
which  are  the  traces  of  a  wall  enclosing  the  summit,  like  the 
Celtic  duns,  and  giving  its  designation  to  the  whole. 

4.  G-aradJi-Eacliain  Oig,  "  Garden  of  young  Hector,"  said  to 
take  its  name  from  Hector  M'Lean,  one  of  the  Duairt  family. 
It  is  situate  near  the  head  of  Port-a-Churraich,  where  traces, 
said  to  be  of  his  house,  are  shown.     There  are  the  vestiges  of 
numerous  little  buildings  in  this  valley,  especially  on  the  east 
side,  near  the  stream  which  runs  down  from  Loch  Staonaig. 
They  appear  to  be  very  ancient. 

5.  Teach  an  Epscoip,  "  Bishop's  house,"  a  small,  ruinous  build 
ing,  situate  north-east  of  the  Cathedral.     It  is  mentioned  by 
Pennant,  and  in  the  New  Stat.  Acct.  (vii.  pt.  2,  p.  333).     In 
Sacheverell's  time  it  was  in  good  preservation. 

6.  The  sites  of  the  Mill  and  Barn,  of  which  mention  is  made 
in  Pennant  (cxxi),  are  thus  alluded  to  by  a  writer  in  1843  : — 
"  There  is  no  lake  of  any  consequence  ;  but  on  a  plain  adjoining 
the  gardens  of  the  abbey,  and  surrounded  by  small  hills,  there 
are  vestiges  of  a  large  piece  of  artificial  water,  which  has  con 
sisted  of  several  acres,  and  been  contrived  both  for  pleasure  and 
utility.    At  the  place  where  it  has  been  dammed  up,  and  where 
there  are  the  marks  of  a  sluice,  the  ruins  of  a  mill  are  still  to 
be  seen,  which  served  the  inhabitants  for  grinding  their  corn." 
Speaking  of  a  cross  (probably  St.  John's)  which  stood  "  in  a< 
field  upon  the  west  side  of  the  church,"  he  observes :  "  There  j 
is  a  very  ancient  ruin  of  the  granary  about  the  same  distance 
west  from  it  that  the  church  is  distant  from  it  to  the  east"! 
(New  Stat.  Acct.  vii.  pt.  2,  pp.  317,  335). 

5.  Mounds  and  Cairns. 

1.  North  of  the  Cathedral,  and  close  to  the  Lochan  Mor  on. 
the  east,  is  a  green  embankment,  evidently  very  ancient,  and 


INTRODUCTION.  Cxli 

apparently  only  a  portion  of  the  original  design.  Pennant 
says : — "  North  from  the  granary  extends  a  narrow  flat,  with  a 
double  dike  and  foss  on  one  side,  and  a  single  dike  on  the 
other."  This  bank,  which  is  about  thirty-six  feet  wide  inside, 
may  have  been  intended  to  confine  and  deepen  the  waters  of 
the  lake,  or  it  may  be  a  portion  of  the  vallum  of  the  original 
monastery,  for  Pennant  says,  "  that  the  whole  of  their  religious 
buildings  were  covered  on  the  north  side  by  dykes"  (iii.  258). 
At  the  end  of  this  is  the  spot  called  Kill  ma  ghobhanain. 
Graham  calls  this  embankment  the  Bishop's  Walk  (lona,  p.  4). 

2.  Cnoc-na-nAingel,  commonly  called  Sithean  Mor,  or  "  Great 
Fairy-mount."     This  is  Adamnan's  Colliculus  Angelorum  (188, 
205).     It  is  a  smooth,  green  knoll,  about  167  paces  in  circum 
ference  at  the  base.     Pennant  says  of  it :  "  On  the  right  hand, 
on  a  small  hill,  a  small  circle  of  stones,  and  a  little  cairn  in  the 
middle,  evidently  druidical,  but  called  the  hill  of  the  angels, 
Cnoc-nan-aingeal ;  from  a  tradition  that  the  holy  man  had  there 
a  conference  with  those  celestial  beings  soon  after  his  arrival. 
Bishop  Pocock  informed  me  that  the  natives  were  accustomed 
to  bring  their  horses  to  this  circle  at  the  feast  of  St.  Michael, 
and  to  course  round  it"  (iii.  p.  258). 

3.  Port-an-Churaich  derives  its  name  from  a  long,  low  mound 
running  across  the  bay,  near  high-water  mark.     It  has  long 
been  an  object  of  curiosity  to  travellers.     Martin  says  of  it : — 
"  The  Dock  which  was  dug  out  of  Port  Churich,  is  on  the  shoar, 

<  to  preserve  Columbus' s  Boat  called  Curich"  (p.  263).  A  writer 
^  of  1701  observes : — "  This  harbour  is  called  Port-a-churrich, 
from  the  ship  that  Calimkill  and  his  associats  came  upon  from 
Ireland  to  that  place.  The  length  of  the  curuchan  or  ship  is 
obvious  to  any  one  who  goes  to  the  place,  it  being  marked  up 
att  the  head  of  the  harbour  upon  the  grass,  between  two  little 
pillars  of  stons,  set  up  to  show  forth  ye  samain,  between  which 
pillars  there  is  three  score  of  foots  in  length,  which  was  the 
exact  length  of  the  curachan  or  ship"  (New  Stat.  Acct.  vol.  vii. 
pt.  2,  p.  316).  This  bay  is  exposed  to  the  western  swell  of  the 
Atlantic,  and  is  very  dangerous  except  in  fine  weather  (ib.) 


cxlii  INTRODUCTION. 

4.  Opposite  the  centre  of  Martyr's  Bay  is  a  mound  called  by 
the  natives  Eala,  "  the  swan"  (Graham,  p.  3) ;  why,  they  can 
not  tell.    But  the  truth  is,  that  they  are  misled  by  the  sound, 
for  the  word  really  is  ealatrom,  "  a  coffin ;"  and  so  applied  be 
cause  funeral  parties  on  landing  were  formerly  in  the  habit  of 
laying  the  remains  upon  this  mound,  while  they  thrice  per 
formed  a  deisiol,  or  right-wise  circuit,  round  the  spot. 

5.  Torr  Abb,  a  rocky  eminence  opposite  the  west  entrance 
of  the  Cathedral,  outside  the  enclosure.     "  To  the  west  of  the 
convent  is  the  abbot's  mount,  overlooking  the  whole"  (Pen 
nant,  iii.  p.  258).     This  must  be  the  site  of  what  Martin  de 
scribes,  when,  speaking  of  St.  Martin's  Cross,  he  says : — "  At  a 
little  further  distance  is  Dun  Ni  Manich,  i.e.  Monks-Fort,  built 
of  Stone  and  Lime,  in  form  of  a  Bastion,  pretty  high.     From 
this  Eminence  the  Monks  had  a  view  of  all  the  Families  in  the 
Isle,  and  at  the  same  time  enjoy 'd  the  free  Air"  (p.  259).     The 
artificial  part  does  not  now  exist. 

6.  At  Port-a-curach,  on  its  west  side,  where  the  shore  is 
covered  with  small  boulders,  are  several  cairns  formed  of  these 
stones,  for  some  unknown  purpose,  possibly  sepulchral.    They 
were  there  in  Pennant's  time,  and  the  tradition  was  then  that 
they  had  been  raised  as  penitential  tasks. 

6.  Wells  and  Lakes. 

1.  Tobhar  Odhrain,  "  Oran's  Well,"  a  little  east  of  the  Free 
Church  manse. 

2.  Tobar  Cheathain,  near  the  Cathedral,  celebrated  in  Gaelic 
verse. 

3.  Tobar  MaigJie  Lunge,  "  Well  of  Magh-Lunga,"  near  the 
northern  point. 

4.  Tolar  na  Ji-Aois,  "  Well  of  the  age,"  on  the  top  of  Dunii. 
The  LocJian  MOT,  already  mentioned,  was  a  sheet  of  water, 

partly  artificial,  covering  an  area  about  400  yards  by  200,  lying 
between  the  mound  and  the  base  of  Dunii.  Pennant,  speaking 
of  the  mill,  says  : — "  The  lake  or  pool  that  served  it  lay  behind ; 


INTRODUCTION.  Cxliii 

is  now  drained,  and  is  the  turbary,  the  fuel  of  the  natives :  it 
appears  to  have  been  once  divided,  for  along  the  middle  runs  a 
raised  way,  pointing  to  the  hills"  (iii.  p.  258).  This  causeway 
is  called  lomaire-an-tachair,  "ridge  of  the  way,"  and  sometimes 
the  Bishop's  Walk.  It  is  220  yards  long,  and  about  22  feet 
wide.  The  tradition  is,  that  this  road  was  planted  on  both 
sides,  and  that  "  the  edges  of  the  pond  were  all  planted"  (Old 
Stat.  Acct.  xiv.  p.  203).  Another  little  sheet  of  water  is  in 
Staonaig,  in  the  south  of  the  island,  and  takes  its  name  Loch 
Staonaig,  from  the  district  where  it  is  situate. 

II.  MODERN  DISTRIBUTION. 

'  The  island  is  divided  into  six  districts,  which  have  Gaelic 
names  descriptive  of  their  situation  or  character.  Under  them 
all  the  places  enumerated  in  the  alphabetical  catalogue,  which 
is  annexed,  are  for  convenience  classed  ;  the  figure  attached  to 
each  name  denoting  the  particular  portion  to  which  it  belongs. 
Many  of  these  names  are  modern,  but  some,  especially  those  of 
simpler  form,  are  old.  They  are  written  according  to  local 
orthography,  and  are  accompanied  by  the  equivalent  Irish 
forms,  and  their  supposed  meanings.1 

I. — CEANN  T-SEAR,  Ceann  t-soir,  "  East  Head,"  extending 
from  the  village  to  the  northern  extremity  of  the  island,  and 
embracing  the  low  land  which  lies  between  the  sound  and  the 
hills,  from  Dunii  southwards.  It  contains  all  the  ecclesias 
tical  sites. 

II.- — SLIABH  MEANACH,  Slidbh  meadhonach,  "  Middle  moun 
tain-land,"  containing  Dunii  and  the  hills  in  the  middle  of  the 
northern  half,  terminating  at  the  south-west  of  Gleann-an- 
Tempull. 

III. — SLIGINACH,  Sligineach, "  Shelly-ground,"  a  small  tract  on 
the  east  side,  south  of  the  village,  terminating  a  little  south  of 
Tra-mor.  It  contains  Martyr's  Bay  and  its  neighbourhood. 

1  This  alphabetical  catalogue  will  be  found  in  the  Appendix,  No.  II.— 
W.  F.  S. 


Cxliv  INTRODUCTION. 

IV— MACHAR,  Machaire,  "  the  Plain,"  a  well-marked  tract, 
lying  north-west  of  the  last,  and  traversed  by  a  cart  road.  This 
is  the  original  name,  for  which  Adamnan  employs  a  Latin 
equivalent. 

V. — SLIABH  SIAR,  Sliabh  siar,  "West  Mountain-land,"  a 
narrow,  rocky  tract,  rising  above  the  last  two  on  the  south,  and 
running  across  the  island. 

VI. — STAONAIG,  Staonag,  "  Inclining  ground,"  written  Stenag 
in  Langland's  map,  and  so  called  from  the  inclination  southwards 
in  the  various  ravines  into  which  it  resolves  itself.  Staonag, 
derived  from  staon,  "  oblique,"  signifies  "  a  bending,"  or  "  in 
clination."  This  tract  includes  all  the  southern  part  of  the 
island,  from  Loch  Staonaig  to  the  sea.  A  portion  of  it,  forming 
the  south-western  corner  of  the  island,  called  Aonaidh-nan- 
sruth,  "  Cliff  of  the  streams,"  suddenly  dips  from  the  level  of 
the  table-land  above,  and  is  almost  shut  out  from  the  rest  of 
the  island  by  a  precipitous  cliff  running  southwards  from  Port- 
Beul-mor  to  Port-Aonaidh-nan-sruth. 

III.  DEPENDENT  ISLANDS. 

Buchanan,  speaking  of  Hy,  says  :  "  Circa  earn  sex  proximo 
insulse,  exiguae  nee  tamen  infcecundse,  ab  antiquis  regibus,  et 
insulanorum  regulis  ccenobio  Columbae  donatse  fuerunt."  These 
islands  were  among  the  following  : — 

1.  JEilean  na  mBan,  "  Island  of  the  women,"  so  called  from 
the  tradition,  as  Martin  states,  "that  Columbus  suffered  no 
Women  to  stay  in  the  Isle  [Hy]  except  the  Nuns  ;  and  that  all 
the  Tradesmen  who  wrought  in  it  were  oblig'd  to  keep  their 
Wives  and  Daughters  in  the  opposite  little  Isle,  called  on 
that  account  Womens-Isle"  (p.  264).  It  is  situate  in  the  sound 
nearly  east  of  the  Cathedral,  but  so  near  to  Mull  that  its  insular 
character  cannot  be  distinguished  when  viewed  from  Hy.  A 
few  years  ago  the  traces  of  a  building  called  the  Nunnery  were 
distinguishable  here.  Pied  granite  used  to  be  quarried  on  this 
islet  (Pennant,  iii.  p.  254).  Archdeacon  Monro  mentions  it 


INTRODUCTION.  Cxlv 

under  the  name  Naban,  adding  that  it  was  "  callit  in  Erishe 
Elian  Naban,  that  is  the  Woemens  ile.  It  pertains  to  Colmkil" 
(No.  90).  Nuns'  Island  of  Dr.  Johnson's  Journey. 

2.  Soay,  due  south  of  Hy,  called  Soa  by  Monro,  who  states 
that  "  it  is  half  ane  myle  in  lenthe,  verey  guid  for  sheepe,"  and 
"  it  pertains  to  Colmkill  "  (No.  89). 

3.  Moroan.     Monro  says :    "  On  the  north  northest  end  of 
Columkill,  lyes  ane  little  ile,  by  the  Erishe  namit  Elian  Moroan, 
ane   little   laich  maine  sandie  ile,  full  of  bent  and  guid  for 
sheepe.    It  pertains  to  Colmkill"  (No.  91).     This  is  probably  the 
island  on  the  northern  extremity,  now  called  Eilean  Annraidh. 

4.  Reringe.     "  On  the  north  side  of  Colmkill  layes  ther  ane 
litel  iyle,  by  the  Erishe  namit  Elian  Eeringe,  ane  profitable  ile, 
yielding  verey  grate  plentey  of  wyld  fowls  eggs,  and  guid  for 
fishing,  perteining  to  Colmkill "  (No.  92).     This  island  remains 
to  be  identified. 

5.  Inch  Kenneth,  called  by  Monro  Inche  Kenzie,  who  states 
that   "it  pertains  to  the  prioress  of  Colmkill"  (No.  93).     It 
once  was  the  head  of  a  little  parish  including  Eorsa,  and  an 
adjacent  part  of  Mull  called  Ardrnanach  (Orig.  Par.,  vol.  ii. 
p.  316).     The  roofless  walls  of  the  church,  measuring  sixty  by 
thirty  feet,  are  standing,  and  the  cemetery  continues  to  be 
used.     "  Insula  Sancti  Kennethi,  cujus  et  ibidem  est  ecclesia 
parochialis." — Eordun  (Chr.  ii.   10).      Kilchenzie  in  Cantyre, 
Kilchenich  in  Tiree,  and  Kilchainnech  in  Hy,  are  named  from 
St.  Cainnech  of  Aghaboe. 

6.  Eorsa.     A  small  island,  N.E.  of  Inch  Kenneth  in  Loch 
na  Keal,  formerly  Loch  Seafort.     Monro  calls  it  Eorsay,  *'  per 
taining  to  the  prioress  of  Colmkill"  (No.  94). 

7.  Halmin  Island,  called  Ellenecalmene  in  law  records  and 
Blaeu.     Thus  described  by  Monro :  "  At  the  southwest  shore  of 
the  ile  of  Mull,  lyes  ane  little  ile,  by  the  Erische  namit  Ellan- 
chane,  that  is  the  Dow  illyand,  inhabit,  half  a  myle  lange, 
fraitfull  for  corne  and  gressing,  with  ane  havin  for  Heighland 
bottis  "  (No.  86).     An  islet  off  Erraid  on  the  west  is  marked 


Cxlvi  INTRODUCTION. 

Dow  Island  in  Thomson's  map,  but  its  situation  does  not  suit 
the  Archdeacon's  description. 

8.  Erraid  Isle,  "  namit  by  the  Erische  Elian  Erray,  ane  iyle 
of  halffe  myle  lange  and  halffe  myle  braid,  guid  main  land, 
inhabit  and  manurit,  fruitfull  of  corne  and  pastorage,  with 
abundance  of  fisching"  (Monro,  No.  87).  This  seems  to  be 
the  island  referred  to  in  Adamnan  (139)  as  the  place  where 
St.  Columba's  seals  used  to  breed. 

IX. 

JHRONICLE  The  materials  from  which  the  following  chronicle  is  compiled 
are  furnished  principally  by  the  Irish  Annals,  especially  those 
of  Ulster,  and  they  are  here  disposed  in  such  a  manner  as  to 
exhibit,  under  each  abbot,  the  principal  Scottish  events  of  his 
incumbency.  Down  to  the  year  800,  the  succession  of  abbots 
is  unbroken,  and  the  notices  of  them,  though  meagre,  are  gene 
rally  satisfactory ;  but,  after  that  date,  the  entries  become  irre 
gular,  and  progressively  defective.  This  is  partly  attributable 
to  the  derangement  of  the  Columbian  economy  caused  by  the 
Danish  invasions,  and  the  consequent  transfer  of  the  seat  of 
administration  to  Ireland.  The  office  of  abbot,  indeed,  was  still 
maintained  in  Hy,  but  as  it  became  subordinate  to  that  of  Coarb 
or  Successor  of  Columcille,  whose  dignity  was,  to  a  certain 
extent,  ambulatory  among  the  Columbian  houses  of  Ireland,  the 
notices  are  desultory,  and  the  consideration  of  the  local  superior 
gradually  declined,  till  it  almost  vanished  from  the  attention 
of  the  annalist.  Another  marked  difference  between  the  two 
periods  is  the  constant  registration  of  obituary  days  in  the 
former,  and  its  almost  total  discontinuance  in  the  latter.  With 
two  exceptions,  the  festivals  of  the  first  eighteen  abbots  are 
entered  in  the  calendars  of  Marian  Gormon  and  of  Donegall ; 
but  after  the  year  800  there  are  only  four  commemorations  con 
nected  with  Hy  on  record,  during  the  lapse  of  four  hundred 
years. 

Attached  to  each  abbot's  name,  in  the  following  digest,  are 


INTRODUCTION.  Cxlvii 

the  dates  of  his  incumbency,  derived  from  the  Annals,  and  the 
day  of  his  death,  as  entered  in  the  Calendar.  The  events  which 
are  recorded  by  Adamnan,  or  are  referred  to  in  the  notes,  as  also 
the  notices  of  the  Columbian  houses,  and  the  particulars  of  early 
Scottish  history  which  are  entered  in  the  Irish  Annals,  are 
arranged  in  order  under  the  abbot's  name  in  whose  term 
of  office  they  occurred,  as  nearly  as  the  brevity  of  the  plan 
would  admit,  in  the  words  of  the  Annals  of  Ulster,  with  the 
addition  of  a  year  to  their  current  date;  or  of  any  other 
authority  which  is  drawn  upon  for  supplementary  information. 
Where  the  passages  have  been  already  cited  in  this  work,  a 
parenthetic  reference  to  the  page  will  be  sufficient  i1 — 

I. — COLUMCILLE.     Sed.  563-597.     Ob.  June  9. 

Born  on  St.  Buite's  Day,  Dec.  7,  in  the  year  520.  Founded  the 
abbey  of  Derry  circ.  546  (1.),  and  that  of  Durrow  before  560  (xlix). 
Was  implicated,  in  561,  in  the  battle  of  Cuil-Dreimhne  (xli,  120) 
and,  next  year  but  one,  in  the  42d  year  of  his  age,  commenced  his 
labours  in  Scotland  (108). 

II. — BAITHENE.    Sed.  597-600.     Ob.  June  9. 

Son  of  Brendan,  and  first-cousin  of  S.  Columba,  born,  according 
to  Tighernach,  in  536.  Brought  up  by  S.  Columba  (115,  213); 
accompanied  him  to  Britain  (Ixxi) ;  presided  over  the  monastery  of 
Magh-Lunge  in  Tiree  (140,  200)  during  St.  Columba's  lifetime ;  occa 
sionally  visited  Hy  (126,  162),  and  even  superintended  the  agricul 
tural  operations  there  (136).  Visited  the  island  of  Eigg  (206). 
Sometimes  was  engaged  in  transcribing  books  (128,  213).  He  was 
nominated  by  S.  Columba  as  his  successor  (115,  233),  and  having 
enjoyed  the  abbacy  three  years,  died  on  the  same  day  as  his  prede 
cessor  (Ixxvi,  190).  He  was  founder,  and  patron-saint,  of  Teach- 
Baeithin  [i.e.  JEdes  Baithenei}  in  the  territory  of  Tir-Enna  in 
Tirconnell,  now  known  as  the  parish  church  of  Taughboyne,  locally 
called  Tdboyne,  in  the  barony  of  Kaphoe,  county  of  Donegal. 

Ill— LAISREN.    Sed.  600-605.     Ob.  Sept.  16. 

His  father,  Feradhach,  was  first-cousin  of  S.  Columba.  In  572 
we  find  him  in  company  with  S.  Columba  at  Ardnamurchan  (122). 
He  was  abbot  of  Durrow  during  the  founder's  lifetime  (131)  ;  from 
which  office  he  was  raised  to  the  abbacy  of  Hy.  His  name  is 
omitted  in  the  Annals  of  Ulster. 

IV.— FERGNA  BRIT.    Sed.  605-623.    Ob.  Mar.  2. 

Son  of  Failbhe,  of  the  family  of  Enna  Boghaine,  son  of  Conall 

1  For  this  part  of  the  chronicle  the  reader  is  referred  to  the  original 
edition.  The  passages  relating  to  lona  and  other  Columban  houses  will  be 
found  in  the  Appendix,  No.  III.— W.  F.  S. 


CX'lviii  INTRODUCTION. 

Gnlban,  of  the  same  race,  but  not  so  nearly  related  to  S.  Columba 
as  his  predecessors.  ^Engus  the  Culdee  designates  him  Fionn,  Can- 
didus  (Feilire,  Mar.  2).  His  surname  Brit,  which  signifies  '  Briton,' 
was  derived,  as  Colgan  suggests,  "  a  Britannise  incolatu  "  (Act.  SS. 
p.  448  a),  but  there  is,  probably,  more  implied  in  the  epithet  than 
is  recorded.  He  is  called  Virgnous  by  Adamnan  (207,  208),  who 
describes  him  as  a  member  of  the  community  in  S.  Columba's  time, 
and  a  youth  of  ardent  piety.  The  title  of  Bishop,  which  is  applied 
to  him  by  the  gloss  in  Marian's  Calendar,  and  repeated  by  the  Four 
Masters  (an.  622),  and  the  Calendar  of  Donegal,  is  very  question 
able.  An  exception  to  the  precedent  so  recently  established  in 
Hy  by  the  founder  would  hardly  have  been  sanctioned  in  the  case 
of  the  fourth  abbot,  especially  as  Bede,  a  century  afterwards,  empha 
tically  says,  "  Habereautem  solet  ipsa  insula  rectorem  semper  abba- 
tem  presbyterum  "  (H.  E.  Hi.  4). 

V.— SEGHINE.    Sed.  G23-652.     Ob.  Aug.  12. 

Son  of  Fiachna,  and  nephew  of  Laisren,  the  third  abbot.  He 
was  a  zealous  advocate  of  the  old  Paschal  observance,  and  was 
addressed  on  the  subject  in  634  by  Cummian,  in  an  epistle  which  is 
superscribed  "  Segieno  abbati  Columbse  sancti  et  caste rorum  sanc 
torum  successori  "  (Ussher,  Syll.  xi.,  Wks.  vol.  iv.  p.  432)  ;  and  by 
the  Clergy  of  Rome  in  640,  whose  epistle  on  the  same  controversy 
was  addressed,  among  other  presbyters,  to  Segenus  (Bede,  H.  E. 
ii.  19).  Adamnan  calls  him  Seyineus  (113,  118,  155),  and  refers  to 
him  as  the  informant  of  Failbeus,  his  own  immediate  predecessor. 
Bede  mentions  him  as  "  Segeni  abbas  et  presbyter"  (H.  E.  iii.  5). 

VI.— SUIBHNE.     Sed.  652-657.     Ob.  Jan.  11. 

Son  of  Cuirtri.  Nothing  more  is  known  of  his  extraction  ;  and 
he  is  the  first  abbot  of  Hy,  "  cujus  genealogia  in  patriis  hystoriis 
observata  non  occurrit"  (Colgan,  Act.  SS.  p.  408  a).  Colgan  has  a 
short  notice  of  him  at  Jan.  11  (ib.  p.  57). 

VII.— CUIMINE  AILBHE.     Sed.  657-669.     Ob.  Febr.  24. 

Son  of  Ernan,  and  nephew  of  Seghine  the  fifth  abbot.  Adamnan 
calls  him  Cummeneus  Albus,  and  cites  his  tract  "De  virtutibus 
sancti  Columbse"  (197).  Cathal  Maguir,  cited  by  Colgan,  notices 
him  as  "  Cumineus  abba  Hiensis,  i.e.  Cumineus  filius  Dunertuigh  : 
ipse  est  qui  tulit  reliquias  sanctorum  Petri  et  Pauli  ad  Desertum 
Cumini,  in  districtu  Roscreensi  donee  aufugerint  Roscream"  (Act. 
SS.  p.  411  b,  n.  26). 

VIII.— FAILBHE.    Sed.  669-679.     Ob.  Mar.  22. 

Son  of  Pipan.  His  brother  Finan,  locally  called  Peenan,  was  foun 
der  of  the  church  called  Tempul-ratha  or  Rath,  and  now  known  as 
Raymunterdoney  in  the  county  of  Donegal,  where  he  was  commemo 
rated  on  the  25th  of  November.  Failbhe  is  mentioned  by  Adamnan 
as  "Failbeus  noster  abbas"  and  "meus  decessor"  (113,  118). 
^Engus,  as  cited  by  Colgan,  says  of  him  : — "  Quibus  verbis  efferam 
S.  Falbeum  magnum  de  Hia,  qui  bis  remeavit  ultra  maria."  Col 
gan  has  collected  his  acts  at  Mar.  22  (Act  SS.  p.  719). 


INTRODUCTION.  Cxlix 

IX.— ADAMNAN.    Sed.  679-704.     Ob.  Sept.  23. 

Son  of  Ronan  and  Ronnat,  born  in  624.     He  was  the  most 
accomplished  and  influential  of  St.  Columba's  successors. 

Adamnan,  which  is  said  to  be  a  diminutive  of  Adam,  is  a  name 
of  unusual  form,  and  of  rare  occurrence  in  Irish  records.  The 
Annals  and  Calendars  present  but  three  or  four  instances  of  it,  to 
which  the  venerable  father  of  English  history  adds  another,  and 
then,  taking  the  one  best  known  at  home,  so  treats  of  it  as  to  make 
it  7ro\\S)v  awrafyos  a\\cov.  The  individual  whose  celebrity  was 
thus  guaranteed  was  born  in  Ireland,  in  or  about  the  year  624, 
and  though  there  is  no  express  record  of  the  parish  or  province 
which  gave  him  birth,  there  is  good  reason  for  supposing  that  he 
was  a  native  of  that  part  of  the  territory  occupied  by  the  race  of 
Conall,  called  Tir-Aedha,  and  now  familiarly  known  as  the  barony 
of  Tirhugh,  in  the  south-west  of  the  county  of  Donegal.  Here  was 
settled  the  clan  from  which  he  sprung,  and  here  was  also  one  of  his 
principal  commemorations,  preserving  a  vivid  recollection  of  his 
abode.  His  father,  Ronan,  was  sixth  in  descent  from  Conall  Gul- 
ban,  the  head  of  one  of  the  two  great  races  of  the  Northern  Hy- 
Neill,  and,  in  virtue  of  his  birth,  claimed  kin  to  St.  Columba,  and 
many  of  the  sovereigns  of  Ireland.  The  father  of  Ronan  was 
Tinne,  from  whom  came  the  patronymic  Ua  Tinne,  or  "  grandson 
of  Tinne,"  an  appellative  which  is  occasionally  found  coupled  with 
Adamnan's  name.  Ronnat,  the  mother  of  Adamnan,  was  descended 
from  Enna,  a  son  of  Mall,  whose  race,  the  Cinel  Enna,  possessed  them 
selves  of  the  tract  lying  between  the  channels  of  the  Foyle  and  Swilly, 
which  was  called  the  Tir-Enna,  or  "  land  of  Enna,"  and  answers  to 
the  modern  barony  of  Raphoe.  Here  was  situate  the  ancient 
church  of  Rath-both  (now  Raphoe),  said  to  have  been  founded  by  St. 
Columba,  but  acknowledging  St.  Adamnan,  or  Eunan,  as  its  patron, 
a  preference  probably  arising  out  of  his  maternal  connexion  with 
the  original  occupants  of  the  district.  Concerning  Adamnan's  early 
history  not  one  particle  of  information  remains,  nor  even  a  legend, 
save  the  following  anecdote  in  the  life  of  Finnachta  the  Festive,  a 
chief  of  the  Southern  Hy  Neill,  and  subsequently  monarch  of  Ire 
land  : — "  Not  long  after  this,  Finnachta  came,  with  a  numerous 
cavalcade,  to  the  house  of  his  sister,  whither  he  was  invited  to  be 
her  guest.  As  they  were  riding  along  the  way  they  met  Adamnan, 
then  a  schoolboy,  who  was  travelling  upon  the  same  road,  with  a 
jar  of  milk  upon  his  back.  And  as  he  fled  from  the  way  before 
the  cavalcade,  he  knocked  his  foot  against  a  stone  and  stumbled, 
and  the  jar  fell  from  his  back  and  was  broken.  Upon  which 
Finnachta  said,  Thou  shalt  receive  protection,  O  student,  from  me, 
and  he  prayed  him  not  to  be  sorrowful.  Then  said  Adamnan,  O 
good  man,  I  have  cause  for  grief,  for  there  are  three  goodly 


cl  INTRODUCTION. 

students  in  one  house,  and  three  more  of  us  are  attendants  upon 
them.  And  how  we  act  is  this :  One  attendant  from  among  us 
goes  out  in  turn  to  collect  sustenance  for  the  other  five;  and  it 
was  my  turn  to-day,  but  what  I  had  gathered  for  them  has  been 
spilled  upon  the  ground,  and,  what  grieves  me  more,  the  borrowed 
jar  is  broken,  and  I  have  not  wherewith  to  pay  for  it."  Such  is 
the  story,  which  probably  was  the  creation  of  a  later  age,  to  intro 
duce  a  historical  reality — the  intimacy  of  Adamnan  with  Finnachta, 
and  his  subsequent  interference  with  him.  It  transports  St.  Adam- 
nan,  in  his  youth,  from  Donegal  to  Meath ;  but  this  is  no  violence, 
for  St.  Columba,  before  him,  studied  at  Clonard  in  Meath,  and  read 
with  Gemman  in  a  plain  of  Leinster ;  nor  was  it  inconsistent  with 
the  severity  of  monastic  discipline,  even  in  one  nobly  born,  to 
derive  his  sustenance  from  eleemosynary  sources.  But  the  lesson 
in  the  Breviary  of  Aberdeen  forgets  all  propriety  when  it  places 
Adamnan's  novitiate  under  St.  Columba,  and  assigns  to  the  latter 
the  jus  patronatus  of  Lismore.  The  abbot  under  whom  St.  Adam- 
nan  was  admitted  into  the  brotherhood  was  probably  Seghine,  for 
he  lived  until  Adamnan  was  twenty-eight  years  old.  During  his 
incumbency,  and  that  of  the  three  succeeding  abbots,  our  author, 
no  doubt,  acquired  such  a  character  as  rendered  him  eligible,  and 
such  a  reputation  for  learning  as  recommended  him,  to  the  presi 
dency  of  the  Columbian  order,  now  in  the  meridian  of  celebrity 
and  influence.  With  the  exception  of  his  skill  in  Latin,  his 
acquaintance  with  other  languages  and  branches  of  education  is 
more  a  subject  of  inference  than  of  express  declaration ;  there  is 
sufficient  evidence,  however,  to  justify  Ward  in  the  statement : 
"  Edoctus  est  omnes  liberales,  sacras  et  asceticas  disciplinas,  linguas 
etiam  Hebraicam  et  Graecam;  et  quidquid  patria  lingua  (in  qua 
turn  plerseque  scientise  et  Druydum  quae  non  fuere  damnata  dog 
mata)  scriptum  esset  vel  artium,  vel  legum,  vel  historiarum."  His 
studies,  meanwhile,  did  not  supersede  his  bodily  labours,  and  to 
the  subordinate  period  of  his  profession  is  probably  to  be  referred 
the  voyage  for  timber  to  repair  the  monastery,  of  which  he  speaks 
in  B.  II.  c.  46.  In  the  year  675,  Finnachta  Fledach,  grandson  of 
Aedh  Slaine,  succeeded  his  first-cousin  (whom  he  put  to  death)  as 
monarch  of  Ireland.  He  was  of  the  Southern  Hy  Neill,  and  was  a 
chief  both  valiant  and  hospitable.  An  old  bardic  composition  says 
that  Adamnan,  after  the  accidental  introduction  mentioned  above, 
was  invited  to  his  court,  and  subsequently  became  his  anmchara, 
or  "  spiritual  director ; "  and  that  this  is  the  reason  why  Adamnan 
made  so  conspicuous  a  figure  during  Finnachta's  reign. 

On  the  death  of  Failbhe,  in  679,  Adamnan  was  elected  to  the 
abbacy  of  Hy,  being  now  fifty-five  years  of  age.  Bruide,  son  of 
Bile,  the  most  valiant  of  the  Pictish  kings  since  the  reign  of  his 


INTKODUCT10N.  cli 

namesake,  the  son  of  Maelcon,  preceded  the  abbot  in  his  elevation 
but  one  year,  so  that  Adamnan's  incumbency  is  set  down  in  the 
Chronicle  of  the  Scottish  Kings  as  the  ecclesiastical  parallel  of  his 
reign.  Aldfrid,  the  Northumbrian  prince,  whom  the  Irish  knew  as 
Flann  Fina,  was  now  an  exile  in  Ireland.  Thither  he  had  pro 
bably  been  led  through  his  mother's  alleged  connexion  with  the 
chief  family  of  the  north,  and  here  probably  it  had  been  that 
Adamnan  commenced  that  intimacy  which  caused  the  Irish  to  call 
Aldfrid  the  alumnus  of  Adamnan,  and  which  proved  so  serviceable 
to  the  teacher  when  the  pupil  ascended  the  throne.  The  "  war 
of  Ecgfrid"  (B.  II.  c.  47),  as  Adamnan  terms  the  fatal  expedition 
against  the  Picts  in  685,  restored  Aldfrid  to  his  country  and  the 
enjoyment  of  his  hereditary  rights,  so  that  when  the  abbot  of  Hy, 
in  the  following  year,  went  on  a  mission  to  the  Northumbrian 
court,  probably  to  plead  for  the  Irish  captives  whom  Ecgfrid's 
general  had  carried  away  from  Meath,  he  found  a  ready  answer  to 
his  petition.  It  may  be  that  he  undertook  the  errand  at  the 
instance  of  king  Finnachta,  on  whose  patrimonial  territory  the 
descent  had  been  made  by  the  Saxons,  possibly  at  the  instance  of 
the  Leinstermen.  The  circumstances  of  Adamnan's  journey  are 
thus  related  in  his  Irish  Life,  but  manifestly  with  that  looseness, 
and  disregard  of  historical  precision,  which  characterize  the  later 
hagiology  of  Ireland  :  "  The  north  Saxons  went  to  Erin  and 
plundered  Magh  Bregh  as  far  as  Bealach-dnin ;  and  they  carried 
off  with  them  a  great  prey  of  men  and  women.  The  men  of  Erin 
besought  of  Adamnan  to  go  in  quest  of  the  captives  to  Saxonland. 
Adamnan  went  to  demand  the  prisoners,  and  put  in  at  Tracht- 
Romra.  The  strand  is  long,  and  the  flood  rapid ;  so  rapid  that  if 
the  best  steed  in  Saxonland,  ridden  by  the  best  horseman,  were  to 
start  from  the  edge  of  the  tide  when  the  tide  begins  to  flow,  he 
could  only  bring  his  rider  ashore  by  swimming,  so  extensive  is  the 
strand,  and  so  impetuous  is  the  tide.  The  Saxons  now  were 
unwilling  to  permit  Adamnan  to  land  upon  the  shore.  Push 
your  curachs  on  the  shore,  said  Adamnan  to  his  people,  for  both 
their  land  and  sea  are  obedient  to  God,  and  nothing  can  be  done 
without  God's  permission.  The  clerics  did  as  they  were  told. 
Adamnan  drew  a  circle  with  his  crozier  around  the  curachs,  and 
God  rendered  the  strand  firm  under  their  curachs,  and  he  formed 
a  high  wall  of  the  sea  about  them,  so  that  the  place  where  they 
were  was  an  island,  and  the  sea  went  to  her  limits  past  it,  and  did 
them  no  injury.  When  the  Saxons  had  observed  this  very  great 
miracle,  they  trembled  for  fear  of  Adamnan,  and  they  gave  him 
his  full  demand.  Adamnan's  demand  was,  that  a  complete  restora 
tion  of  the  captives  should  be  made  to  him,  and  that  no  Saxon 
should  ever  again  go  upon  a  predatory  excursion  to  Erin ;  and 


tlii  INTRODUCTION. 

Adamnan  brought  back  all  the  captives."  The  secret  of  his  suc 
cess  is  told  by  Adamnan  himself,  "  regem  Aldfridum  visitantes 
amicum;"  and  the  result  is  briefly  but  satisfactorily  stated  by  the 
Annals  at  687,  which  is  686  according  to  Bede  :  "Adamnan  con 
ducted  sixty  captives  to  Ireland."  It  may  have  been  about  this 
period  that  the  Synod  was  held  in  Ireland  to  which  Adamnan 
alludes  in  B.  II.  c.  46  ;  his  language  at  the  end  of  the  chapter  seems 
to  regard  it  as  an  occurrence  of  some  standing  when  he  wrote. 
It  is  to  be  regretted  that  he  gives  no  clue  to  the  year,  object,  or 
place  of  meeting.  At  the  time  of  his  first  visit  to  Aldfrid,  a 
great  mortality  prevailed  in  Europe,  from  which,  however,  the 
Scots  and  Picts  of  North  Britain  were  providentially  exempted 
(B.  ii.  c.  47) ;  and  two  years  afterwards,  when  he  undertook  a  second 
journey  to  the  Northumbrian  court,  disease  was  still  ravaging  the 
country,  although  not  permitted  to  touch  him  or  one  of  his 
attendants.  The  object  of  this  visit  is  not  stated  by  Adamnan, 
but  it  probably  was  some  matter  of  international  policy  which 
Adamnan  was  chosen  to  negotiate.  The  fact  that  he  sailed  direct 
to  Ireland  with  the  liberated  captives  in  686,  seems  to  justify  the 
reference  of  the  following  statement  in  Bede  to  a  later  date,  when 
he  returned  to  Hy,  and  subsequently  crossed  over  to  Ireland  : 
"  Quo  tempore  plurima  pars  Scottorum  in  Hibernia,  et  nonnulla 
etiam  de  Brittonibus  in  Brittania  rationabile  et  ecclesiasticum 
paschalis  observantise  tempus  Domino  donante  suscepit.  Siquidem 
Adamnan  presbyter  et  abbas  monachorum  qui  erant  in  insula  Hii, 
cum  legationis  gratia  missus  a  sua  gente,  venisset  ad  Aldfridum 
regem  Anglorum,  et  aliquandiu  in  ea  provincia  moratus,  videret 
ritus  ecclesise  canonicos ;  sed  et  a  pluribus  qui  erant  eruditiores 
esset  sollerter  admonitus,  ne  contra  universalem  ecclesise  morem, 
vel  in  observantia  paschali,  vel  in  aliis  quibusque  decretis  cum  suis 
paucissimis  et  in  extremo  mundi  angulo  positis  vivere  prsesumeret, 
mutatus  mente  est ;  ita  ut  ea  quae  viderat  et  audierat  in  ecclesiis 
Anglorum,  suse  suorumque  consuetudini  libentissime  prseferret. 
Erat  enim  mr  bonus  et  sapiens,  et  scientia  Scripturarum  nobilissime 
instructus.  Qui  cum  domum  rediisset,  curavit  suos  qui  erant  in 
Hii,  quive  eidem  erant  subditi  monasterio,  ad  eum  quern  cognoverat, 
quemque  ipse  toto  ex  corde  susceperat,  veritatis  callem  perducere, 
nee  valuit"  (Bede,  v.  1 5).  He  then  goes  on  to  tell  of  Adamnan's 
voyage  to  Ireland  ;  but  of  that  presently.  In  reference  to  this  visit 
he  gives  the  following  interesting  account  of  Adamnan's  tract  on  the 
Holy  Places  :  "  Scripsit  idem  vir  de  Locis  Sanctis  librum  legentibus 
multis  utillimum  ;  cujus  auctor  erat  docendo  ac  dictando  Galliarum 
episcopus  Arcuulfus,  qui  locorum  gratia  sanctorum  venerat  Hiero- 
solymam,  et  lustrata  omni  terra  repromissionis,  Damascum  quoque, 
Constantinopolim,  Alexandriam,  multas  maris  insulas  adierat; 
patriamque  navigio  revertens,  vi  tempestatis  in  occidentalia  Brit- 


INTRODUCTION.  cliii 

tanise  littora  delatus  est  :  ac  post  multa,  ad  memoratum  Christ! 
famulum  Adamnanum  perveniens,  ubi  doctus  in  Scripturis, 
sanctorumque  locorum  gnarus  esse  compertus  est,  libentissime  est 
ab  illo  susceptus,  libentius  auditus  ;  adeo  ut  quseque  ille  se  in  locis 
sanctis  memoratu  digna  vidisse  testabatur,  cuncta  mox  iste  litteris 
mandare  curaverit.  Fecitque  opus,  ut  dixi,  multum  utile,  et 
maxime  illis  qui  longius  ab  eis  locis  in  quibus  patriarchs  et 
apostoli  erant,  secreti,  ea  tantum  de  his  qua  lectione  didicerint, 
norunt.  Porrexit  autem  librum  hunc  Adamnan  Aldfrido  regi, 
ac  per  ejus  est  largitionem  etiam  minoribus  ad  legendum  contradi- 
tus.  Scriptor  quoque  ipse  multis  ab  eo  muneribus  donatus,  patriam 
remissus  est."  Bede  then  devotes  two  chapters  to  extracts  from 
this  work.  To  the  same  visit  Ceolfrid  also  alludes  in  his  letter  to 
King  Naiton,  where,  speaking  of  those  who  differed  from  him  on 
the  paschal  question,  he  declares  :  "  plurimos  ex  eis  sanctos  ac 
Deo  dignos  extitisse,  ex  quibus  est  Adamnan,  abbas  et  sacerdos 
Columbiensiurn  egregius,  qui  cum  legatus  suce  gentis  ad  Alfridum 
regem  missus,  nostrum  quoque  monasterium  videre  voluisset, 
miramque  in  moribus  ac  verbis  prudentiam,  humilitatem,  religionem 
ostenderet,  dixi  illi  inter  alia  conloquens :  Obsecro,  sancte  frater, 
qui  ad  coronam  te  vitse  quse  terminum  nesciat  tendere  credis,  quid 
contrario  tuae  fidei  habitu  terminatam  in  capite  coronse  imaginem 
portas  ?  et  si  beati  consortium  Petri  quaeris,  cur  ejus  quern  ille 
anathematizavit,  tonsurse  imaginem  imitaris  1  et  non  potius  ejus 
cum  quo  in  aeternum  beatus  vivere  cupis,  etiam  nunc  habitum  te, 
quantum  potes,  diligere  monstras  1  Respondit  ille  :  Scias  pro 
certo,  frater  mi  dilecte,  quia  etsi  Simonis  tonsuram  ex  consuetudine 
patria  habeam,  Simoniacam  tamen  perfidiam  tota  mente  detestor 
ac  respuo :  beatissimi  autem  apostolorum  principis,  quantum  mea 
parvitas  sufficit,  vestigia  sequi  desidero.  At  ego  :  Credo,  inquam, 
vere  quod  ita  sit ;  sed  tamen  indicio  fit,  quod  ea  quae  apostoli 
Petri  sunt,  in  abdito  cordis  amplectimini,  si  quse  ejus  esse  nostis, 
etiam  in  facie  tenetis.  Namque  prudentiam  tuam  facillime  dijudi- 
care  reor,  quod  aptius  multo  sit,  ejus  quern  corde  toto  abhominaris, 
cujusque  horrendam  faciem  videre  refugis,  habitum  vultus  a  tuo 
vultu  Deo  jam  dicato  separare ;  et  e  contra,  ejus  quern  apud  Deum 
habere  patronum  quseris,  sicut  facta  vel  monita  cupis  sequi,  sic 
etiam  morem  habitus  te  imitari  condeceat.  Haec  tune  Adamnano 
dixi,  qui  quidem  quantum  conspectis  ecclesiarum  nostrarum  statutis 
profecisset,  probavit,  cum  reversus  ad  Scottiam,  multas  postea 
gentis  ejusdem  turbas  ad  catholicam  temporis  paschalis  observan- 
tiam  sua  prsedicatione  correxit ;  tametsi  eos  qui  in  Hii  insula  mora- 
bantur  monachos,  quibusque  speciali  rectoris  jure  prseerat,  necdum 
ad  viam  statuti  melioris  reducere  valebat.  Tonsuram  quoque,  si 
tantum  sibi  auctoritatis  subesset,  emendare  meminisset."  It  is 

k 


cliv  INTRODUCTION. 

worthy  of  remark  that,  while  Bede  makes  special  mention  of  one 
of  Adamnan's  works,  he  says  nothing  about  the  other,  nay,  he 
proves  by  his  passing  observation  concerning  St.  Columba  elsewhere 
(in.  4),  de  cujus  vita  et  verbis  nonnulla  a  disdpulis  ejus  feruntur  scripta 
liaberi,  that  he  was  not  aware  of  Adamnan'  s  having  written  on  the 
subject.  This  silence  suggested  a  difficulty  to  the  Bollandist 
editor,  which,  however,  was  removed  when  he  remembered  that 
the  Life  bears  internal  evidence  of  having  been  written  some  time 
after  the  visits  to  Aldfrid :  "  Formidinem  omnem  toilet  ipse 
Adamnanus ;  qui,  in  fine  libri  secundi,  meritis  S.  Columbse  ad- 
scribit,  quod  in  utraque  legatione  Anglica,  ad  Egfridum  nempe  et 
Aldfridum  Reges,  grassante  per  regiones  istas  pestilentia,  incolumis 
evaserit :  adeoque  mirum  non  est,  Vitam  S.  Columbse  neque  ab 
auctore  fuisse  oblatam  Aldfrido  Regi,  neque  innotuisse  Bedse  : 
quandoquidem  constet  Adamnanum,  post  finitam  legationem 
Anglicam,  de  virtutibus  et  miraculis  S.  Columbse  scripsisse,  quae  in 
aliorum  scriptis  invenerat,  et  per  totam  vitam  suam  a  senioribus 
audierat." 

From  the  above  it  appears,  therefore,  that  on  his  return  to  Hy, 
Adamnan  endeavoured  to  introduce  the  new  observances,  but 
found  the  community  much  less  disposed  for  change  than  he  had 
been ;  and  that  attachment  to  old  customs  prevailed  over  the 
influence  of  argument,  or  the  weight  of  personal  influence. 

In  692  Adamnan  again  visited  his  native  country,  and  the 
object  of  his  journey  seems  to  have  been  one  of  importance,  for 
the  Annalists,  every  word  of  whom  is  full  of  meaning,  in  recording 
the  event,  state  that  it  occurred  fourteen  years  after  the  death  of 
his  predecessor  Failbhe.  On  this  occasion  he  seems  to  have  had 
political  as  well  as  ecclesiastical  matter  to  engage  his  attention. 
His  friend  the  sovereign  of  Ireland,  King  Finnachta,  had  incurred, 
if  the  bardic  accounts  are  to  be  credited,  the  displeasure  of  the 
Hy  Neill  race,  by  impairing  the  honours  which  he  was  expected 
to  uphold,  in  remitting  to  the  Leinster-men  the  tribute  which  they 
had  been  in  the  habit  of  annually  paying  to  the  chief  of  the  exist 
ing  dynasty.  Finnachta  had  fought  the  Lagenians  and  routed 
them,  so  that  his  indulgence  to  them  does  not  seem  to  have  been 
extorted  by  force.  The  secret  probably  lies  in  the  monarch's  title 
of  Fledach,'  or  "  the  Festive."  Poems  ascribe  the  exemption  to  the 
pleading  of  St.  Moling,  a  Leinster  ecclesiastic  of  great  celebrity, 
who  took  advantage  of  the  ambiguous  meaning  of  the  word  Luan, 
which  is  either  Monday,  or  the  day  of  judgment,  to  convert  the  term 
of  a  temporary  respite  into  a  perpetual  surrender  of  the  claims. 
Adamnan  gets  the  credit  of  being  the  great  champion  for  the 
maintenance  of  the  demand  ;  and  a  poem  of  some  length  and  fire 
is  attributed  to  him,  wherein  he  calls  Finnachta  in  rigli  crin  liath 


INTRODUCTION.  Clv 

cen  detu,  "  the  old  grey  king  without  teeth,"  and  indulges  in  such 
sentiments  as  these  : — 

"  Were  I  a  king  of  reddened  spears 
I  would  humble  mine  enemies, 
I  would  exalt  my  high  places, 
My  combats  should  be  frequent." 

The  Irish  Life  of  Adamnan  says  that  a  proclamation  had  been 
made  by  Finnachta  to  the  effect,  that  the  lands  ofColumcille  should 
not  enjoy  the  same  privileges  as  those  of  Patrick,  Finnian,  and 
Ciaran,  whereupon  Adamnan  said  :  "  The  life  of  the  king  who 
made  this  proclamation  shall  be  short ;  he  shall  fall  by  fratricide ; 
and  there  shall  be  no  king  of  his  race  for  ever."  Finnachta  fell 
by  the  hand  of  his  cousin  in  695. 

During  his  sojourn  in  Ireland,  Adamnan  in  all  probability 
exerted  himself  strenuously  in  the  propagation  of  the  new  Easter 
observance,  and  laid  the  foundation  of  the  great  success  which 
afterwards  attended  his  recommendation  of  the  subject  in  this  his 
native  country.  His  stay,  however,  was  not  of  long  continuance, 
for  we  find  him  returning  to  Ireland  in  697,  in  order  to  legislate 
for  the  people.  It  was  probably  in  the  interval  of  these  two 
journeys  that  he  compiled  his  Life  of  St.  Columba,  for  the  use  of 
his  society.  In  it  he  makes  no  reference  to  the  difference  of 
sentiment  between  himself  and  his  congregation  on  the  paschal 
question ;  but  there  is  an  allusion  to  a  sore  subject,  where  he  tells 
of  St.  Columba's  prophecy  at  Clonmacnoise  concerning  the  discord, 
"  quse  post  dies  multos  ob  diversitatem  Paschalis  festi  orta  est  inter 
Scotise  ecclesias"  (p.  118).  He  may  have  referred  to  the  same 
subject  when  he  spoke  of  the  "  valde  stolidi  qui  ingrati  Dei 
patientia  male  abutuntur"  (p.  191).  Baert  conjectured  that  the 
Life  was  written  during  Adamnan's  last  sojourn  in  Ireland,  and 
that  the  brethren,  at  whose  instance  he  professes  to  write,  were 
not  the  refractory  monks  of  Hy,  but  the  more  amenable  inmates 
of  Durrow,  and  of  the  kindred  associations  in  Ireland.  This, 
however,  is  a  conclusion  drawn  from  unsound  premisses,  for  it 
supposes,  as  some  Irish  accounts  have  done,  that  Adamnan 
quarrelled  with  his  people  ;  also  that  the  Irish  Columbians  yielded, 
while  the  Hyensian  ones  held  out.  The  one  supposes  Adamnan  to 
have  been  expelled  from  his  pastoral  charge ;  the  other  is  contra 
dicted  by  Bede.  The  Life  itself  bears  the  fullest  internal  evidence 
that  it  was  written  by  a  member  of  the  society,  who  speaks  of 
nostrum  monasterium  (pp.  131,  136,  189),  living  in  the  island,  nostra 
insula  (111,  190),  which  was  small  and  remote  (217),  among  other 
islands  (191),  and  called  low  insula  (189,  190). 

Connected  with  the  journey  to  Ireland  in  697,  the  Annals 
record  a  transaction  which  they  despatch  with  enigmatical  brevity  : 


Clvi  INTRODUCTION. 

Dedit  legem  innocentium  populis.  In  which  words  they  allude  to  a 
social  reformation  which  was  brought  about  by  Adamnan,  and 
which,  having  obtained  the  highest  sanction  of  the  people,  became, 
as  in  the  case  of  many  modern  Acts  of  Parliament,  associated  with 
the  name  of  the  propounder.  A  synod  was  convened  at  Tara, 
within  an  enclosure  called  the  Bath-na-Senadh,  or  "  Eath  of  the 
Synods/'  where  the  memory  of  the  chief  actor  was  perpetuated  in 
the  name  Pupall  Adhamhnain,  or  "  Pavilion  of  Adamnan,"  which 
was  given  to  a  portion  of  the  space ;  also  in  the  Suidhe  Adhamhnain, 
or  "  Adamnan's  chair ;  "  the  Dumha  Adhamhnain,  or  "  Adamnan's 
mound;"  and  the  Cros  Adhamhnain,  or  "Adamnan's  cross," 
situated  on  the  east  of  the  Kath.  This  mordail,  or  "  convention- 
general,"  was  held,  as  the  semi-legendary  records  state,  at  the  instance 
of  Adamnan,  for  the  purpose  of  procuring  a  national  enactment, 
exempting  women  from  war  and  expeditions.  The  legend  con 
cerning  the  influence  and  circumstances  which  brought  Adamnan 
to  interfere  in  the  matter  may  be  seen  in  the  Notes,  p.  245.  The 
acts  of  the  convention  were  copied  by  Michael  O'Clery  from  the 
Book  of  Raphoe,  and  are  preserved  in  one  of  the  Irish  manu 
scripts  at  Brussels.  There  were  present  thirty-nine  ecclesiastics, 
presided  over  by  Flann  Febhla,  the  Abbot  of  Armagh,  and  among 
them  were  Ichtbrocht,  or  Ecgbert,  probably  the  individual  who 
brought  the  Hyensians  to  paschal  conformity  in  716;  and  Murchu 
Mac  U  Macteni,  the  writer  of  a  portion  of  St.  Patrick's  memoirs 
in  the  Book  of  Armagh.  It  is  a  remarkable  fact,  however,  that, 
with  the  exception  of  the  Abbot  of  Armagh,  and  Cennfaeladh, 
Abbot  of  Bangor,  the  rest  of  the  clergy  were  from  Leinster  and 
the  south.  At  the  head  of  the  laity  was  Loingsech,  son  of  Aengus, 
monarch  of  Ireland,  and  after  him  forty-seven  chiefs  of  various 
territories.  Last  on  the  list  of  temporals  is  "  Bruide  mac  Derili, 
king  of  the  region  of  the  Picts."  The  enactments  of  the  synod 
were  afterwards  called  Lex  Adamnani,  or  Cain  Adhamhnain,  which 
means  "  tribute  of  Adamnan,"  because  among  its  results  was  the 
privilege  which  was  conceded  to  him  and  his  successors  of  levying 
pecuniary  contributions  under  certain  conditions.  In  after  times, 
when  this  assessment  became  of  sufficient  importance,  there  was  an 
officer,  or  agent,  for  its  receipt,  styled  the  Maor  cana  Adhamhnain, 
"  Steward  of  Adamnan's  Law." 

It  was  possibly  on  the  same  occasion  that  the  question  of  Easter 
was  publicly  discussed,  and  the  usage  advocated  by  Adamnan 
adopted.  At  this  time  also  may  have  been  promulgated  those 
eight  canons  which  bear  the  name  of  Adamnan.  Ecclesiastical 
considerations,  however,  if  entertained  at  this  meeting,  were  not  of 
sufficient  importance  in  the  eyes  of  the  Irish  to  merit  an  entry  in 
a  journal ;  and  the  absorbing  subject  seems  to  have  been  the  civil 


INTRODUCTION.  civil 

enactment  which  afterwards  became  a  source  of  profit,  and  for  this 
reason  had  special  claims  upon  the  memory. 

In  the  mystified  style  of  the  Irish,  it  is  sometimes  dangerous, 
and  always  difficult,  to  deal  with  their  statements  as  historical 
records ;  but  there  seems  to  be  ground  for  believing  that  the 
public  mind,  which  had  for  some  time  been  kept  in  expectation 
and  alarm  by  the  diseases  which  prevailed,  and  the  portents  which 
were  observed  or  imagined,  was  advantageously  impressed,  and 
seriously  disposed,  by  the  relation  of  a  vision,  concerning  the  joys 
of  heaven  and  the  pains  of  hell,  which  Adamnan  is  said  to  have  wit 
nessed  previous  to  the  date  of  the  above  synod.  The  Fis  Adhamhnain, 
or  "  Vision  of  Adamnan,"  an  Irish  composition  of  considerable  age, 
as  is  proved  by  its  style,  is  still  in  existence  ;  and  though  possessing 
internal  evidence  that  in  its  present  form  it  is  not  the  production 
of  Adamnan,  it  lays  claim  to  considerable  antiquity,  and  embodies 
a  narrative  which,  like  the  visions  of  St.  Fursa,  passed  current  in 
conversation  as  the  realities  of  his  experience.  The  Vision  is  a 
religious  discourse  on  the  text  Psal.  cxlvi.  5,  6  (Vulg.),  and  after 
some  prefatory  remarks,  goes  on  to  say  :  "  After  this,  that  which 
is  preached  here  was  manifested  to  Adamnan  Ua  Tinne,  the  high 
sage  of  the  western  world,  when  his  soul  passed  from  his  body  on 
the  festival  of  John  the  Baptist,  and  when  it  was  carried  to  heaven 
to  behold  the  angels  there,  and  to  hell  to  behold  its  wretched 
hosts."  Having  related  all  that  he  witnessed  in  either  abode,  and 
having  specially  noticed  in  the  place  of  torment  the  "  Aircinnechs, 
who,  in  the  presence  of  the  relics  of  the  saints,  administer  the  gifts 
and  tithes  of  God,  but  who  turn  the  profits  to  their  own  private 
ends  from  the  strangers  and  poor  of  the  Lord,"  whom  he  elsewhere 
brands  as  "  sensual  Aircinnechs,"  the  narrative  proceeds  to  say  that 
the  soul  of  Adamnan  desired  to  remain  in  the  happy  region,  but 
that  "  it  heard  from  behind  him,  through  the  veil,  the  voice  of  his 
guardian  angel  commanding  it  to  be  replaced  in  the  same  body 
from  which  it  had  passed ;  and  that  it  should  relate  in  the  assem 
blies  and  conventions  of  the  laity  and  clergy  the  rewards  of 
heaven  and  the  pains  of  hell,  such  as  the  conducting  angel  had 
revealed  to  him.  It  was  therefore  the  precept  which  Adamnan 
preached  whilst  he  was  alive.  It  was  this  precept,  too,  which  was 
preached  in  the  great  convention  of  the  men  of  Erin,  when 
Adamnan's  Eule  was  put  on  the  Gaedhil ;  and  when  women  were 
made  free  by  Adamnan  and  Finachta  Fledach,  son  of  Dunchadh, 
son  of  Aedh  Slaine,  the  King  of  Erin,  and  by  the  men  of  Erin  also. 
For  it  was  alike  that  men  and  women  went  into  battles  and  into 
conflicts,  until  the  Kule  of  Adamnan  was  imposed."  A  second 
vision,  or  rather  a  supplement,  recounting  the  wickedness  of  the 
inhabitants  of  Ireland,  and  the  mortalities  with  which  they  were 


clviii  INTRODUCTION. 

visited,  and  should  be  visited,  follows,  and  mentions  such  chastise 
ments  as  the  Scamhach,  or  "Leprosy;"  the  Bo-ar,  or  "Cow  mor 
tality;"  the  Digbail  toraid,  or  "Blight  of  fruit;"  the  Gorta,  or 
"Famine;"  the  Nuna,  or  "  Scarcity;"  and  Dunibadh,  or  "Human 
mortality; "  against  all  of  which  it  declares  prayer  and  fasting  to 
be  the  only  sure  preservative. 

From  697  till  the  year  of  his  death,  Adamnan  seems  to  have 
remained  in  Ireland :  for,  though  the  social  improvement  which 
he  effected  is  despatched  in  a  few  words  in  the  Annals,  we  can 
hardly  conceive  that  so  vital  a  measure  was  brought  about  without 
much  exertion  and  preparatory  solicitation.  The  success  of  his 
paschal  advocacy  among  a  people  naturally  attached  to  old  pre 
judices,  in  communities  widely  spread,  and  subject  to  many 
antagonistic  influences,  must  have  required  a  longer  period  for  its 
completion  than  the  following  words  of  Bede  would  at  first  sight 
seem  to  imply :  "  Navigavit  Hiberniam,  et  prsedicans  eis,  ac 
modesta  exhortatione  declarans  legitimum  paschse  tempus,  plurimos 
eorum,  et  pene  omnes  qui  ab  Hiiensium  dominio  erant  liberi,  ab 
errore  avito  correctos  ad  unitatem  reduxit  catholicam,  et  legitimum 
paschse  tempus  observare  perdocuit"  (v.  15).  The  Life  of  St.  Gerald 
of  Mayo,  a  compilation  full  of  anachronisms,  has  yet  this  curious 
coincidence  with  the  statement  just  made,  that  it  allows  Adamnan 
a  seven  years'  residence  in  Ireland.  Now,  admitting  the  supposition 
above  stated  to  be  correct,  the  interval  between  697  and  704,  the 
year  of  Adamnan's  death  is  exactly  commensurate  with  this  period. 
One  thing  appears  certain  from  Bede,  namely,  that  Adamnan 
crossed  over  from  Ireland  to  Hy  in  the  summer  of  the  year  in 
which  he  died,  and  that  he  had  been  in  Ireland  for  a  considerable 
time  previously.  The  Irish  Annals  record  an  occurrence  which 
almost  proves  him  to  have  been  in  Ireland  in  701.  In  that  year 
Irgalach,  son  of  Conang,  great-grandson  of  Aedh  Slaine,  and  lord 
of  Cianachta  in  Meath,  slew  his  own  cousin  Niall,  son  of  Cearnach 
Sotal.  This  act  is  said  to  have  excited  the  indignation  of  Adam- 
nan,  under  whose  protection  Niall  had  been,  and  he  denounced 
against  Irgalach  speedy  retribution  for  the  crime.  At  this  time 
Adamnan  is  represented  to  have  been  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the 
Boyne,  and  an  ancient  poem  states  that  the  cursing  of  Irgalach  took 
place  in  a  synod  held  by  Adamnan  at  Tara.  Irgalach,  according 
to  Tighernach,  was  slain  by  the  Britons  in  702  ;  and  the  Annals 
of  Ulster  add  that  the  deed  was  done  in  Inis-mac-Nesan,  the  small 
island  east  of  Howth,  now  known  as  Ireland's  Eye.  The  wife  of 
Irgalach  was  Muirenn,  daughter  of  Cellach  Cualann,  and  sister  of 
St.  Kentigerna  of  Loch  Lomond.  She  died  in  748. 

The  Life  of  St.  Geraldus  represents  Adamnan's  connexion  with 
Mayo  in  these  words  :  "  Tune  sanctus  abbas  Adamnanus  post 


INTRODUCTION.  clix 

visitationem  totius  Hiberniae  ad  S.  Geraldum  perrexit,  ut  fraternam 
cum  eo  contraheret  societatem.  Cui  S.  Geraldus  fundum  cum  fonte 
limpido  contulit,  atque  sibi  suam  commendavit  Ecclesiam,  ut  a  per- 
secutione  laicorum  post  obitum  suum  earn  defenderet :  quod  toturn 
S.  Adamnanus  se  completurum  promisit,  atque  opere  complevit. 
Post  ejus  [S.  Geraldi]  vero  obitum  S.  Adamnanus  Mageonensem 
Ecclesiam,  per  septem  annos  indefesse  rexit.  Inde  ad  lonensem 
Abbatiam  perrexit,  et  ibi  feliciter  in  Domino  obiit  et  sepultns  est." 
Now,  though  this  statement  is  open,  in  the  first  place,  to  the  grave 
objection  that  St.  Geraldus  was  later  than  Adamnan  instead  of 
prior  to  him,  and,  in  the  second,  that  a  monastery  founded  twenty 
years  previously  as  an  asylum  for  adherents  to  the  old  Easter,  was 
not  a  likely  place  to  entertain  the  professed  advocate  of  innova 
tion  ;  still,  the  story  seems  to  be  wrought  upon  an  ancient  tradition 
that  St.  Adamnan  traversed  Ireland  on  ecclesiastical  duty,  and 
spent  some  years  therein,  and  that,  having  gone  back  to  Hy  at  the 
end  of  about  seven  years,  he  died  soon  after. 

The  narrative  of  Adamnan's  proceedings,  from  his  first  visit  to 
the  court  of  Aldfrid  down  to  his  last  stay  in  Ireland,  as  given  in 
Mac  Firbis's  MS.  Annals,  is  so  amusingly  characteristic  of  native 
simplicity,  that  it  is  entitled,  notwithstanding  its  looseness,  to  find 
a  place  among  more  explicit  records.  "An  896  [recte  796].  In 
this  year  the  men  of  Erin  consented  to  receive  jurisdiction  and  one 
rule  from  Adamnan  respecting  the  celebration  of  Easter  on  Sunday, 
on  the  fourteenth  of  the  moon  of  April ;  and  the  coronal  tonsure 
of  Peter  was  performed  upon  the  clerics  of  Erin,  for  there  had  been 
great  variance  in  Erin  on  these  questions,  until  then,  inasmuch  as 
some  of  the  clerics  of  Erin  were  in  the  habit  of  celebrating  Easter 
on  Sunday  the  14th  of  the  moon  of  April,  and  had  the  coronal 
tonsure  of  Peter  the  Apostle,  following  in  the  steps  of  Patrick ; 
others,  following  Columcille,  celebrated  Easter  on  the  fourteenth  of 
the  moon  of  April,  whatever  day  of  the  week  that  fourteenth  should 
happen  to  fall,  and  had  the  coronal  tonsure  of  Simon  Magus.  A 
third  party  followed  neither  the  sect  of  Patrick  nor  the  sect  of 
Columcille,  so  that  the  clergy  of  Erin  held  many  synods,  and  they 
used  to  come  to  these  synods  with  weapons,  so  that  pitched  battles 
used  to  be  fought  between  them,  and  many  used  to  be  slain ;  so 
that  many  evils  ensued  to  Erin  from  this,  namely,  the  Bear-mor, 
and  the  very  great  dearth,  and  many  diseases ;  and  extern  tribes 
injured  Erin.  They  continued  thus  for  a  long  period,  and  even  to 
the  time  of  Adamnan.  He  was  the  ninth  abbot  who  succeeded  to 
the  government  of  la  after  Columcille. 

"A  great  spoil  was  carried  off  by  the  Saxons  from  Erin. 
Adamnan  went  to  demand  a  restitution  of  the  spoil,  as  Bede  relates 
in  his  history.  The  greater  part  of  the  bishops  of  all  Europe 


clx  INTRODUCTION. 

assembled  to  condemn  Adamnan  for  having  celebrated  Easter  after 
the  fashion  of  Columcille,  and  for  having  upon  him  the  tonsure  of 
Simon  Magus,  i.e.  ab  aure  ad  aurem.  Bede  says  that  though  many 
were  the  wise  men  in  that  synod,  Adamnan  excelled  them  all  in 
wisdom  and  eloquence  ;  and  Adamnan  said,  It  was  not  in  imita 
tion  of  Simon  Magus  that  he  had  this  tonsure,  but  in  imitation  of 
John  of  the  Breast,  the  foster-son  of  the  Kedeemer,  and  that  this 
was  the  tonsure  which  he  had  upon  him,  and  that  though  Peter 
loved  the  Saviour,  the  Saviour  loved  John  ;  and  that  it  was  on  the 
fourteenth  of  the  moon  of  April,  on  whatever  day  of  the  week  that 
should  fall,  the  Apostles  celebrated  Easter.  Then  an  old  senior 
rising  up  said,  Though  Columcille  himself  were  present  here,  we 
would  not  leave  him  until  he  should  be  of  the  same  rule  with  our 
selves  ;  but  you  we  will  not  quit,  until  you  be  of  the  same  rule 
with  ourselves.  Adamnan  made  answer  unto  him  and  said,  I  shall 
be  of  the  same  rule  with  you.  Be  tonsured  therefore,  accordingly, 
said  the  bishops.  It  will  be  sufficient  that  I  do  so,  said  Adamnan, 
at  my  own  monastery.  No,  said  they,  but  immediately.  Adamnan 
was  then  tonsured,  and  no  greater  honour  was  ever  shown  to  man 
than  was  given  to  Adamnan  on  this  occasion ;  and  that  great  spoil 
was  restored  to  him,  and  he  came  straight  home  to  his  own  monas 
tery  of  la.  It  was  a  great  surprise  to  his  congregation  to  see  him 
with  that  tonsure.  He  then  requested  of  the  congregation  to  re 
ceive  the  tonsure,  but  they  refused,  and  he  got  nothing  from  them, 
sed  Deus  permissit  conventui  peccare,  i.e.  ipsum  Adamnanum  expellere, 
qui  misertus  est  Hibernice.  Sic  Beda  dixit ;  for  Bede  was  along  with 
Adamnan.  Now  Adamnan  came  afterwards  to  Erin,  and  his  fame 
spread  throughout  the  land,  but  that  one  regulation  of  Easter  and 
of  the  tonsure  was  not  received  from  him  until  this  year,  anno 
Domini  696,  and  Adamnan  died  in  the  year  703,  in  the  7  8th  year 
of  his  age." 

Bede  records  the  last  stage  in  our  saint's  life,  "  Qui  cum  cele- 
brato  in  Hibernia  canonico  pascha,  ad  suam  insulam  revertisset, 
suoque  monasterio  catholicam  temporis  paschalis  observantiam 
instantissime  prsedicaret,  nee  tamen  perficere  quod  conabatur  posset, 
contigit  eum  ante  expletum  anni  circulum  migrasse  de  sseculo. 
Divina  utique  gratia  disponente,  ut  vir  unitatis  ac  pacis  studio- 
sissimus  ante  ad  vitam  raperetur  seternam,  quam  redeunte  tempore 
paschali,  graviorem  cum  eis  qui  eum  ad  veritatem  sequi  nolebant, 
cogeretur  habere  discordiam."  This  was,  according  to  the  Irish 
Annals,  in  the  year  704  :  in  which  the  reformed  Easter  fell  on  the 
30th  of  March.  He  died  on  the  23d  of  September,  which  is  the 
day  of  his  commemoration  both  in  the  Irish  and  Scotch  calendars. 

Of  the  character  of  Adamnan  for  learning  and  the  graces  of  the 
Christian  ministry,  we  have  the  highest  testimony  in  the  contem- 


INTRODUCTION.  clxi 

porary  statements  of  Bede  and  Ceolfrid.  Alcuin,  later  in  the  same 
century,  ranks  him  with  Columba  and  Comgall,  in  the  well-known 
epigram  : — 

"  Patritius,  Cheranus,  Scotorum  gloria  gentis, 

Atque  Columbanus,  Congallus,  Adomnanus  atque, 

Prseclari  patres,  morum  vitaeque  magistri, 

His  precibus  pietas  horum  nos  adjuvet  omnes." 

In  a  later  age,  Fordun,  in  addition  to  the  trite  commemoration, 
"virtutibus  pollens  et  miraculis,"1  says  of  his  literary  fidelity, 
"  quando  historias  et  res  gestas  conscripsit,  de  more  semper  habuit 
auctorem  suum  in  testimonium  adducere."  The  Irish,  of  course,  are 
loud  in  his  praises.  In  the  Vision  he  is  styled  the  "  noble  sage  of 
the  western  world,"2  and  his  Life  ascribes  to  him  the  combined 
virtues  of  Patriarchs  and  Apostles,  while  the  Four  Masters  sum  up 
the  evidence  thus  :  "  Adamnan  was  a  good  man,  according  to  the 
testimony  of  St.  Beda,  for  he  was  tearful,  penitent,  given  to  prayer, 
diligent,  ascetic,  temperate  ;  he  never  used  to  eat  except  on  Sunday 
and  Thursday  ;  he  made  a  slave  of  himself  to  these  virtues ;  and, 
moreover,  he  was  wise  and  learned  in  the  clear  understanding  of 
the  Holy  Scriptures  of  God."  Yet  he  was  not  without  his  tempta 
tions,  and  there  is  a  curious  coincidence  between  his  Irish  Life  and 
the  Lessons  in  the  Breviary  of  Aberdeen  as  to  the  manner  in  which 
the  enemy  made  his  assaults,  namely,  in  human  form,  and  with 
knotty,  diabolical  questions.  The  philosophy  of  these  legends  is 
that  they  arose,  in  an  imaginative  age,  out  of  the  prevailing  and 
well-founded  belief  in  Adamnan's  learning  and  mental  ability. 
Among  his  many  virtues,  diligence  in  his  calling  seems  to  have 
been  one.  The  energy  of  his  character  has  left  its  impress  on  the 
traditions  of  the  country  in  the  many  journeys  which  he  undertook, 
and  the  synods  which  he  held ;  and  he  himself  bears  honest  testi 
mony  to  the  multiplicity  of  his  labours,  in  the  epilogue  of  his  tract 
on  the  Holy  Places  :  "  Quse  et  ego  quamlibet  inter  laboriosas  et 
prope  insustentabiles  tota  die  undique  conglobatas  ecclesiasticas 
sollicitudines  constitutus,  vili  quamvis  sermone  describens  de- 
claravi."  Filial  piety  was  another  of  his  virtues,  and  out  of  his 
character  for  it  grew  the  legend  cited  in  the  Notes  (p.  245),  and 
the  title  of  his  Feilire,  or  Festology,  Incipit  Feilire  Adamnain  dia 
Mathair  [for  his  mother]  hie. 

The  undoubted  writings  of  Adamnan  are,  his  tract  De  Locls 
Saudis,  and  the  Vita  S.  Columbce.  The  former,  whose  authorship  is 
proved  beyond  all  question  by  Bede,  opens  with  the  following  pro 
logue  :  "  In  nomine  Patris  et  Filii  et  Spiritus  Sancti,  texere  librum 
de  locis  incipio  sanctis.  Arculfus  sanctus  episcopus,  gente  Gallus, 
diversorum  longe  remotorum  peritus  locorum,  verax  index  et  satis 

1  B.  III.  c.  43.  2  ardecnaid  iarlhair  domain. 


clxii  INTRODUCTION. 

idoneus,  in  Hierosolymitana  civitate  per  menses  novem  hospitatus, 
et  locis  cotidianis  visitationibus  peragratis,  mini  Adanmano  hsec 
uni versa  quae  infra  craxanda  sunt,  experimenta  diligentius  perscru- 
tanti,  et  primo  in  tabulas  describenti,  fideli  et  indubitabili  narra- 
tione  dictavit,  quse  nunc  in  membranis  brevi  textu  scribuntur." 
This  interesting  record  is  an  important  item  in  the  history  of 
writing,  as  showing  the  collateral  and  respective  uses  among  the 
Irish  of  waxed  tablets  and  membranes  for  literary  purposes,  to 
wards  the  close  of  the  seventh  century. 

The  other  genuine  work  of  Adamnan  wants  the  external 
evidence  which  the  tract  De  Locis  Srmctis  possesses,  and  bears  testi 
mony  on  certain  ecclesiastical  questions  which  it  has  sometimes 
been  judged  desirable  to  invalidate.  Sir  James  Dalrymple,  in 
1714,  when  defending  the  Presbyterian  view  of  Church  govern 
ment,  found  it  convenient  to  throw  discredit  on  the  anecdote 
told  in  i.  35  (p.  142),  and,  as  a  means  towards  this,  called  the 
genuineness  of  the  whole  work  in  question.  "  I  cannot  agree,"  said 
Sir  James,  "  with  our  Biographer,  that  the  Authority  of  Adamnanus 
is  equal,  far  less  preferable,  to  that  of  Bede,  since  it  was'  agreed  on 
all  hands  to  be  a  fabulous  History,  lately  published  in  his  Name, 
and  that  he  was  remarkable  for  nothing,  but  that  he  was  the  first 
Abbot  of  that  Monastery,  who  quit  the  Scottish  Institution,  and 
became  fond  of  the  English  Romish  Kites."  In  our  own  day  Doctor 
Giles,  when  translating  Bede's  Ecclesiastical  History,  added  the 
remark  :  "  Besides  the  work  '  On  the  Holy  Places,'  Adamnan  is  the 
reputed  author  of  a  '  Life  of  Saint  Columba/  but  I  have  strong 
doubts  of  Adamnan's  having  written  it.  I  propose  shortly  to  pub 
lish  the  original  text  of  both  these  works."  On  what  the  writer's 
scruples  were  founded  does  not  appear,  as  the  proposed  oppor 
tunity  of  declaring  it  has  never  occurred.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that  the 
doubts  originated  in  a  different  style  of  research  from  that  which 
made  Bede's  Columcelli  an  island,  and  Dearmach  the  same  as  Deny  ! 
Lastly,  in  1851,  a  Prussian  clergyman,  hoping  to  extend  to  a  por 
tion  of  British  antiquities  the  enlightenment  of  German  criticism, 
objected  to  the  Vita  Adamnani  on  these  grounds  :  "  Hsec  ipsa  adeo 
fabulis  est  obscurata,  ut  vix  credi  possit,  vii  saeculo,  quo  literae 
apud  Hyienses  floruerunt,  ejusmodi  nugas  esse  conscriptas.  Pro- 
logi  autem  Vitae  suspicionem  mihi  faciunt,  quorum  titulum  '  Prae- 
fatio  Apologiaque  Adamnani  Abbatis  sancti  scriptoris'  a  librario 
esse  praepositum  nemo  non  videt,  apologiam  vero,  quae  tarn  stylo 
ac  sermone  quam  re  aliena  sit  a  Vita  ipsa,  ficticiam  esse,  facile  ap- 
paret."  But  surely  these  are  not  the  observations  of  one  qualified 
to  pronounce  judgment  on  such  a  question.  If  nugce  and  fabulce 
such  as  Adamnan's  indicate  spuriousness,  what  becomes  of  early 
biography  ?  As  to  the  title  of  the  Prologue,  had  he  consulted  a 
good  edition,  he  might  have  solved  that  difficulty ;  and  if  he  had 


INTRODUCTION. 

gone  further  he  might  have  found  the  Bollandist's  remarks  upon 
the  expression.  Lastly,  as  to  the  Apology,  the  res  is  of  course 
different  from  the  narrative  of  the  Vita,  while  the  stylus  ac  sermo 
are  so  similar  to  the  rest,  that  none  save  the  architect  of  a  paradox 
could  discern  the  difference  in  the  materials.  The  Life,  where  there 
is  a  slight  variation  of  style,  tells  its  own  story,  for  it  professes  to 
be  compilation ;  and  we  might  as  well  deny  the  genuineness  of 
Bede's  Ecclesiastical  History,  because  an  early  chapter  is  borrowed 
from  Gildas,  and  another  from  Constantius,  without  acknowledg 
ment.  There  is  internal  evidence  in  the  Life  on  the  following 
points  to  satisfy  any  but  a  theorist,  that,  1.  It  was  written  by  an 
ecclesiastic,  living  in  loua  insula  (pp.  189,  190),  styled  nostra 
(pp.  Ill,  190),  in  which  was  nostrum  monasterium  (pp.  131,  136, 
189);  2.  By  the  superior  of  the  monastery  (pp.  113, 118,  207  tit.)  ; 
whose  immediate  predecessor  was  Falbeus,  and  he  a  successor  of 
Segineus  (pp.  1 1 3,  1 1 8) ;  3.  By  one  who  conversed  with  those  who 
had  heard  S.  Columba's  voice  (p.  137);  who  conversed  with  a, 
person  who  remembered  the  night  on  which  S.  Columba  died  (p. 
215) ;  who  conversed  with  the  acquaintances  of  St.  Columba's 
friends  (pp.  129,  142,  215)  ;  who  conversed  with  a  person  who  had 
witnessed  the  battle  of  Dun-Ceithirn  in  629  (p.  146);  who  knew 
an  early  friend  of  the  St.  Fintan  who  died  in  635  (p.  116) ;  who 
conversed  with  the  nephew  of  his  predecessor  Virgnous  who  died 
in  623  (p.  208) ;  who  was  living  when  the  battle  of  Magh-Eath  took 
place  (p.  197);  who  witnessed  the  ravages  of  the  Great  Pestilence 
(p.  191);  who  was  a  personal  friend  of  King  Aldfrid  (p.  191)  ; 
who  lived  when  the  House  of  Gabhran  was  declining  (p.  198) ; 
4.  By  one  whose  name  was  Adamnan  (pp.  113,  146,  208,  215). 
Here  is  an  accumulation  of  evidence  which  should  satisfy  any  mind, 
and  the  more  so  as  it  is  for  the  most  part  undesigned  and  incidental, 
the  internal  counterpart  of  the  writer's  own  declaration  :  "  Hujus 
ergo  praemissae  narrationis  testes,  non  bini  tantum  vel  terni,  secun- 
dum  legem,  sed  centeni  et  amplius  adhuc  exstant"  (pp.  113,  190). 
Besides  these  Latin  works,  Adamnan  is  said  to  have  written, 

1.  A  Life  of  St.  Patrick.     This  is  twice  stated  in  the  Tripartite  Life. 

2.  Poems.     Tighernach  cites  some  verses  of  his,  at  the  year  695, 
and  the  Four  Masters,  at  742.     His  alleged  Feilire,  or  "  Festology," 
consisting  of  seven  quatrains  and  a  half,  comes  also  under  this  head. 
The  poem  on  the  remission  of  the  Boromean  tribute,  containing 
fifty-two  stanzas,  though  bearing  his  name,  is  hardly  compatible 
with  his  religious  character,  and  evidences  the  genius  rather  than 
the  piety  of  the  writer.     3.  Historia  Hibernorum  ab  origine  ad  sua 
tempora,  mentioned  by  Ward,  but  otherwise  unknown.     4.  Epitome 
metrica  triginta  voluminum  legum  Hibernicarum,  also  mentioned  by 
Ward ;  and,  like  the  preceding  article,  probably  some  compilation 
of  modern  date  and  no  authority. 


clxiv  INTllODUCTION. 

Of  Adamnan's  two  Latin  works,  the  tract  De  Locis  Sanctis  is  the 
better  written  and  more  flowing,  but  it  bears  a  striking  resemblance 
to  the  other  in  many  particulars  of  style,  and  the  use  of  peculiar 
words  and  phrases.  In  the  following  pages  the  reader  will  observe 
the  liberal  employment  of  diminutives,  so  characteristic  of  Irish 
composition ;  and  he  will  find  them,  in  many  cases,  used  without 
any  grammatical  force,  and  commutable,  in  the  same  chapters,  with 
their  primitives.  The  same  tendency  is  also  observable  among 
verbs  in  the  use  of  frequentatives  and  intensitives.  He  delights  in 
the  distributive  numerals  instead  of  cardinals,  and  in  the  adjective 
termination  ax  where  admissible.  He  uses  the  pluperfect  for  the 
perfect,  and  the  nominative  instead  of  the  ablative  absolute.  He 
occasionally  employs  Greek,  or  Greco-Latin  words ;  and  in  a  few 
instances  introduces  Irish  and  Hiberno-Latin  expressions.  Proper 
names  he  sometimes  inflects  according  to  the  rules  of  Irish  grammar, 
so  that  in  a  Latin  narrative  they  present  an  anomalous  appearance. 
Above  all,  the  artificial,  and  often  unnatural,  interweaving  of  his 
words,  in  long  sentences,  and  the  oft-recurring  ablative  absolute  in 
awkward  position,  will  strike  the  reader  as  remarkable  features  of 
the  style. 

One  subject  more  remains  to  be  considered  :  the  veneration  of 
St.  Adamnan's  memory.  In  testimony  of  this,  two  classes  of 
monuments  exist,  namely,  the  churches  under  his  patronage,  and 
the  appellations  commemorative  of  his  name. 

St.  Adamnan's  Irish  Churches. 

1 .  Bathboth.  He  is  the  patron,  but  not  the  founder,  of  this  church. 
It  was  originally  monastic ;  and  in  the  bestowal  of  conventual 
honours  among  the  ancient  Irish,  the  distinctions  of  orders  were 
not  regarded.     Hence,  when  Kaphoe  became  an  episcopal  see,  but 
under  its  old  patronage,  after-ages,  supposing  that  a  bishop's  see 
must   originate   with   a   bishop,  took   advantage   of  Adamnan's 
phonetic  name  Eunan,  and  created  a  bishop  Eunan  patron  of  the 
diocese,  moving  his  festival  a  fortnight  back  in  the  month,  and 
leaving  Adamnan  to  enjoy  his  old  abbatial  honours  on  the  23d. 
Pope  Clement  xn.  approved  of  a  mass  for  Bishop  Eunan's  festival 
on  the  7th  of  September,  which  was  printed  in  Paris  in  1734. 
Accordingly,   the   Bollandists  place   the   commemoration  of  "  S. 
Eunanus  Episcopus,  Confessor,  Kaphoae  in  Hibernia,"  at  Sept.  vii., 
in  a  short  notice  edited  by  Joannes  Stiltingus.     Alban  Butler,  fol 
lowing  this  authority,  repeats  the  error  at  the  same  day ;  and  in 
the  Irish  Calendar  appended  to  the  Dublin  edition  of  his  valuable 
book,  the  same  fictitious  patron  intrudes  on  another  saint's  day. 
St.  Adamnan's  bed  used  to  be  shown  at  Eaphoe. 

2.  Skreen. — A  parish  church  of  the  diocese  of  Killala,  in  the 
county  of  Sligo,  barony  of  Tireragh,  bounded  on  the  north  by 


INTRODUCTION.  clxv 

Sligo  Bay.  The  site  of  the  church  is  an  old  grant.  The  Life  of 
Farannan  relates  that  Tibraide  [son  of  Maelduin,  Lord  of  Hy- 
Fiachrach]  bestowed  upon  St.  Columba  and  his  fraternity  three 
pleasant  portions  of  ground,  one  of  which  "  locus  isto  sevo  Cnoc-na- 
maoile  dicebatur,  postea  a  S.  Adamnano  Abbate,  Serin- Adhamhnain, 
i.e.  Scrinium  S.  Adamnani  dictus."  St.  Adamnan  is  locally  called 
Awnaun,  and  his  well  is  situated  a  little  to  the  east  of  the  old 
church,  at  the  other  side  of  the  road.  From  this  well  the  townland 
Toberawnaun  [Tobar  Adhamhnain]  derives  its  name,  between  which 
and  the  townland  Soodry  runs  the  Dunmoran  stream.  Over  this 
rivulet,  in  connexion  with  a  boreen,  is  the  Drehid  Awnaun,  or 
"  Bridge  of  Adamnan,"  formed  of  a  flag  nine  feet  long,  and  nine 
inches  broad,  resting  on  two  stones  in  the  bed  of  the  stream,  two 
feet  high.  It  does  not  fill  the  whole  breadth  of  the  stream,  so  that 
at  either  end  there  is  a  vacant  space  between  it  and  the  bank.  The 
natives  say  it  was  formed  by  the  saint,  for  his  convenience  in  going 
from  his  church  to  the  strand ;  and  some  additions  which  were 
lately  made  to  it,  in  order  to  complete  the  continuity  of  the  path, 
were  speedily  removed,  as  foreign  to  the  original  design.  The 
church  derives  its  name,  it  is  said,  from  Adamnan' s  shrine,  which 
was  preserved  there.  This  shrine  might  be  supposed  to  enclose 
St.  Adamnan's  bones,  and  to  be  the  case  containing  the  reliquiae 
Adamnani,  which  were  brought  over  to  Ireland  in  727  for  the 
renewal  of  his  Law,  and  which  were  taken  back  to  Hy  in  730. 
But,  according  to  a  record  in  one  of  the  Brussels  MSS.,  which  was 
copied  by  Michael  O'Clery,  in  1629,  from  "  an  old  black  and  diffi 
cult  manuscript  of  parchment,"  the  contents  of  the  shrine  were  the 
various  relics  which  Adamnan  himself  had  collected.  The  record 
opens  by  saying,  "  Illustrious  was  this  Adamnan.  It  was  by  him 
was  gathered  the  great  collection  of  the  relics  [martra]  of  the 
saints  into  one  shrine,  and  that  was  the  shrine  which  Cilline  Droic- 
thech,  son  of  Dicolla,  brought  to  Erin  to  make  peace  and  friend 
ship  between  the  Cinel  Conaill  and  Cinel  Eoghain."  It  then  pro 
ceeds  to  enumerate  the  twenty-six  articles  which  were  enclosed  in 
it,  consisting  of  manuscripts  of  the  Gospels,  hymns,  and  poems ; 
articles  of  apparel  belonging  to  the  saints  of  Ireland ;  and  a  few 
relics  of  St.  Paul  and  the  Virgin  Mary ;  the  aggregate  of  which 
must  have  filled  a  large  box,  and  been  a  rather  heavy  load  to  carry 
about.  Colgan  couples  this  shrine  with  the  church  of  Skreen,  and 
observes  :  "  Est  ecclesia  multorum  reliquiis  nobilis  et  veneranda, 
Dicecesis  Kill-aladen,  in  regione  de  Tir  Fhiachrach,  de  qua,  vide 
plura  in  notis  ad  vitam  S.  Adamnani,  ubi  dabimus  catalogum  reli- 
quiarum  in  illo  scrinio  reconditarum."  In  832  the  shrine  of 
Adamnan  was  in  the  keeping  of  Tuathal  mac  Feradhaich,  Abbot  of 
Rechra  and  Durrow,  from  whom  it  was  carried  off  from  Donagh- 
moyne  by  the  Danes.  It  is  very  likely  that  there  were  two 


Clxvi  INTRODUCTION. 

shrines  called  Adamnan's,  the  older,  containing  his  own  remains, 
which  is  the  one  referred  to  in  the  Annals,  the  other,  containing 
the  miscellaneous  objects  mentioned  in  the  catalogue,  which  was  in 
after-times  coupled  with  his  name,  and  preserved  in  his  church  of 
Skreen. 

3.  Drumhome. — A  parish  in  the  diocese  of  Raphoe,  county  of 
Donegal,  barony  of  Tirhugh.     It  is  the  Dorsum  Tomme  mentioned 
in  such  interesting  connexion  at  p.  215,  and  was  probably  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  St.  Adamnan's  birthplace.     The  seat  of  a  power 
ful  branch  of  the  Cinel  Conaill  was  in  this  parish  (p.  122) ;  and  in 
it  was  also  preserved  the  reliquary  called  the  Cathach  (p.  Ix). 
Fleming,  in  reference   to  Adamnan,   says :    "  Animadvertendum, 
ipsum  antequam  Hiensis  monasterii  administrationem  suscepisset, 
plura  in  Hibernia  monasteria,  sub  editse  a  se  regulse  prsescriptis 
erexisse,  quorum  praecipua  fuere  Rapotense,  Pontis-Adamnani,  Droim- 
tuamense,  et  Scrinense."     To  this  list  Colgan  adds  :    "  Colitur   S. 
Adamnanus  in  Ecclesiis  de  Dunbo,  Aregal,  Boithfheabha,  et  Grel- 
leach,  in  dioecesi  Derensi." 

4.  Errigal. — A  parish  in  the  diocese  of  Deny,  county  of  London 
derry,  barony  of  Colerairie,  formerly  called,  from  its  patron,  Airecal 
Adliamhnain,  the  "  habitation  of  Adamnan."     It  is  now  best  known 
through  its  village  Garvagh.     The  present  parish  church  stands  on 
a  modern  site.     The  old  site  is  in  the  townland  of  Ballintemple, 
where  the  foundations  remain,  measuring  52  by  18  feet.     South  of 
this  is  the  only  local  commemoration  which  now  remains  in  the 
parish,  namely,  an  eminence  called  St.  Onan's  Hock.    It  is  marked  on 
the  Ordnance  Map  (sheet  18,  at  foot),  but  at  the  time  it  was  noted 
there  was  not  a  man  in  the  county  that  knew  who  St.  Onan  was. 

5.  Dunbo. — A  parish  in  the  same  diocese,  county,  and  barony. 
The  ruins  of  the  old  church,  situate  near  Downhill,  measure  6 3 '2 
by  27'6  feet.    In  this  parish  is  the  Munitio  Cethirni  of  p.  145,m/ra. 

6.  Bovevagli. — A  parish  in  the  same  diocese  and  county,  barony  of 
Keenaght.     Archbishop  King's  list  makes  S.  Eugenius  the  patron, 
which  name  may  be  regarded  as  a  Latin  form  of  Eunan.     Local 
belief  makes  St.  Ringan,  that  is,  Ninian,  the  patron  ;  but  Colgan's 
authority,  already  cited,  is  superior,  as  he  lived  in  an  age  when 
these  matters  were  better  understood  than  now.     The  old  church 
measures  51  feet  by  17*6. 

7.  Grreallach. — Now   Templemoyle,  in   the   parish  of  Cloncha, 
diocese  of  Derry,  county  of  Donegal,  barony  of  Inishowen.     It  is  a 
small  burial-ground,   with  the  faintest  traces  of  a  quadrilateral 
building ;  situate  on  a  rocky  slope,  amidst  a  wretched  group  of 
cabins,  which  form  the  hamlet  of  Templemoyle  on  the  road  between 
Culdaff  and  Carn.     It  contains  but  one  tombstone,  bearing  the 
name  of  James  Maginnis,  a  schoolmaster,  who  died  Jan.  25,  1819. 

8.  Ballindrait. — In  the  parish  of  Clonleigh,  diocese  of  Derry, 


INTRODUCTION.  clxvii 

county  of  Donegal,  and  barony  of  Eaphoe.  It  adjoins  Raphoe  on 
the  east,  and  is  the  Pans  Adamnani  mentioned  above  by  Fleming. 
The  Irish  name  is  Droichd  Adhamhnain.  There  is  no  church  there 
now. 

9.  Syonan. — A  townland  in  the  parish  of  Ardnurcher,  diocese  and 
county  of  Meath,  barony  of  Moycashel.     It  is  Suidhe  Adhamlmdin 
in  Irish,  that  is,  "  Seat  of  Adamnain."     The  ruins  of  a  castle  exist 
here,  but  Macgeoghegan  says  that  it  was  not  church  land.     The 
tradition  of  the  neighbourhood  is  that  St.  Adamnan,  when  on  a 
visit   to  Ireland,  preached   to  his   relatives,  the  'descendants  of 
Fiacha,  son  of  Niall,  on  a  hill  in  the  townland,  which  ever  since 
has  borne  his  name. 

1 0.  Killonan. — A  townland  in  the  parish  of  Derrygalvin,  county 
of  Limerick.     The  name  seems  to  be  formed  from  cill  Adhamhnain, 
but  without  confirmation  from  any  other  ostensible  local  evidence. 

St.  Adamnan's  Scotch  Churches. 

1.  Furvie. — A  chapelry  in  the  parish  of  Slains,  on  the  east  coast 
of  Aberdeen,  north  of  the  Ythan  Mouth.     This  seems  to  have  been 
Adamnan's  chief  commemoration  in  Scotland,  for  it  is  the  one 
connected   with   his   name   in   the   Breviary  of  Aberdeen  :    "  S. 
Adampnani  abbatis  patroni  apud  Furui  Aberdon.  dyoces."     In  the 
View  of  the  Diocese  of  Aberdeen  it  is  stated,  under  parish  of 
Slaines  :  "  Here  stood  of  old  the  parish  church  of  Furvie  (dedicated 
to  St.  Fidamnan,  Abbot  of  Icolmkill),  overblown  by  the  sands." 
The  New  Stat.  Acct.  says,  "  On  the  estate  of  Leask,  there  is  another 
ruin  of  a  religious  house,  evidently  a  Roman  Catholic  chapel,  as 
the  place  where  the  altar  stood  is  plainly  discernible.     It  is  small, 
but  must  be  considered  a  fine  old  ruin.     One  gable  and  Gothic 
window  are  still  nearly  entire,  and  the  walls  are  overgrown  with 
ivy.     It  stands  in  the  middle  of  a  small  plantation  of  stunted  firs 
and  alder,  on  a  little  eminence  gently  rising  from  a  swampy  bottom, 
with  a  rivulet  half  enclosing  it  on  the  south  side.     It  is  called  St. 
Adamannan's  Chapel."     The  same  name  is  given  to  it  in  the  Old 
Statistical  Account. 

2.  Forgkn. — A  parish  in  the  north-east  angle  of  Banff,  separated 
from  Aberdeenshire  by  the  Doveran.     It  was  also  called  Teunan- 
kirk,  from  a  peculiar  form  of  the  patron's  name.     Adam  King,  in 
his  Calendar,  at  Sept.  23,  has  "S.  Thewnan  abbot  and  confessor 
in  Scotland  maister  to  king  eugenius  ye  6.  684."     Dempster  also 
calls  him  Thewnanus,  placing  his  day  at  Sept.  23 ;  but  Camerarius, 
while   he   mentions  "  Sanctus  Adamannus   Episcopus,  Northum- 
brorum  Apostolus"   (a   man  who   never   existed),   at   Sept.    25, 
notices  "Sanctus  Thevuanus  Abbas  et  Confessor"  at  Sept.   26, 
adding,  "Monasterio  Mailrossensi  diu  prsefuit  hie  Sanctus."     The 


clxviii  INTRODUCTION. 

writer  in  the  Old  Stat.  Account  says,  "The  name  of  this  parish 
was  formerly  'T  Eunan,  or  St.  Eunan,  after  the  saint  of  that  name 
to  whom  the  church  had  been  dedicated."  In  the  New  Stat. 
Account,  it  is  added  that  the  ruins  of  the  chapel  still  remain  at 
the  mouth  of  a  rivulet  which  falls  into  the  Deveron.  The  valuable 
writer  in  the  Collections  on  the  Shires  of  Aberdeen  and  Banff 
observes,  "  Mr.  Thomas  Innes  takes  him  to  be  the  very  same  with 
Saint  Adamnan,  who  in  Irish  is  called  Ainan,  and  their  day  is 
the  same,  September  the  twenty-third  ;  Teunan  being  formed  from 
Saint  Ainan,  as  Trowel  and  Tantan  from  Saint  Eule  and  Saint 
Antony."  In  this  parish  was  formerly  kept  St.  Columba's  sacred 
banner,  called  the  Breacbannach,  mentioned  at  p.  xcvii ;  and  he 
was  also  a  patron  of  the  church. 

3.  Aboyn. — A  parish  in  the  south  of  Aberdeenshire,  on  the  north 
side  of  the  Dee.     "  Aboyn  hath  for  its  tutelar  Saint  Theunan." 
About   half-way  between  Aboyne  Castle   and   the   ruins  of  the 
ancient  parish  church  is  a  large  old  tree,  now  called  the  Skeulan 
Tree,  with  a  well  at  the  foot  of  it  called  the  Skeulan  Well     The 
tree  is  still  held  in  reverence.     Thomas  Innes  tells  us  that  he  was 
born  in  this  parish,  and  mentions  the  objects  alluded  to  as  called 
in  his  day,  "  S.  Eunan's  Well "  and  "  S.  Eunan's  Tree." 

4.  Tannadice. — A   parish    in    Forfar,   whose    patron   was    St. 
Columba.     A  large  rock  on  one  of  the  braes  of  Angus,  in  this 
parish,    is    called   SL   Arnold's  Seat.      That    this    name,   though 
apparently   so   far    removed,   has    been   formed   from    Adamnan, 
appears  by  the  following  extract  from  a  record  of  1527  : — "  Et 
sic   eundo  versus   austrum  usque  ad  caput  mentis  vocate  Sand 
Eunendi's  Seit."     Who  could  suppose  that  the  names  St.  Arnold's 
Seat  and  Syonan  were  identical  in  meaning ! 

5.  Inchkeith. — An  island  in  the  Firth  of  Forth,  E.N.E.  of  Inch 
Colm.     "  Inchekethe,  in  qua  prsefuit  Sanctus  Adamnanus  abbas, 
qui  honorifice  suscepit  Sanctum  Servanum,  cum  sociis  suis,  in  ipsa 
insula,  ad  primum  suum  adventum  in  Scotiam."    So  Fordun  (Bowar) 
states,  more  trustworthy  in  his  nomenclature  than  his  chronology. 

6.  Sanda. — An  island  off  the   Mull  of  Cantyre,  on  the   S.E. 
Fordun  says  of  it,  "  Insula  Awyn,  ubi  cella  Sancti  Adamnani, 
ibique  pro  transgressoribus  refugium."      Father  Mac  Cana's  MS. 
account  of  the  island  states  that  in  Irish  it  is  called  Abhuinn, 
Latinized  Avonia.     "In  ea  est  sedicula  S.  Ninniano  sacra,  ad  cujus 
ccenobium  in  Galvidia  tota  insula  spectat.     Conjunctum  huic  sedi- 
culse  est  ossarium  siue  sepulchretum  quatuordecim  filiorum  SS™1 
viri  Senchani  Hiberni  sanctitate  illustrium.    Saxeo  murulo  septum, 
in  quo  sunt  septem  grandia  et  polita  saxa,  quibus  sanctissima 
corpora  teguntur,  in  quorum  medio  erat  obeliscus,  altior  hominis 
statura.     Nemo  mortalium  impune  ingreditur  ilium  murulum." 


INTRODUCTION.  clxix 

7.  Killeunan. — A  denomination  of  land  in  the  parish  of  Kil- 
kerran,  in  Cantyre,  variously  written  Killewnane  and  Kilyownane, 
and,  no  doubt,  formed  from  dll  Adhamhnain. 

8.  Dalmeny. — A  parish  in  Linlithgowshire,  near  Queensferry, 
having  a  fine  old  Romanesque  church.     Here  was  a  chantry  of  St. 
Adamnan.     The  writer  in  the  New  Stat.  Account  says,  "From 
the  crown-charter   conveying  the   patronage  capallanice  et  altaris 
Sancti  Adamani  infra  ecclesiam  parochialem  de  Dummany,  it  would 
appear  to  have  been  dedicated  to  St.  Adaman,  as  the  adjoining 
parish  of  Cramond  was  to  St.  Columba  and  the  Virgin  Mary." 

At  Campsie,  in  Perthshire,  was  a  croft  of  land  called  St. 
Adamnan7 s  Acre. 

In  the  above  list  it  is  observable  that  the  dedications  of  St. 
Columba  and  Adamnan  keep  very  close  together.  In  Ireland, 
the  churches  of  Raphoe,  Skreen,  and  Drumhome  are  said  to  be 
founded  by  the  former,  yet  under  the  patronage  of  the  latter.  In 
Scotland,  Forglen  is  St.  Adamnan's,  but  in  it  were  St.  Columba's 
lands  of  the  Banner ;  St.  Columba's  church  of  Tannadice  has  St. 
Eunan's  Seat;  St.  Columba's  church  of  Belhelvy  neighbours  to 
Furvy;  Inch  Colm's  nearest  land  is  Inch  Keith;  and  St.  Columba's 
Cramond  has  Dalmeny  next  adjoining  on  the  west. 

The  memorial  appellation  formed  from  the  saint's  name  was 
Giolla- Adhamhnain,  or  "Servant  of  Adamnan."  It  early  became 
a  Christian  name,  and  we  find  an  example  of  it  in  the  Charters 
of  Kells  in  the  beginning  of  the  twelfth  century  (p.  clxxix,  infra). 
It  appears  about  the  same  time  in  the  MacDonnell  family, 
for  Somerlid,  son  of  Gilla-Adhamnain,  fell  in  1164.  Subsequently 
it  became  a  favourite  name  in  the  family,  and  passed  into  that 
branch  of  it  called  the  MacNeills  of  Barra.  Among  them  we 
find,  in  1495,  Gilleownan  Makneill,  grandson  of  Gilleownan.  In 
Ireland  it  was  borne  by  an  O'Freel  in  1328.  According  to  the 
usual  process  it  became  also  a  surname,  and  is  the  origin  of  Mac 
Lennan,  the  name  of  the  old  inhabitants  of  Glenshiel  in  Ross-shire, 
which  has  passed  into  that  familiar  form  from  Mac  Gilla- Adhamhnain, 
as  appears  from  the  genealogy  of  the  clan,  who  derive  their  name 
from  Gillaagamnan,  son  of  Cormac,  son  of  Oirbertach,  of  the  race 
of  Ferchar  Abhradhruadh. 

Few  names,  in  passing  from  their  real  to  their  phonetic  forms, 
have  undergone  such  transformations  as  that  of  our  author.  Who 
would  suppose  that  Adamnan  and  Eunan  were  intended  for  the 
same  person,  or  that  Adampnanus  and  Thewnan  were  resolvable 
into  a  common  original  ?  Adamnan  is  an  Irish  diminutive  of 
Adam,  as  Cormac  interprets  the  word  in  his  Glossary :  ADOMNAN  .i. 
homungculus,  disbecadh  anma  Adhaimh,  "  ADOMNAN,  i.e.  homungculus, 

I 


INTRODUCTION. 

a  diminutive  of  the  word  Adam."  Under  the  effect  of  aspiration, 
Adhamh  loses  the  force  of  its  consonants,  and  assumes  the  various 
sounds  of  Au,  Eu,  0,  and  Ou  ;  hence,  when  the  diminutive  termina 
tion  is  added,  it  produces  the  respective  words  Aunan,  Eunan,  Onan, 
Ounan  :  these  are  the  forms  of  pronunciation  which  the  name 
Adamnan  has  assumed  in  Ireland. 

In  the  north-east  of  Scotland,  as  in  Aberdeen  and  Banff,  there  is 
a  tendency  to  prefix  certain  consonants  to  saints'  names,  either  as 
an  equivalent  for  St.,  or  to  facilitate  the  pronunciation.  Thus  St. 
Rule  becomes  Trowel,  and  St.  Antony  Tantan ;  and  hence  Eunan 
becomes  Theunan,  as  in  the  parish  of  Aboyne,  where  a  fresh  change 
takes  place,  and  St.  Adamnan's  Well  and  Tree  become  Skeulan 
Wall,  and  Skeulan  Tree.  Again,  at  Forvey,  in  the  parish  of  Slains, 
Adamnan  becomes  Fidamnan ;  and  in  Forglen,  Adamnan's  church 
is  Teunan  Kirk.  But,  at  Dull,  in  Atholl,  the  form  Eonan  is  pre 
served,  as  at  Kilcherran  in  Cantyre,  where  we  find  the  compound 
Killewnane  or  Killownane. 

The  consequence  of  this  diversity  in  the  written  and  spoken 
forms  of  the  name  has  been  that  even  the  best  writers  have  created 
one  or  more  additional  saints,  and  have  put  the  acts  of  Adamnan 
in  commission.  Thus,  in  Ireland,  Sir  James  Ware  represents 
Raphoe  as  founded  by  Columba,  repaired  by  Adamnan,  and  changed 
from  an  abbey  to  a  cathedral  by  St.  Eunan,  "  who  is  looked  upon 
to  be  the  first  bishop  of  the  see."  And  this  misapprehension 
appears,  even  at  a  recent  date,  in  the  Fasti  Ecclesise  Hibernicse, 
where  the  learned  compiler  observes  of  the  first  bishop  of  Raphoe, 
"  St.  Eunan  is  commonly  reported  to  have  erected  the  abbey  church 
of  Raphoe  into  a  cathedral,  and  to  have  been  its  first  bishop ;  but 
nothing  certain  appears  to  be  known  of  him,  nor  of  the  time  at 
which  he  lived."  What  is  more  remarkable,  St.  Eunan's  day  has 
been  observed  on  the  7th  of  September,  while  St.  Adamnan's  was 
kept  on  the  23d.  Battersby's  Catholic  Directory  for  1855  repre 
sents  St.  Eunan,  the  patron  saint  of  Raphoe,  as  a  Bishop,  but  of  the 
famous  individual  called  by  Yen.  Bede  Adamnan  presbyter,  ouSel? 
Xo7o?.  Such  an  error  should  not  have  been  committed  in  the  jj 
century,  one  of  the  ornaments  of  which  had  said,  "I  strongly  suspect  j 
that  St.  Eunan,  who  is  usually  called  the  first  bishop  of  Raphoe,  was  j 
no  other  than  Adamnan." 

Scottish  writers  are  less  in  error.     The  Breviary  of  Aberdeen 
correctly  places  S.  Adampnanus,  Abbas,  at  Sept.  23;  Adam  King 
and  Dempster  commemorate  St.  Thewnan,  who  is  represented  as  j4 
preceptor  of  King  Eugenius  VI.,  at  Sept.  23;  and  Keith,  in  like 
manner,  only  that  he  represents  the  saint  by  the  name  of  Thennan.  j 
The  Scotch  Prayer  Book  of  1638,  in  its  Calendar,  borrows  the  • 
Irish  error  of  making  him  a  bishop,  and  places  his  day  at  Sept. 


INTRODUCTION.  clxxi 

25.     But  T.  Innes  was  aware  of  these  inaccuracies,  and  spoke  of 
Adamnan  as  "  called  by  the  vulgar  S.  Deunan  or  Theunan." 

Among  English  writers,  Alban  Butler  repeats  Sir  James  Ware's 
mistakes ;  while  Sir  Harris  Nicholas,  gathering  up  the  blunders  of 
Ireland  and  Scotland,  makes  a  tripartite  division  of  Adamnan's 
sanctity,  and  sets  out  in  his  Calendar — 

Eunan,  Bishop  of  Eaphoe,    .         .         at  Sept  7  ; 
Adamnan,  Abbot,         ...         at  Sept.  23;  and 
Thennan,  Abbot  and  Confessor,     .         at  Sept.  23. 

The  variety  of  the  name  in  early  records  consists  only  in  the 
difference  of  Adamnan  and  Adomnan.  Cod.  A.,  in  the  four  places 
where  the  word  occurs,  reads  Adomnanus ;  Cod.  B.  reads  Adam- 
nanus  once,  and  Adomnanus  twice;  Codd.  C.  F.  S.  vary  in  like 
manner ;  Cod.  D.  always  reads  Adamnanus.  The  title  of  the  tract 
De  Locis  Sanctis  has  Adamnanus.  Among  ancient  writers,  Ven. 
Bede  reads  Adamnan  or  Adamnanus  six  times ;  while  Alcuin  has 
Adomnanus.  The  Lives  of  SS.  Fechin  and  Geraldus,  Fordun,  and 
the  Breviary  of  Aberdeen,  write  the  name  with  a.  Among  the 
Annalists,  Tighernach  has  Adamnanus  three  times,  and  Adomnan 
six ;  An.  Ult.  read  Adomnan  always ;  An.  Inisf.  Adamnan  always  ; 
the  Four  Masters  Adamnan  twelve  times,  and  Adomnan  once ;  the 
Annals  of  Boyle  Adamnan ;  and  the  Annals  of  Cambria  Adom 
nanus.  The  Vision  of  Adamnan  has  Adamnan  four  times,  and 
Adomnan  once.  The  prose  description  of  Tara  in  the  Dinnseanchus 
has  Adomnan,  the  metrical  Adamnan.  Among  the  Calendars,  the 
Felire,  Marian  Gorman,  and  O'Clery's  read  am;  the  Martyrol. 
Tamhlacht.  om.  Thus  it  is  seen  there  is  no  fixed  practice ;  how 
ever,  as  the  etymology  of  the  word  favours  the  use  of  a-,  and  as  the 
substitution  of  o  is  probably  to  exhibit  the  phonetic  value  of  the 
original  vowel,  it  has  been  deemed  advisable  in  the  present  work 
to  adopt  the  form  which  has  been  printed  in  the  text. 


X.— CONAMHAIL.     Sed.  704-710.     Ob.  Sept.  11. 

Son  of  Failbhe.  The  first  abbot  of  Hy,  whose  descent  is  referred 
to  a  different  house  from  that  of  Conal  Gulban.  He  was  one  of  the 
Clann  Colla,  being  of  the  race  of  Colla  Uais,  who  was  king  of 
Ireland  in  323  (Calend.  Dungall.),  and  therefore  one  of  the  Airghi- 
alla  or  Oriellians.  Tighernach  writes  the  name  Conmael,  but  the 
other  authorities,  as  above.  During  his  term  of  office,  Dunchadh 
is  stated  by  the  Annals  of  Tighernach  and  of  Ulster  to  have  held  the 
principatus  of  Hy,  by  which  we  may  understand,  either  that  he  was 
appointed,  in  consequence  of  the  age  or  infirmity  of  Conamhail,  to 
administer  the  affairs  of  the  society,  as  a  tanist  abbot,  or  that  some 
schism  in  the  community,  possibly  on  the  Paschal  question  (for 


clxxii  INTRODUCTION. 

Dunchadh  proved  a  reformer  in  716)  led  to  a  rival  appointment. 
See  O'Conor's  note  in  Her.  Hib.  Script,  vol.  iv.  p.  72. 


XI— DUNCHADH.    Sed.  710-717.    Ob.  Maij  25. 

Son  of  Cennfaeladh.  Called  Duunchadus  by  Bede  (H.  E.  v.  22). 
He  was  of  the  most  noble  branch  of  the  house  of  Conall  Gulban,  for 
his  grandfather  Maelcobha,  who  died  in  615,  was  the  third  of  the 
family  who  were  successively  monarchs  of  Ireland,  and  his  grand- 
uncle  Domhnall,  who  won  the  battle  of  Magh  Rath  (197)  in  637, 
succeeded  Maelcobha  on  the  throne.  During  his  presidency  there 
seems  to  have  been  a  schism  in  the  community,  for  in  713  and  716, 
two  other  members  of  the  order  were  elected  to  the  cathedra  foe  or 
Columbce :  or  it  may  be  that  a  different  office,  such  as  prior ',  or  even 
bishop,  is  denoted  by  the  expression.  On  the  death  of  Conamail, 
he  succeeded  to  the  vacant  abbacy,  and  it  was  not  till  713  that 
Dorbene  was  appointed  to  the  chair :  who  died  in  the  same  year. 
The  next  election  to  the  chair  was  in  716,  and  Faelcu,  son  of  Dor 
bene,  who  was  then  chosen,  outlived  him,  and  succeeded  him  in  the 
full  enjoyment  of  the  abbacy.  It  was  under  this  abbot  that  the 
Columbian  monks  conformed  to  the  Roman  Easter  and  Tonsure. 
The  last  occasion  on  which  the  old  Easter  was  observed  was  at  the 
festival  of  715,  after  a  duration  of  150  years  (Bede,  H.  E.  iii.  4). 
The  change  was  effected  through  the  exertions  of  a  Northumbrian 
priest,  called  Ecgberct,  "  qui  in  Hibernia  diutius  exulaverat  pro 
Christo,  eratque  et  doctissimus  in  scripturis  et  longae  vitse  perfec- 
tione  eximius  "  (ib.)  The  place  of  his  abode  had  been  "  in  monas- 
terio  quod  lingua  Scottorum  Rathmelsigi  appellatur"  (iii.  27). 
Having  meditated  a  missionary  journey  to  north  Germany,  he  is 
said  to  have  been  diverted  from  his  purpose  by  a  vision,  in  which 
his  former  master  Boisil  appeared  to  him,  and  declared  that  "  Dei 
voluntatis  est  ut  ad  Columbse  monasteria  magis  pergat  docenda  " 
(v.  9).  Accordingly,  when  upon  the  conformity  of  the  Picts  to  the 
Roman  observance,  one  of  the  three  remaining  obstacles  to  the 
unity  was  removed,  an  opportunity  offered  for  the  accomplishment 
of  a  work  in  Hy,  which  Adamnan,  a  few  years  before,  had  attempted 


XII— FAELCU.    Sed.  717-724.    Ob.  April  3. 

Son  of  Dorbene,  of  the  race  of  Conall  Gulban,  but  in  a  different 
line  from  the  preceding  abbots,  namely,  through  his  son  Nathi. 
He  was  born  in  642,  for  he  was  74  years  old  when  he  was  elected 
to  the  cathedra  Columbe  in  716,  and  he  was  82  years  of  age  when 
he  died.  Under  him,  according  to  Tighernach,  the  society  of  Hy 
received  the  coronal  tonsure.  There  is  some  uncertainty  about  his 
festival :  Colgan  places  it  at  April  3,  but  the  name  does  not  appear 
in  the  Calendars  at  that  day.  They  have  Faolchu,  without  any 
place,  at  May  23,  and  July  20.  It  was  probably  soon  after  his 
accession  that  the  Columbian  congregation  was  driven  by  King 
Nechtan  beyond  the  Pictish  frontier.  They  were,  no  doubt,  reluc 
tant  to  acquiesce  in  the  royal  edict,  "  Hoc  observare  tempus  paschse 
cum  uni versa  mea  gente  perpetuo  volo  ;  hanc  accipere  debere  ton- 


INTRODUCTION.  clxxiii 

suram  quam  plenam  esse  rationis  audimus,  omnes  qui  in  meo  regno 
sunt  clericos  decerno." — (Bede,  H.  E.  v.  21.) 


XIII.— CILLENE  FADA.     Sed.  724-726.     Ob.  April  14  vel  19. 

He  was  surnamed  Fada,  or  "  the  Tall,"  to  distinguish  him  from 
Cillene  Droicteacth,  the  hermit,  who  died  in  752.  Fedhlimid,  who 
was  coadjutor  abbot  in  722,  did  not  succeed  to  the  abbacy  on  the 
death  of  Faelcu,  in  724.  His  pedigree  is  not  recorded,  and  his 
festival  is  uncertain. 


XIV.— CILLINE  DEOICHTEACH.    Sed.  726-752.     Ob.  Jul.  3. 

He  was  of  the  house  of  Conall  Cremthann,  son  of  Niall,  and 
therefore  one  of  the  southern  Hy-Neill.  His  pedigree  is  thus  given 
in  the  Naemhsenchas  : — Cilline  Droichtech  mac  Dicolla  mec  Cilline 
mec  Amalgadha  mec  Feradhaigh  mec  Feici  mec  Cerbaill  mec  Conaill 
Cremthain  mec  Neill  Naoigiallaigh  (Book  of  Lecan).  His  ancestor 
Fiac  was  brother  of  Diarmait,  king  of  Ireland.  The  epithet 
Droicteach  signifies  "  Bridge  -maker  "  (Reeves,  Eccl.  Ant.  p.  359). 
In  the  Annals  of  Tighernach  and  of  Ulster  he  is  only  termed 
ancorita,  but  the  gloss  on  his  name,  at  the  3d  of  July,  in  the  Calendar 
of  Marian,  expressly  says  :  Abb  lae  Cholaim  cille  an  Cilline  Droich- 
teach  sin,  "  Abbot  of  Hy-Columcille  was  this  Cilline  Droictech."  In 
like  manner,  the  Martyrology  of  Tamlact,  at  same  day,  has  Cilline 
abb  lae.  These  are  followed  by  the  Four  Masters  and  the  Calendar 
of  Donegal,  the  latter  of  which  adds,  Ase  tug  go  hErinn  an  serin  no 
tarn  iomdha  do  teaglaim  Adamnan,  do  dhenamh  siodha  agus  chairdesa 
Chenel  Conaill  acus  Eogain,  "  It  was  he  that  brought  to  Erin  the 
shrine  or  numerous  relics  which  Adamnan  collected,  in  order  to  make 
peace  and  friendship  between  the  races  of  Conaill  and  of  Eoghan." 
Fedhlimidh,  who  was  appointed  coadjutor  abbot  in  722,  continued 
alive  during  the  presidency  of  Cilline.  It  is  possible  that,  as  Cilline 
was  an  anchorite,  the  active  duties  of  the  society  were  discharged 
by  his  deputy. 


XV.— SLEBHINE.    Sed.  752-767.    Ob.  Mar.  2. 

Son  of  Congal,  a  descendant  of  Loam,  son  of  Fergus,  son  of 
Conall  Gulban.  During  his  presidency,  Cillene,  son  of  Congal,  pro 
bably  his  brother,  died  at  Hy ;  as  also,  at  an  advanced  age,  Fedh 
limidh,  who  became  coadjutor  abbot  in  722.  At  this  period  the 
Columbian  influence  in  Ireland  seems  to  have  been  at  its  height,  as 
may  be  concluded  from  the  repeated  mention  of  the  Lex  Coluimcille 
(an.  753,  757),  and  the  frequent  visits  of  the  abbot  into  Ireland. 
Suibhne,  who  succeeded  him,  was  coadjutor  abbot  in  766. 


rl.— SUIBHNE.     Sed.  767-772.     Ob.  Mar.  2. 

His  pedigree  is  not  recorded.  He  was  coadjutor  abbot  in  766, 
and  succeeded  to  the  full  title  on  the  death  of  Slebhine.  Nothing 
more,  except  his  festival,  is  recorded  of  him. 


Clxxiv  INTRODUCTION. 


XVII.— BREASAL.    Sed.  772-801.     Ob.  Mai.  18. 

Son  of  Seghine,  but  his  descent  is  not  recorded.  Colgan  refers 
to  him  th  eentry  in  the  Calendar  at  May  ]  8,  Breasal  6  Dertaigh, 
Breasal  de  Oratorio.  During  his  presidency  Hy  acquired  celebrity 
as  a  place  of  pilgrimage,  from  having  two  Irish  kings  enrolled  among 
its  members. 

XVIIL— CONNACHTACH.     Sed.  801-802.     Ob.  Mai.  10. 

His  name  is  not  found  in  the  Annals  of  Ulster,  but  it  is  entered 
in  the  Four  Masters,  at  797,  probably  on  the  authority  of  Tigher- 
nach,  now  wanting,  at  that  date,  or  of  some  other  early  record. 
They  term  him  scribhneoir  tocchaidhe  acus  abb  lae,  "  choice  scribe, 
and  abbot  of  la."  Colgan  calls  him  Conmanus,  and  takes  May  10  as 
his  festival,  at  which  day  the  name  of  a  Cormac  is  entered  in  the 
Calendar  of  Tamlacht. 


XIX.— CELLACH.    Sed.  802-815. 

Son  of  Conghal,  but  of  uncertain  descent.  During  his  presidency 
it  was  that  Kells,  in  the  county  of  Meath,  was  re-organized  on  a 
more  extended  scale,  and  made  the  chief  station  of  the  Columbian 
order. 

XX.— DIARMAIT.     Sed.  815— post  831. 

He  was  surnamed  Dalta  Daighre,  "Alumnus  Daigri,"  and  was 
appointed  successor  to  Cellach  at  Kells,  in  814,  when  the  latter 
retired,  it  would  seem,  to  Hy.  As  Kells  had  now  risen  into  import 
ance,  and  Hy  had  declined,  the  chief  of  the  order  began  to  assume 
an  official  rather  than  a  local  title,  and  to  be  styled  Coarb  of  Colum- 
cille.  The  year  of  this  Diarmait's  death  is  not  recorded,  nor  does  his 
name  appear  in  the  Calendar.  During  his  presidency,  probably 
while  he  abode  in  Ireland,  occurred  a  second  massacre  of  the  con 
gregation  of  Hy  by  the  Danes.  On  this  occasion  Blaithmac,  who 
seems  to  have  been  superior  of  the  monastery,  was  put  to  death. 
Walafridus  Strabus,  twelfth  abbot  of  Augia  Dives,  who  nourished 
between  823  and  849,  has  written  a  poem  of  172  hexameters  on  the 
martyrdom  of  this  ecclesiastic.  He  describes  Blaithmaic  as  "  regali 
de  stirpe  satus,"  as  "regius  haeres,"  and  as  "  rex  ille  futurus,  genuit 
quern  dives  Hibernia  mundo."  He  states  that,  having  become  a 
monk,  "agmina  multorum  rexit  veneranda  virorum  ;"  and  that, 
subsequently,  coveting  the  crown  of  martyrdom,  he  betook  himself 
to  the  Island  of  Eo,  whither  the  pagan  Danes  had  already  on  more 
than  one  occasion  come.  Expecting  their  return,  he  counselled  the 
members  of  the  fraternity  to  save  themselves  by  flight ;  whereupon 
some  departed,  while  others  remained  with  him.  The  precious 
shrine  containing  St.  Columba's  relics  he  deposited  in  the  earth,  and 
when,  on  the  arrival  of  the  plunderers,  he  refused  to  make  known 
the  place  of  its  concealment,  they  slew  both  him  and  his  companions. 
This  poem  was  first  printed  by  Canisius,  and  has  since  been  fre 
quently  reproduced. 


INTRODUCTION,  clxxv 


XXL— INNRECHTACH.     Sed.  8— -854.     Ob.  Mar.  12. 

His  surname,  Uo  Finachta,  or  Ua  F'machtain,  is  supplied  by  the 
Annals  of  Innisfallen,  at  840,  and  is  copied  by  the  Four  Masters  at 
852.  The  date  of  his  predecessor's  death  is  not  recorded,  conse 
quently  the  year  of  his  accession  is  undetermined.  According  to 
the  Annals  of  Inisf alien,  he  was  on  his  way  to  Rome  when  he  was 
killed  by  the  Saxons  (840). 

XXIL— CELLACH.     Sed.  854-865. 

Son  of  Ailill.  He  was  abbot  of  Kildare  as  well  as  of  Hy,  and 
thus  combined  the  presidency  of  a  monastery  which  was  not  Colum 
bian  with  that  of  St.  Columba's  society.  He  seems  to  have  been 
engaged  in  a  visitation  of  the  Columbian  churches  in  Scotland  at  the 
time  of  his  death. 

XXIIL— FERADHACH.    Sed.  865-880. 

Son  of  Cormac.  During  his  presidency  Hy  became  more  and 
more  insecure  by  reason  of  Danish  inroads.  Dunkeld  now  comes 
into  notice  as  an  important  ecclesiastical  station. 

XXIV.— FLANN.     Sed.  880-891.     Ob.  April  24. 

Son  of  Maelduin,  of  the  race  of  Conall  Gulban.  His  pedigree  is 
given  in  the  Naemhseanchas,  but  it  is  evidently  deficient  in  some 
generations,  for  it  makes  him  twelfth  in  descent  from  Conall  Gulban, 
while  Adamnan,  who  died  nearly  two  centuries  before,  was  eighth. 
Colgan  latinizes  his  name  by  Florentius,  and  states  his  festival  to  be 
April  24  (Tr.  Th.  p.  481,  a,  n.  24). 

XXV.— MAELBRIGHDE.     Coarb  891-927.     Ob.  Febr.  22. 

Son  of  Tornan,  of  the  race  of  Conall  Gulban,  from  whom,  accord 
ing  to  the  pedigree  preserved  in  the  Naemhseanchas,  he  was 
thirteenth  in  descent.  He  is  commemorated  in  the  Calendars  of 
Marian  and  of  Donegal  at  Feb.  22,  at  which  day  the  latter  authority 
states  that  the  mother  of  Maelbrighde  was  Saerlath,  daughter  of 
Cuilebadh,  son  of  Baethghaile.  This  is  copied  from  the  Tract  De 
Matribus  Sanctorum  Hibernice,  commonly  attributed  to  ^Engus  the 
Culdee.  But  the  date  of  that  writer  is  circ.  800,  whereas  this,  his 
alleged  composition,  refers  to  a  man  who  died  in  927.  Maelbrighde 
was  not  only  abbot  of  Hy,  but  of  Armagh  and  Raphoe,  and  his 
celebrity  must  have  been  considerable  to  elicit  the  following  eulo- 
gium  from  the  Four  Masters  :  "St.  Maelbrighde,  son  of  Tornan, 
coarb  of  Patrick,  Qolumcille,  and  Adamnan,  head  of  the  piety  of  all 
Ireland  and  of  the  greater  part  of  Europe,  died  in  a  good  old  age, 
on  the  22d  of  February."  He  had  been  elected  abbot  of  Armagh 
on  the  death  of  Maelcobha,  in  888.  His  penultimate  predecessor 
held  the  abbacy  of  Hy  with  that  of  Kildare  :  this  abbot  holds  it 
with  that  of  Armagh  and  Raphoe  ;  an  additional  evidence  of  the 
declension  of  Hy.  See  Colgan's  Acta  SS.  p.  386. 


Clxxvi  INTRODUCTION. 


XXVI.— DUBHTHACH.     Coarb  927-938.     Ob.  Oct.  7. 

Son  of  Duban,  of  the  race  of  Conall  Gulban,  from  whom,  accord 
ing  to  the  pedigree  in  the  Naemhseanchas,  he  was  fourteenth  in 
descent,  and  in  the  same  line  as  his  predecessor,  Maelbrighde.  He 
was  abbot  of  Raphoe  as  well  as  of  Hy,  and  is  styled  by  the  Four 
Masters  "  Coarb  of  Columcille  both  in  Erin  and  Alba." 

XXVIL— KOBHARTACH.     Goarb  938-954. 

He  is  styled  "Coarb  of  Columcille  and  Adamnan,"  so  that 
Raphoe  may  be  considered  as  having  been  included  in  his  jurisdic 
tion.  During  his  presidency,  the  obit  of  an  abbot  of  Hy  is  recorded. 
We  find  another  Robhartach  at  No.  xxxix. 

XXVIII.— DUBHDUIN.     Coarb  954-959. 

Surnamed  Ua  Stefain.  He  was  of  the  Cinel  Fergusa,  a  branch 
of  the  Cinel-Eoghain  (Book  of  Lecan,  fol.  64).  The  Four  Masters 
enter  his  obit  at  957,  and  repeat  it  at  958. 

XXIX.— DUBHSCUILE.     Coarb  959-964. 

Son  of  Cinaedh  or  Kenneth.  Nothing  more  is  known  of  his 
history.  Probably  his  official  seat  was  at  Kells. 

XXX.— MUGHRON.     Goarb  964-980. 

The  Annals  of  Ulster  designate  him  "Successor  of  Columcille 
both  in  Ireland  and  Alba."  The  Four  Masters  style  him  "  Abbot 
of  la,  scribe  and  bishop  ;  the  most  learned  of  the  three  Divisions" 
[na  tTri  Rand],  that  is,  as  Dr.  O'Donovan  explains  it,  of  Ireland, 
Man,  and  Alba.  During  his  presidency,  Fiachra  Ua  hArtagain, 
aircinnech  of  la,  died.  This  is  the  only  instance  where  we  find 
the  term  aircinneach  used  in  connexion  with  Hy,  and  the  Four 
Masters,  in  the  present  case,  render  it  by  "  abbot."  During  this 
period  there  was  also  a  bishop  at  Hy. 

XXXI.— MAELCIARAIN.     Coarb  980-986. 

The  family  of  Ua  Maighne  (now  pronounced  O'Afooney),  to  which 
he  belonged,  were  of  the  Cinel  Conaill,  and  hereditary  tenants  of 
Inishkeel  in  Donegal.  According  to  the  Four  Masters,  this  coarb 
was  put  to  death  in  Hy  by  the  Danes  of  Dublin. 

XXXII.— DUNNCHADH.     Coarb  986-989. 

Surnamed  Ua  Robhacain.  The  Four  Masters  style  him  "  Coarb 
of  Columcille  and  Adamnan,"  so  that  Raphoe  was  included  in  his 
jurisdiction. 

XXXIII. — DUBHDALEITHE.     Coarb  989-998.     Ob.  June  2. 

Son  of  Cellach.  In  965  he  was  elected  Abbot  of  Armagh,  and 
in  989  was  chosen  by  the  joint  suffrages  of  the  Irish  and  Scotch  to 
the  presidency  of  the  Columbian  order  ;  or,  as  Colgan  expresses  it, 
"supremus  moderator  Congregationis  Divi  Columbse  in  Hibernia 


INTRODUCTION. 

et  Albione"  (Tr.  Th.  p.  503  6).  It  is  worthy  of  observation  that 
during  the  term  of  Dubhdaleithe's  presidency  at  Armagh,  five 
years  before  his  death,  another  individual,  Muirecan  of  Bodoney,  is 
represented  as  coarb  of  Patrick,  and  enjoying  the  privileges  of  that 
office.  See  Nos.  xi.  xu.  supra. 

XXXIV.— MUIREDHACH.     Coarl  998-1007.     01.  Dec.  28. 

Son  of  Crichan.  He  was  not  only  coarb  of  Columcille  and 
Adamnan,  but  a  bishop,  lector  of  Armagh,  and  coarb  designate  of 
St.  Patrick.  In  1007  he  retired  from  the  presidency  of  the 
Columbian  order,  and  became  a  recluse.  He  died  on  Saturday 
night,  the  28th  of  December  1011,  and  was  interred  with  great 
honour  before  the  altar  of  the  church  of  Armagh.  Under  his  pre 
sidency  Maelbrighde  Ua  Rimhedha  was  abbot  of  Hy.  The  clergy 
of  Armagh  appear,  at  this  period,  to  have  exercised  considerable 
influence  in  the  Columbian  appointments. 

XXXV.— FERDOMHNACH.    Coarl  1007-1008. 

On  the  retirement  of  Muiredhach,  he  was  elected  to  the  succes- 
sorship  of  Columcille,  and  the  appointment  was  made  by  the 
authorities  assembled  in  the  great  fair  of  Teltown.  His  local  title 
was  Abbot  of  Kells,  which  seems  to  have  been  the  highest  Colum 
bian  dignity  at  this  period.  We  have  no  statement  of  his  descent, 
but  it  seems  to  have  been  from  the  Cinel  Conaill.  Robhartach, 
son  of  Ferdomhnach,  the  coarb  of  Columcille  and  Adamnan,  who 
died  in  1058,  was  probably  his  son. 

XXXVL— MAELMUIEE.     Coarb  1008-1009. 

Surnamed  Ua  hUchtain.  The  family  of  which  he  was  a  member 
was  at  this  time  the  principal  one  connected  with  the  church  of 
Kells.  See  under  the  years  969,  992,  1034, 1040  (App.  III.)  There 
was  a  Maelmuire  Ua  hUchtain,  coarb  of  Coluimcille,  who  died  in 
1040,  and  whom,  in  the  absence  of  the  express  name  of  any  other 
successor  in  the  interim,  one  might  feel  disposed  to  identify  with 
this  ecclesiastic,  but  that  the  death  of  the  latter  is  recorded  at  1009. 

XXXVIL— MAELEOIN.    Coarb  1009-1025. 

Surnamed  Ua  Torain,  possibly  a  descendant  of  Tornan,  the 
father  of  Maelbrighde  in  No.  xxv.  The  family  of  O'Tornan  (now 
called  Dornan),  were  the  herenachs  of  Drumhome,  in  the  county 
of  Donegal.  It  is  not  expressly  stated  that  this  individual  was 
coarb  of  Columcille,  and  the  introduction  of  his  name  in  this 
catalogue  is  somewhat  conjectural.  Probabilities  are,  however,  in 
its  favour.  See  the  Ordnance  Memoir  of  Templemore,  p.  28. 

XXXVIII.— MAELMUIRE.     Coarb  1025-1040. 

Surnamed  Ua  hUchtain.  The  penultimate  predecessor  was  of 
the  same  family  and  name.  Macnia  Ua  hUchtain,  the  lector  of 
Kells,  who  was  drowned  in  1034,  was  also  his  kinsman.  In  that 
year  Hy  lost  some  of  its  surviving  heirlooms.  The  Four  Masters, 
in  recording  Maelmuire's  obit,  state  that  he  was  "comharba  of 


clxxviii  INTRODUCTION. 

Columcille  and  Adamnan."  During  his  presidency,  certain  grants 
were  made  to  Kells,  recorded  in  the  fourth  of  the  Charters  con 
tained  in  the  Book  of  KeUs  (Miscell.  Ir.  Arch.  Soc.  pp.  136-140). 

XXXIX.— KOBHARTACH.     Coarb  1040-1057. 

Son  of  Ferdomnach,  probably  of  No.  xxxv.,  for  the  successorship 
of  Columcille,  like  that  of  St.  Patrick,  was  becoming  hereditary. 
Kells  appears  to  be  still  the  official  seat  of  the  coarb  of  Columcille. 
The  Four  Masters,  at  1057,'  style  this  Robhartach  "  comharba  of 
Columcille  and  Adamnan." 

XL. — GlOLLACRlST.     Coarb  1057-1062. 

Surnamed  Ua  Maeldoraidh.  The  family  to  which  he  belonged 
was  the  senior  line  of  the  race  of  Conall  Gulban,  and  enjoyed  the 
lordship  of  Cinell-Conaill  before  the  O'Donnells  rose  into  power. 
See  the  entry  at  the  year  1026,  supra.  The  individual  who  figures 
at  1070  (App.  III.),  was  probably  the  son  of  the  present  coarb. 

XLL — DOMHNALL.     Coarb  1062-1098. 

Surnamed  Ua  Robhartaigh.  The  family  of  which  he  was  a 
member  were  a  branch  of  the  Cinel  Conaill,  and,  in  after  times, 
herenachs  of  Tory  island.  The  name  was  probably  derived  from 
Robhartach,  the  coarb  of  Columcille,  who  died  in  954.  It  is  still 
common  in  Donegal  in  the  form  O'Roarty,  and  in  Leinster,  of 
O'Rafferty.  The  family  of  Mac  Robhartaigh  were  of  the  same 
line.  They  were  herenachs  of  Bally magrorty,  in  the  parishes  of 
Drumhome  and  Templemore,  and  their  name  still  exists  in  the 
neighbourhood  in  the  form  M 'Grotty.  They  were  also  keepers  of 
the  Cathach  of  Columcille.  The  present  individual  was  abbot  of 
Kells  when  the  case  of  the  Cathach  was  made,  and  his  name 
appears  in  the  inscription  upon  it,  in  the  form  Domnall  mac 
Robartaig.  Mention  is  also  made  of  him  in  the  charters  of  Kells. 
Maelmaire  Ua  Robhartaigh  was  cinn  an  Disirt  Oenannsa,  "  Head  of 
the  Hermitage  of  Kells,"  circ.  1135  (Miscell.  Ir.  Arch.  Soc.  p.  128). 
During  the  presidency  of  Domhnall,  Cormac  Mac  Rechtogain  was 
vice-herenach  of  Kells  (ib.  p.  130).  In  1190,  a  member  of  the 
family  was  prior  of  Durrow. 

XLII. — FERDOMHNACH.     Coarb  1098-1114. 

Surnamed  Ua  Clucain.  He  was  abbot  of  Kells,  and  the  third 
of  the  Kells  Charters  records  a  transaction  of  his  incum 
bency.  The  officials  under  him  were  Oengus  Ua  Domhnallain,  the 
anmchara  or  confessarius,  who  was  also  Coarb  of  the  Disert  of 
Columcille  at  Kells  (322,  ob.  1109)  ;  O'Breslan,  priest ;  Oisin  Mac 
Eachtghail,  ostiarius  of  Kells  (Miscell.  Ir.  Arch.  Soc.  pp.  132,  136). 
The  family  of  O'Clucain  seems  to  have  been  one  of  influence  at 
Kells,  for  another  member  of  it  was  abbot  at  1154,  and  a  third, 
lector,  during  his  incumbency. 

XLIII—  MAELBKIGHDE.     Coarb  1114-1117. 

Surnamed  Mac  Ronain.  In  the  seventh  charter  of  Kells  is  the 
name  of  a  coarb  of  Columcille,  which  is  partly  illegible,  but  the 


INTRODUCTION. 

portion  which  is  distinct,  namely,  Maelbrig  .  .  .  nan,  seems  re 
ferable  to  this  abbot  j(Miscell.  Ir.  Arch.  Soc.  p.  148).  Whether 
owing  to  the  decline  of  Kells,  or  the  growing  influence  of  Derry, 
or  what  is  more  probable,  the  commencement  of  diocesan  episcopacy 
in  Ireland,  the  title  of  Coarb  of  Columcitle  is  intermitted  in  the 
Annals  at  this  period,  and  is  afterwards  resumed,  more  as  an 
honorary  than  a  real  dignity.  It  is  continued,  indeed,  in  the 
Charters  of  Kells,  to  the  abbots  of  that  church,  but  when  next 
it  appears  in  the  Annals,  it  is  transferred  to  Derry,  which  church 
seems  to  have  derived  an  impulse  at  this  period  from  its  connexion 
with  Armagh  (see  An.  1122,  1137),  but  more  especially  from  the 
circumstance  that  the  southern  Hy  Neill  of  Meath,  under  whose 
patronage,  during  the  long-continued  period  that  they  were 
supreme,  the  chief  monastery  of  their  territory  proportionately 
flourished,  had  now  declined  in  power,  and  the  Cinel  Eoghain,  the 
chief  branch  of  the  northern  Hy  Neill,  now  represented  by  the 
Mac  Lochlainns,  and  afterwards  by  the  O'Neills,  were  rising  into 
power,  whose  various  clanns,  scattered  over  Tyrone,  exercised 
their  influence  in  Armagh,  while  their  kinsmen  of  Jnis-Eoghain, 
having  Derry  in  their  territory,  in  a  great  measure  controlled  its 
appointments  also. 

XLIV.— CONANG.     Coarb  1117-1128. 

Surnamed  Ua  Beigleighinn.  This  name  is  not  recorded  elsewhere 
in  the  Annals,  and  nothing  more  is  known  of  the  individual  than 
the  entry  of  his  obit  in  the  Four  Masters. 

XLV. — GIOLLA-ADHAMNAIN.     Coarb  1128-circ.  1138. 

Surnamed  Ua  Coirthen.  This  name  does  not  occur  in  the  Annals, 
and  it  is  introduced  in  this  place  on  the  authority  of  the  fifth 
Charter  of  Kells,  which,  though  undated,  is  referable  to  this  period. 
It  makes  mention  of  Giolla-Adomnan  Ua  Coirthen,  coarb  of 
Columcille ;  Maelmartin  Ua  Brestlen,  priest  of  Kells ;  Guaire  Ua 
Clucain,  lector  of  Kells  ;  Oengus  Mac  Gillabain,  herenach  of  the 
hospital  ;  Muiredhach,  son  of  Mac  Rechtacan,  vice-herenach  ;  and 
Oengus  Ua  Gamhna,  chief  of  the  Scologes  or  farmers  (Miscell.  Ir. 
Arch.  Soc.  p.  140). 

XL VI. — MUIEEDHACH.     Coarb  circ.  1138-1150. 

Surnamed  Ua  Clucain,  of  the  same  family  as  his  predecessor, 
No.  XLII.  During  his  presidency  the  Disert  of  Kells  received  the 
endowment  recorded  in  the  first  Charter  of  Kells.  The  grant 
was  made  by  Muiredhach  Ua  Clucain,  abbot  of  Kells  ;  Conaing  Ua 
Breslen,  the  priest ;  Guaire  Ua  Clucain,  the  lector  ;  and  Aedh,  son 
of  Mac  Rechtogan,  the  vice-herenach.  It  was  made  "  to  God,  and 
to  Columcille,  and  to  Bishop  O'Ceallaigh,  the  senior  of  all  the  men 
of  Meath,  and  to  Maelmaire  Ua  Robarthaigh,  head  of  the  Disert " 
(Miscell.  Ir.  Arch.  Soc.  p.  128).  During  his,  and  the  four  pre 
ceding  incumbencies,  Kells  appears  to  have  been  losing  ground  in 
its  Columbian  associations,  until  1150,  when  Flaithbertach  Ua 
Brolchain  was  elected  abbot  of  Derry,  and  was  acknowledged  the 
coarb  of  Columcille. 


clxxx  INTRODUCTION. 


XLVIL— FLAITHBERTACH.    Coarb  1150-1175. 

Surnamed  Ua  Brolchain.  The  family  of  Ua  Brolchain  were 
descended  from  Suibhne  Meann,  who  was  king  of  Ireland  in  615, 
and  belonged  to  the  Cinel  Feradhaich,  a  clan  so  called  from 
Feradhach,  grandfather  of  that  Suibhne  Meann,  and  fourth  in  de 
scent  from  Eoghaii,  the  founder  of  the  Cinel-Eoghain  race.  The 
Cinel  Feradhaich  are  now  territorially  represented  by  the  barony 
of  Clogher,  in  the  south  of  the  county  of  Tyrone.  The  first  of  the 
O'Brolchan  family  who  is  mentioned  in  the  Annals  was  Maelbrighde 
Ua  Brolchan,  styled  prim  saer  Erenn  ["chief  mason  of  Ireland" — 
Old  Vers.],  whose  obit  is  entered  in  the  Ann.  Ult.  at  1029.  From 
him  probably  the  masonic  art  of  the  family  was  derived,  which 
was  cultivated  by  Flaherty,  and  practised  by  Donnell,  with  such 
success.  The  next  was  Maeliosa,  the  lector  whose  obit  is  entered 
above  at  1086.  He  spent  a  part  of  his  early  life  at  Both-chonais 
in  Inishowen,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  which  some  of  his  writings 
were  preserved  in  Colgan's  time  ;  and  afterwards  he  founded  a 
church  seemingly  at  Lismore,  called  the  derteac  Maeiliosa,  "  Oratory 
of  Maeliosa,"  which  was  burned  in  1116.  He  died  on  the  16th  of 
January,  justly  celebrated  for  his  learning  (Colgan,  Acta  SS.  p. 
108).  His  son,  Aedh,  succeeded  him  in  the  calling  of  professor, 
and  died  in  1095.  Two  years  afterwards  a  son  of  Maelbrighde, 
surnamed  Mac-an-tsaeir,  who  was  bishop  of  Kildare,  died.  Mael- 
colaim  Ua  Brolchain,  bishop  of  Armagh,  died  in  1122  ;  and  Mael 
brighde  Ua  Brolchain,  also  bishop  of  Armagh,  died,  Jan.  29,  1139. 
The  latter  was  probably  father  of  the  coarb  Flaithbertach,  whom 
the  Annals  of  Ulster,  at  1164,  call  Flaithbertach  mac  in  espuic  hui 
Brolcain,  "  Flaithbertach,  son  of  the  bishop  Ua  Brolchan,"  a  lineage 
by  no  means  in  accordance  with  the  delicacy  of  the  Four  Masters, 
and  which,  when  copying  the  entry,  they  divest  of  its  objectional 
character,  in  simply  calling  him  Flaithbertach  Ua  Brolchain. 
Domhnall  Ua  Brolchain  was  prior  of  Derry,  and  died  Apr.  27, 
1202.  His  name  is  inscribed  on  one  of  the  capitals  in  the  cathedral 
of  Hy,  in  the  form  Donaldus  Obrolcan  (vid.  1202,  App.  III.)  Finn 
Ua  Brolchan  was  steward  of  O'Donnell  in  1213  ;  and  Flann  Ua 
Brolchain  was  coarb  of  Columcille  in  1219.  In  1548  died  Sir 
John  Obrolchan,  rector  of  Kildalton,  in  Islay  (Orig.  Paroch.  vol.  ii. 
p.  269).  The  name  was  afterwards  written  WBrollaghan,  and  is 
now  corrupted,  in  Ulster,  to  Bradley.  Through  the  influence  of 
"  Gilla-mac-Liag  or  Gelasius,  the  abbot  of  Armagh,  who  had  himself 
been  previously  abbot  of  Derry  (an.  1137),  Flaithbertach  Ua  Brol 
chain  was  raised  to  the  dignity  of  bishop  in  1158,  as  is  thus 
recorded  by  the  Four  Masters  :  "A  synod  of  the  clergy  of  Ireland 
was  convened  at  Bri-mic-Taidhg,  in  Meath,  where  there  were 
present  25  bishops,  with  the  Legate  of  the  coarb  of  Peter,  to 
ordain  rules  and  good  morals.  It  was  on  this  occasion  that  the 
clergy  of  Ireland,  with  the  coarb  of  Patrick,  ordered  a  chair,  like 
every  other  bishop's,  for  the  coarb  of  Columcille,  Flaithbertach  Ua 
Brolchain,  and  the  arch-abbacy  of  the  churches  of  Ireland  in 
general."  He  was  a  zealous  advancer  of  the  welfare  of  Derry,  and 
during  his  incumbency  many  important  additions  were  made  to  its 
ecclesiastical  buildings  ;  to  procure  funds  for  which,  the  abbot  had, 
during  the  years  1150,  1151,  1153,  1161,  visited,  and  obtained 
contributions  from  various  territories  in  Ulster  and  Ossory.  After 


INTRODUCTION.  clxxxi 

a  long  life  spent  in  the  energetic  discharge  of  his  duties,  he  died  in 
1175,  at  which  year  his  obit  is  thus  recorded  by  the  Four  Masters  : 
"  Flaithbertach  Ua  Brolchain,  coarb  of  Columcille,  a  tower  of 
wisdom  and  hospitality,  a  man  on  whom,  on  account  of  his  good 
ness  and  wisdom,  the  clergy  of  Ireland  had  bestowed  a  bishop's 
chair,  and  to  whom  the  abbacy  of  Hy  \comhorbus  lae]  had  been 
offered  (an.  1164),  died  in  righteousness,  after  exemplary  sickness, 
in  the  Duibhregles  of  Columcille :  and  Gilla-mac-Liag  Ua  Branain 
was  appointed  to  his  place  in  the  abbacy." 

XLVIIL— GIOLLA-MAC-LIAG.     Coarb  1175-1198. 

Surnamed  Ua  Branain.  A  member  of  his  family  was  herenach 
of  Derry  in  1150,  and  became  abbot  in  1219.  The  family  of  Ua 
Branain,  now  commonly  called  Brannan,  belonged  to  the  Cinel 
Tighernaigh,  a  branch  of  the  powerful  Cinel  Eoghain  race.  The 
present  abbot  resigned  in  1198.  The  name  Gilla-mac-Liag,  in  the 
case  of  a  predecessor,  is  latinized  Gelasius. 

XLIX. — GIOLLACRIST.     Coarb  Il$8-circ.  1202. 

Surnamed  Ua  Cernaigh,  a  name  now  commonly  known  under  the 
form  0' Kearney.  The  Four  Masters  state,  at  1198,  that  he  "was 
elected  coarb  of  Columcille  by  the  unanimous  suffrages  of  the  clergy 
and  laity  of  the  north  of  Ireland."  The  Annals  of  Ulster  at 
1210,  and  of  the  Four  Masters  at  1209,  in  recording  his  obit, 
style  him  "Coarb  of  Condere,"  implying  that  previously  to  that 
date  he  had  become  abbot  of  Connor. 


Fordun  (Bowar)  relates  that  I-Columkill  was  the  burial-place 
of  all  the  kings  of  Pictland  and  Scotland  until  the  time  of  Mal 
colm,  the  husband  of  St.  Margaret  (i.  6,  ii.  10).  The  Kegistry  of 
St.  Andrews  goes  further,  and  makes  it  not  only  the  place  of  his 
interment,  but  the  resting-place  of  Duncan's  bones.  The  church 
of  the  Holy  Trinity  of  Dunfermline,  however,  was  the  true  reci 
pient  of  the  mortal  remains  both  of  Malcolm  and  his  wife,  and 
thenceforward  Hy  ceased  to  be  a  royal  cemetery.  But  Queen 
Margaret,  previously  to  1093,  had  erected  in  Hy  a  monument 
of  her  piety,  and  the  chapel  in  the  Eeilig  Oran,  the  oldest 
edifice  in  the  island,  probably  dates  its  origin  from  the  exhibi 
tion  of  her  liberality  recorded  by  Ordericus  Vitalis : — "  Inter 
cetera  bona  quse  nobilis  hera  fecerat,  Huense  Ccenobium,  quod 
servus  Christi  Colurnba  tempore  Brudei  Regis  Pictorum  filii 
Meilocon,  construxerat,  sed  tempestate  praeliorum  cum  longa 


clxxxii  INTRODUCTION. 

vetustate  dirutum  fuerat,  fidelis  Kegina  resedificavit,  datisque 
sumptibus  idoneis  ad  opus  Domini  Monachis  reparavit."  It 
was  only  four  years  after  her  death  when  Magnus,  King  of 
Norway,  "  opened  the  smaller  church  of  Kollum-Killa,"  pro 
bably  a  chapel  built  over  St.  Columba's  reputed  tomb,  on  the 
occasion  of  his  visiting  the  Holy  Island.  The  seizure  of  the 
Western  Isles  by  this  warrior,  in  the  following  year,  caused  the 
annexation  of  the  Isles  to  the  bishopric  of  Man,  and  the  sub 
jection  of  the  united  dioceses  to  the  metropolitan  of  Trondhjem, 
which  in  great  measure  severed  the  island  of  Hy  from  its  old 
associations,  so  that,  with  the  exception  of  an  abbot's  obit  at 
1099,  it  is  unnoticed  for  above  half  a  century  in  the  Irish 
Annals.  In  the  meantime,  Somerlid,  the  Regulus  deHerer-Gaedel, 
married  a  daughter  of  king  Olave,  the  successor  of  Magnus,  who 
brought  him  four  sons,  one  of  whom,  Dubhgall,  was  thrust  into 
the  sovereignty  of  the  Isles  in  1154.  Consequently,  a  war 
ensued,  and  in  1,156  the  strife  was  terminated  by  the  cession  to 
Somerlid  and  his  sons  of  the  southern  isles,  including  Hy,  a 
measure  which  naturally  terminated  the  Norwegian  ascendancy, 
and  restored  the  supremacy  of  the  Celtic  influence  around.  As 
a  result,  the  abbacy  of  Hy  was  offered,  in  1164,  at  the  instance 
of  the  king,  and  with  the  unanimous  consent  of  the  church 
officials,  to  Flaherty  O'Brolchan,  the  energetic  abbot  of  Derry, 
who,  in  addition  to  his  dignity  of  Coarb  of  Columcille,  had 
received,  in  1158,  the  now  important  qualification  of  episcopal 
orders.  Domestic  influence  prevented  the  offer  from  being 
accepted ;  but  the  Irish  element,  already  indicated  by  the  names 
of  the  ecclesiastical  functionaries,  in  1 164,  seems  to  have  rapidly 
increased,  and  to  the  period  of  its  development  we  may  possibly 
refer  the  erection  of  the  central  portion  of  the  Cathedral. 
Bishop  O'Brolchain  was  busily  employed,  towards  the  close  of 
the  twelfth  century,  in  re-edifying  the  ecclesiastical  buildings  of 
Derry ;  and  to  a  kinsman  of  his  is  probably  attributable  the 
commencement  of  the  most  important  structure  now  existing  in 
Hy.  The  unusual  record  on  the  capital  of  the  tower  column, 


INTRODUCTION.  clxxxiii 

DONALDVS  OBROLCHAN  FECIT  HOC  opvs,  and  the  coincidence  of 
that  record  with  the  obit  of  Domhnall  Ua  Brolchain  in  the 
Annals  of  Ulster  at  1203,  and  of  the  Four  Masters  at  1202,  the 
same  name  in  its  Irish  form,  are  sufficient,  if  not  to  satisfy  the 
mind,  at  least  to  afford  material  for  reasonable  conjecture,  as  to 
the  builder.  In  1203,  Michael,  bishop  of  the  Isles,  died  at 
Fountain  Abbey,  and  was  succeeded,  according  to  the  Chronicle 
of  Man,  by  NicJwlus,  whom  Torfseus  calls  Kolus,  observing  that, 
for  the  forty  years  preceding,  the  Hsebudse  were  without  an 
actual  bishop ;  that  is,  that  the  office,  as  regarded  the  Isles,  was 
nothing  more  than  titular.  But  forty  years,  subtracted  from 
1203,  bring  us  back  precisely  to  the  date  at  which  Somerlid  and 
the  clergy  of  Hy  solicited  the  services  of  St.  Columba's  coarb 
in  Derry.  This  Nicholas  or  Kolus  may  have  made  an  effort  to 
establish  his  authority  in  Hy,  and  he  may  have  been  the  CellacTi 
of  whom  the  Irish  Annals  make  mention  in  a  most  interesting 
record  of  1203,  the  year  of  Nicholas's  accession  to  the  see  of  the 
Isles  ;  which  Nicholas,  whether  identical  with  Cellach  or  not, 
certainly  seems  to  have  had  some  connexion  with  Ifeland,  for 
when  he  died  he  was  buried  at  Bangor  in  Ulster. 

"  A  monastery  was  erected  by  Cellach,  without  any  legal  right, 
and  in  despite  of  the  family  of  Hy,  in  the  middle  of  Cro-Hy,  and 
he  did  considerable  damage  to  the  town.  The  clergy  of  the  North 
assembled  together  to  pass  over  into  Hy,  namely,  Florence  O'Caro- 
lan,  bishop  of  Tyrone  ;  Maelisa  O'Deery,  bishop  of  Tirconnell,  and 
abbot  of  the  abbey-church  of  Paul  and  Peter  at  Armagh  ;  Awley 
O'Ferghail,  abbot  of  the  abbey-church  of  Derry,  with  Ainmire 
O'Coffey,  many  of  the  family  of  Derry,  and  a  great  number  of  the 
northern  clergy  beside.  They  passed  over  into  Hy,  and,  in  accord 
ance  with  the  law  of  the  Church,  they  subsequently  pulled  down 
the  monastery  :  and  the  aforesaid  Awley  was  elected  abbot  of  Hy 
by  the  suffrages  of  Foreigners  and  Gaeidhel." 

The  passage  here  cited  is  the  parting  mention  of  Hy  in  the  Irish 
Annals,  and  as  it  closes  a  long  list  of  notices,  running  through 
nearly  seven  centuries,  it  leaves  the  island  as  it  found  it,  in  the 
hands  of  Irish  ecclesiastics,  an  important  outpost  of  the  Irish 


Clxxxiv  INTRODUCTION. 

Church,  a  centre  of  union  between  provinces  whose  people  were 
of  one  blood,  and  who  were  enrolled  under  one  name  in  the  list 
of  nations,  till  the  accident  of  time  limited  to  one  the  common 
name  of  both,  and  the  accident  of  place  created  separate,  and 
sometimes  rival  interests. 


SHOWING  THEIE   AFFINITY  TO    ONE  ANOTHER,  AND   THEIE   CONN 

CONSTRUCTED,  FROM  THE  NAEMHSEANCHUS,  AND  OTHER  AN( 


CONAL 

a  quo  Ci 

FERGUS  C 
orDu 

ZNNFADA      =      ERCA 

ach,              d.  of  Loarn 
Mor. 

SEDNA 
a  quo  Siol  Sedna 

NlNNIDH 

AlNMIRE 

King  of  Ireland, 
ob.  569  (p.  120). 

AEDH 
King  of  Ireland, 
ob.  598  (pp,  121, 
122,  145). 

! 

COLMAN 

or  Colum. 
AEDH 

LUGHAIDH 

a  quo  Cinel 
Luighdeach. 

BAEDAN               FERADHACH 
King  of  Ireland,          or  Fergus. 
ob.  586. 

DUACH 
fi] 

AMHALGAIDH 
PJPAN 

RONAN                  ILatgren                   FIACHNA 
third  abbot,  ob.           or  Fiachra. 
Sep.  16,  605  (p.  131). 

LELCOBHA                             DOMHNALL            TINNE 
j  of  Ireland,                      King  of  Ireland,         a  quo 
ob.  615.                             ob.  642  (pp.  121,     Ua  Tinne. 
146,  198). 

GARBH                  Segfyne                    ERNAN 
fifth  abbot,  ob. 
Aug.  12,  652  (p.  113). 

CELLACH                 AEJ 
ob.  658. 

DOMHNALL             LOING 
Lord  of  C 
aill,   672, 
Ireland, 

DONNCHADH        FLAITHB 
King  of 
ob. 

RUAIDHRI         AEDH  M 

RUARCAN          DOMHNA 

GALLCHOBHAR           LOIN 
o  quo  O'Gall- 
agher. 

GUS                  RONAN=    RONNAT 

of  the  Cint 

Enna. 

SECH               Stoamttan 
inel  Con-         ninth  abbot, 
King  of         ob.  Sept  23, 
ob.  703.                   704. 

HERTACH 

Ireland, 
734. 

CENNFAELADH        Cuitntne  Jftonn              Becan 
seventh  abbot,  ob.       ob.  Mar.  17, 
Feb.  24,  669  (p.  197).            677. 

tfatlbhe 
eighth  abbot, 
ob.  Mar.  22, 
679  (p.  113). 

MAELDUIN            FIAMAN 

AIRNELACH         MAENGALL             BRAI 

SNJSDGAILE       DOCHARTACH           BAIG 
a  quo  O'Dogherty.     a  quo  0 

MAELDUIN                                     DOMH> 

1                                                             aquoO 

jHann 
twenty-fourth 
abbot,  ob. 
Apr.  24,  891. 

MUIRCERTACH 

AGAN              DALACH 
Lord  of  Cinel  Con 
aill,  ob.  869. 

IELL                 ElONECHAN 

Boyle.     Lord  of  Cinel  Con 
aill,  ob.  906. 

JINDERG                    MURCHADH 

Lord  of  Cinel  Conaill 
ob.  767. 

LL  CEIRIC          MAELBRESAIL 
Lord  of  Cinel  Conail 
ob.  817. 

3SECH                     AENGUS 

ALL  MOR        Stoftiann 
Donnell.    Coarb  of  Colum- 
cille,  ob.  950. 

FLAITHBHERTACH 


CANANNAN 
a  quo  O'Canannan. 


MAELDORAIDH 
a  quo  O'Muldory. 


Note.— The  genealogy  ofFergna  Britt,  the  fourth 
too  long.  The  pedigree  of  Suibhne  mac  Cuirtre,  th 
mac  Failbhe,  the  tenth  abbot,  was  of  the  race  of ' 
in  this  Table.  CUline  Droichtcch,  the  fourteen! 
being  eighth  in  descent  from  Conall  Crimthann,  s< 
tions  are  wanting  in  the  line  of  Dalach,  to  bring 
proper  place. 


prl2  Abbots  of  Is, 


clxxxv 


WITH  THE   CHIEF  FAMILIES   OF  TIRCONNELL. 

AUTHORITIES,  BY  WILLIAM  BEEVES,  D.D. 


IBAN 

.ill. 


FEDHUM  =  EITHNE 


BRKNANN 


LOARN 


GINTECH 


ENNA  BOGHAINE 
a  qua  Banagh  (p.  63). 


ANGIN 


II                            I  I  I 

3              EOGHAN              ISaitrjcne               Cobthach  RONAN         RODAIQHE 

,ob.          orlogen           second  abbot,  OneofSt  Columba's  or  Cronan. 

|,  597.  (p.  Ixxii).          ob.  Jun.  9,  600.  disciples  (p.  Ixxii). 


(p.  215). 


AEDH 


DONNCHADH 


DOMHNALL 


I.tiL 


Caiman  L«i'.<re  Scc/hine          FAELAN  MAILRUBHA 

(Tr.  Th.  p.  480,     Dec.  26  (Tr.  Th.        (Tr.  Th.  482,  38 
Ir.  Nen.  cvi.)     481,  Ir.  Nen.  cvi.)        Ir.  Nen.  cvi.) 


25. 


FlROIL 

a  quo  O'Freel  the 

herenachs  of  Cillmacnenain. 


, .  J  i  -eems  to  be  at  least  one  generation 

M£U»*»~««**"-" 

f  rJ  Uais  and  therefore  does  not  appear 

'TPe°nd)0^  of  the  Southern  Hy  Neill, 

I  he  also  is  excluded.    Three  genera- 

Sgsfdhisgrandson^Wa"lintotheir 


[MAC  LAJSRE] 


ALTA 


Dorbene  Fada 

Prior  of  Hy,  ob.  Oct. 

28,  713  (p.  218). 


SLEBHINE       FAILBHE 


CiiTAN       Odhmn 
Oct.  27 
(pp.  288-9). 


FORTHENN 


DUBHDUIN     JFfrgnaBrtt  I-JNAN- 

fourth  abbot,  ob. 

Mar.  2,  623. 


CONGAL 


Ablan  MadduibTi 

or  Mo-Ab.  Dec.  23. 


Slrbhtne  Cillene 

fifteenth  abbot,          ob.  752 
ob.  Mar.  2,  767. 


MAELCAICH 


TORNAN  =  SAERFLAITH 
d.  of  Cuile- 
badh. 


fHaelbriflifce 
CoarbofS'mcille, 


NATHI 


LUGHAIDH         [NATHI] 


GlNNTECH 


AEDAN 


FAELAN 


LlBIR 


FERGUS 


TlNSK 


FAILBHE          DORBBNE 


COXGAL  jfatlru 

twelfth  abbot, 
ob.  Ap.  3,  724. 


DlCHUBUS 


BAETHECTRA 


FERGUS 


MAELUIDHIR 


DUBHAN 


CAENCOMHRAC 
abbot  and  bishop  of 


Bubhtharfj 

Coarb  of  Columcille, 

ob.  Oct.  7,  938. 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA. 


IN  THE  NAME  OF  JESUS  CHRIST.— THE  PREFACE  BEGINNETH. 

IN  beginning,  with  the  help  of  Christ,  in  compliance  with 
the  urgent  requests  of  my  brethren,  to  write  the  life  of  our 
blessed  Patron,  I  shall  take  care  to  warn,  in  the  first  place, 
others  who  may  read  it,  to  believe  the  facts  which  it  records, 
and  to  attend  more  to  the  matter  than  to  the  words,  which,  as 
I  think,  sound  harsh  and  barbarous.  Let  them  remember  that 
the  kingdom  of  God  consisteth  not  in  richness  of  eloquence, 
but  in  the  blossoming  of  faith,  and  let  them  not  for  any  names 
of  men,  or  tribes,  or  obscure  places  in  the  base  Scotic  tongue, 
which,  as  I  think,  seem  rude  when  compared  with  the  various 
languages  of  foreign  nations,  despise  a  record  of  useful  deeds 
wrought  not  without  the  help  of  God.  We  must  also  warn  our 
readers  that  many  other  things  regarding  this  man  of  blessed 
memory,  well  worthy  of  being  told,  have  been  omitted  for  the 
sake  of  brevity  ;  in  order  not  to  tire  their  patience,  a  few  only 
out  of  many  have  been  recorded  here.  And  this,  as  I  think, 
every  person  who  reads  the  following  work  will  perhaps  observe, 
that  of  the  great  actions  of  the  same  holy  man,  popular  fame 
has  published  the  less  important,  when  compared  even  with 
the  few  which  we  shall  now  briefly  relate.  From  this  point, 
in  this  our  first  brief  preface,  I  now  proceed,  with  the  help  of 
God,  to  explain  in  the  commencement  of  the  second,  the 
name  of  our  holy  prelate. 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA. 


IN  THE  NAME  OF  JESUS  CHRIST.— THE  SECOND  PREFACE. 

THERE  was  a  man  of  venerable  life  and  blessed  memory,  the 
father  and  founder  of  monasteries,  having  the  same  name  as 
Jonah  the  prophet ;  for  though  its  sound  is  different  in  the  three 
different  languages,  yet  its  signification  is  the  same  in  all :  what 
in  Hebrew  is  lona,  in  the  Greek  language  is  called  Tlepicrrepa, 
and  in  the  Latin  Columba.  Such  and  so  great  a  name  was  not 
given,  it  is  believed,  to  the  man  of  God  without  a  special  pro 
vidence.  For  according  to  the  faith  of  the  Gospels,  the  Holy 
Ghost  is  shown  to  have  descended  on  the  only  begotten  Son  of 
the  Eternal  Father,  in  the  form  of  that  little  bird  called  the 
dove ;  and  hence  for  the  most  part  in  the  sacred  books  the  dove 
is  known  to  designate  in  a  mystical  sense  the  Holy  Ghost. 
Hence  also  our  Saviour  in  His  Gospel  has  ordered  His  disciples 
to  preserve  the  simplicity  of  the  dove  ingrafted  in  a  pure  heart, 
for  the  dove  is  a  simple  and  innocent  bird.  By  that  name, 
therefore,  it  was  meet  that  the  simple  and  innocent  man  should 
be  called,  who  gave  to  the  Holy  Ghost  a  dwelling-place  in  him 
self  by  his  dove-like  ways ;  a  name  to  which  may  with  pro 
priety  be  applied  what  is  written  in  the  Proverbs,  "A  good 
name  is  rather  to  be  chosen  than  great  riches."  Justly,  there 
fore,  not  only  from  the  days  of  his  infancy  was  our  president,  by 
the  gift  of  God,  honoured  by  this  special  name,  but  even  many 
long  years  before  his  birth  it  was  given  to  him  as  a  child  of  the 
promise  in  a  wonderful  prophecy  of  a  soldier  of  Christ  to  whom 
it  was  revealed  by  the  Holy  Ghost.  For  Maucta,  a  pilgrim  from 
Britain,  a  holy  man,  a  disciple  of  St.  Patrick  the  Bishop,  gave 
the  following  prophecy  of  our  Patron,  as  is  known  by  us  on  the 
testimony  of  learned  ancients.  "  In  the  last  ages  of  the  world," 
he  said,  "  a  son  shall  be  born,  whose  name  Columba  shall  be 
announced  in  every  province  of  the  isles  of  the  ocean,  and  bril 
liantly  shall  he  enlighten  the  last  ages  of  the  earth.  The  little 
farms  of  his  small  monastery  and  of  mine  shall  be  divided  by 
the  boundary  of  a  narrow  fence,  and  he  shall  be  a  man  most 
dear  to  God,  and  of  great  merit  in  His  sight."  In  describing 
the  life  and  character  of  our  Columba,  I  shall  in  the  first  place, 
as  briefly  as  I  can,  give  a  general  summary,  and  place  before 
my  readers'  eyes  an  image  of  his  holy  life.  I  also  briefly  shall 
notice  some  of  his  miracles,  as  a  foretaste  to  those  who  eagerly 
read  them,  the  more  detailed  account  of  which  shall  be  given 
in  the  three  last  books.  The  first  shall  be  his  prophetical 
revelations — the  second  his  divine  virtues  wrought  by  him — 
the  third  the  apparitions  of  angels  and  some  manifestations  of 


THE  SECOND  PEEFACE.  3 

the  brightness  of  heaven  upon  the  man  of  God.  Let  no  one 
think  of  me  as  either  stating  what  is  not  true  regarding  so  great 
a  man,  or  recording  anything  doubtful  or  uncertain.  Let  him 
know  that  I  will  tell  with  all  candour,  and  without  any 
ambiguity,  what  I  have  learned  from  the  consistent  narrative 
of  my  predecessors,  trustworthy  and  discerning  men,  and  that 
my  narrative  is  founded  either  on  written  authorities  anterior 
to  my  own  times,  or  on  what  I  have  myself  heard  from  some 
learned  and  faithful  ancients,  unhesitatingly  attesting  facts,  the 
truth  of  which  they  had  themselves  diligently  inquired  into. 

St.  Columba  then  was  born  of  noble  parents;  his  father 
was  Fedilmith,  son  of  Fergus,  and  his  mother  was  Aethne, 
whose  father  can  be  called  in  Latin  Filius  Navis,  but  in  the 
Scotic  tongue  Mac  Nave.  In  the  second  year  after  the  battle 
of  Culedrebina  (fought  A.D.  561),  and  in  the  forty-second  of  his 
age,  St.  Columba,  resolving  to  seek  a  foreign  country  for  the 
love  of  Christ,  sailed  from  Scotia  (Ireland)  to  Britain.  From 
his  boyhood  he  had  been  brought  up  in  Christian  training  in  the 
study  of  wisdom,  and  by  the  grace  of  God  had  so  preserved  the 
integrity  of  his  body,  and  the  purity  of  soul,  that  though  dwell 
ing  on  earth  he  appeared  to  live  like  the  saints  in  heaven.  For 
he  was  angelic  in  appearance,  graceful  in  speech,  holy  in  work, 
with  talents  of  the  highest  order,  and  consummate  prudence ; 
he  lived  a  soldier  of  Christ  during  thirty-four  years  in  an  island. 
He  never  could  spend  the  space  of  even  one  hour  without 
study,  or  prayer,  or  writing,  or  some  other  holy  occupation.  So 
incessantly  was  he  engaged  night  and  day  in  the  unwearied 
exercise  of  fasting  and  watching,  that  the  burden  of  each  of 
these  austerities  would  seem  beyond  the  power  of  all  human 
endurance.  And  still  in  all  these  he  was  beloved  by  all,  for  a 
h°ty  j°7  ever  beaming  on  his  face  revealed  the  joy  and  gladness 
with  which  the  Holy  Spirit  filled  his  inmost  soul. 


BOOK  I. 
OF  HIS  PEOPHETIC  EEVELATIONS. 


CHAPTER   I. 

A  brief  narrative  of  his  great  Miracles. 

ACCORDING  to  the  promise  given  above,  I  shall  commence 
this  book  with  a  brief  account  of  the  evidences  which  the 
venerable  man  gave  of  his  power.  By  virtue  of  his  prayer,  and 
in  the  name  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  he  healed  several  persons 
suffering  under  various  diseases;  and  he  alone,  by  the  assistance 
of  God,  expelled  from  this  our  island,  which  now  has  the 
primacy,  innumerable  hosts  of  malignant  spirits,  whom  he  saw 
with  his  bodily  eyes  assailing  himself,  and  beginning  to  bring 
deadly  distempers  on  his  monastic  brotherhood.  Partly  by 
mortification,  and  partly  by  a  bold  resistance,  he  subdued,  with 
the  help  of  Christ,  the  furious  rage  of  wild  beasts.  The  surging 
waves,  also,  at  times  rolling  mountains  high  in  a  great  tempest, 
became  quickly  at  his  prayer  quiet  and  smooth,  and  his  ship, 
in  which  he  then  happened  to  be,  reached  the  desired  haven  in 
a  perfect  calm. 

When  returning  from  the  country  of  the  Picts,  where  he  had 
been  for  some  days,  he  hoisted  his  sail  when  the  breeze  was 
against  him  to  confound  the  Druids,  and  made  as  rapid  a 
voyage  as  if  the  wind  had  been  favourable.  On  other  occa 
sions,  also,  contrary  winds  were  at  his  prayers  changed  into 
fair.  In  that  same  country,  he  took  a  white  stone  from  the 
river,  and  blessed  it  for  the  working  of  certain  cures ;  and 
that  stone,  contrary  to  nature,  floated  like  an  apple  when 
placed  in  water.  This  divine  miracle  was  wrought  in  the  pre 
sence  of  King  Brude  and  his  household.  In  the  same  country, 
also,  he  performed  a  still  greater  miracle,  by  raising  to  life  the 
dead  child  of  an  humble  believer,  and  restoring  him  in  life  and 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I.  5 

vigour  to  his  father  and  mother.  At  another  time,  while 
the  blessed  man  was  yet  a  young  deacon  in  Hibernia,  resid 
ing  with  the  holy  bishop  Findbarr,  the  wine  required  for  the 
sacred  mysteries  failed,  and  he  changed  by  his  prayer  pure 
water  into  true  wine.  An  immense  blaze  of  heavenly  light 
was  on  many  and  wholly  distinct  occasions  seen  by  some  of 
the  brethren  to  surround  him  in  the  light  of  day,  as  well  as  in 
the  darkness  of  the  night.  He  was  also  favoured  with  the 
sweet  and  most  delightful  society  of  bright  hosts  of  the  holy 
angels.  He  often  saw,  by  the  revelation  of  the  Holy  Ghost, 
the  souls  of  some  just  men  carried  by  angels  to  the  highest 
heavens.  And  the  reprobates  too  he  very  frequently  beheld 
carried  to  hell  by  demons.  He  very  often  foretold  the  future 
deserts,  sometimes  joyful,  and  sometimes  sad,  of  many  per 
sons  while  they  were  still  living  in  mortal  flesh.  In  the 
dreadful  crash  of  wars  he  obtained  from  God,  by  the  virtue  of 
prayer,  that  some  kings  should  be  conquered,  and  others  come 
off  victorious.  And  such  a  grace  as  this  he  enjoyed,  not  only 
while  alive  in  this  world,  but  even  after  his  departure  from 
the  flesh,  as  God,  from  whom  all  the  saints  derive  their  honour, 
has  made  him  still  a  victorious  and  most  valiant  champion  in 
battle.  I  shall  give  one  example  of  especial  honour  conferred 
by  Almighty  God  on  this  honourable  man,  the  event  having 
occurred  the  day  before  the  Saxon  prince  Oswald  went  forth  to 
fight  with  Cation  (Ceadualla  of  Bede),  a  very  valiant  king  of  the 
Britons.  For  as  this  same  King  Oswald,  after  pitching  his 
camp,  in  readiness  for  the  battle,  was  sleeping  one  day  on 
a  pillow  in  his  tent,  he  saw  St.  Columba  in  a  vision,  beam 
ing  with  angelic  brightness,  and  of  figure  so  majestic  that 
his  head  seemed  to  touch  the  clouds.  The  blessed  man 
having  announced  his  name  to  the  king,  stood  in  the  midst 
of  the  camp,  and  covered  it  all  with  his  brilliant  garment, 
except  at  one  small  distant  point;  and  at  the  same  time 
he  uttered  those  cheering  words  which  the  Lord  spake  to 
Jesua  Ben  Nun  before  the  passage  of  the  Jordan,  after  Moses' 
death,  saying,  "  Be  strong  and  of  a  good  courage ;  behold,  I 
shall  be  with  thee,"  etc.  Then  St.  Columba  having  said  these 
words  to  the  king  in  the  vision,  added,  "  March  out  this  fol 
lowing  night  from  your  camp  to  battle,  for  on  this  occasion  the 
Lord  has  granted  to  me  that  your  foes  shall  be  put  to  flight, 
that  your  enemy  Cation  shall  be  delivered  into  your  hands,  and 
that  after  the  battle  you  shall  return  in  triumph,  and  have 
a  happy  reign."  The  king,  awaking  at  these  words,  assembled 
his  council  and  related  the  vision,  at  which  they  were  all 
encouraged  ;  and  so  the  whole  people  promised  that,  after  their 


0  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I. 

return  from  the  war,  they  would  believe  and  be  baptized,  for 
up  to  that  time  all  that  Saxon  land  had  been  wrapt  in  the 
darkness  of  paganism  and  ignorance,  with  the  exception  of 
King  Oswald  and  the  twelve  men  who  had  been  baptized  with 
him  during  his  exile  among  the  Scots.  What  more  need  I 
say  ?  On  the  very  next  night,  King  Oswald,  as  he  had  been 
directed  in  the  vision,  went  forth  from  his  camp  to  battle,  and 
had  a  much  smaller  army  than  the  numerous  hosts  opposed  to 
him,  yet  he  obtained  from  the  Lord,  according  to  His  promise, 
an  easy  and  decisive  victory — for  King  Cation  was  slain,  and 
the  conqueror,  on  his  return  after  the  battle,  was  ever  after 
established  by  God  as  the  Bretwalda  of  all  Britain.  I,  Adam- 
nan,  had  this  narrative  from  the  lips  of  my  predecessor,  the 
Abbot  Failbe,  who  solemnly  declared  that  he  had  himself  heard 
King  Oswald  relating  this  same  vision  to  Segine  the  abbot. 

But  another  fact  must  not  be  omitted,  that  by  some  poems ' 
composed  in  the  Scotic  language  in  praise  of  the  same  blessed 
man,  and  by  the  commemoration  of  his  name,  certain  wicked 
men  of  lewd  conversation,  and  men  of  blood,  were  saved  from  the 
hands  of  their  enemies,  who  in  the  night  had  surrounded  the 
house  in  which  they  were  singing  these  hymns.  They  safely 
escaped  through  the  flames,  the  swords,  and  the  spears ;  and, 
strange  to  tell,  a  few  of  those  only  who  despised  these  commemo 
rations  of  the  holy  man,  and  refused  to  join  in  the  hymns, 
perished  in  that  assault  of  the  enemy.  It  is  not  two  or  three 
witnesses,  as  the  law  requires,  but  even  hundreds  and  more,  that 
could  be  cited  in  proof  of  this  miracle.  Nor  is  it  in  one  place  or 
on  one  occasion  only  that  the  same  is  known  to  have  happened, 
but  even  at  different  times  and  places,  in  both  Scotia  (Ireland) 
and  Britain,  it  is  proved  beyond  all  doubt  that  the  like  security 
was  obtained,  in  the  same  manner  and  by  the  same  means.  I 
have  learned  this  for  certain,  from  well-informed  men  in  those 
very  countries  where  similar  miracles  have  taken  place. 

But,  to  return  to  the  point  in  hand  :  among  the  miracles 
which  this  same  man  of  the  Lord,  while  dwelling  in  mortal 
flesh,  performed  by  the  gift  of  God,  was  his  foretelling  the 
future  by  the  spirit  of  prophecy,  with  which  he  was  highly 
favoured  from  his  early  years,  and  making  known  to  'those  who 
were  present  what  was  happening  in  other  places  :  for  though 
absent  in  body  he  was  present  in  spirit,  and  could  look  on 
things  that  were  widely  apart,  according  to  the  words  of  St. 
Paul,  "  He  that  is  joined  unto  the  Lord  is  one  spirit." 

Hence  this  same  man  of  the  Lord,  St.  Columba,  when  a  few 
of  the  brethren  would  sometimes  inquire  into  the  matter,  did 
not  deny  but  that  by  some  divine  intuition,  and  through  a 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I.  7 

wonderful  expansion  of  his  inner  soul,  lie  beheld  the  whole 
universe  drawn  together  and  laid  open  to  his  sight,  as  in  one 
ray  of  the  sun. 

This  account  of  the  miracles  of  the  holy  man  I  have  given 
here  for  this  purpose,  that  my  reader,  in  this  brief  sketch,  may 
have  a  foretaste  of  the  richer  banquet  which  is  before  him,  in 
the  fuller  narrative  which  is  to  be  given,  with  the  assistance  of 
the  Lord,  in  the  three  following  books.  Here  it  appears  to  me 
not  improper,  though  it  may  be  out  of  the  usual  order,  to  record 
some  prophecies  which  the  blessed  man  gave  at  different  times, 
regarding  certain  holy  and  illustrious  men. 


CHAPTEK   II. 

Of  St.  Finten  the  Abbot,  son  of  Tailchan. 

ST.  FINTEN,  who  was  afterwards  very  well  known  through 
out  all  the  churches  of  the  Scots,  having,  by  the  grace  of  God, 
preserved  from  his  boyhood  purity  of  body  and  soul,  and  being 
devoted  to  the  study  of  divine  wisdom,  had  nourished  from  his 
youthful  years  this  one  resolve  in  his  heart,  that  he  would  leave 
Hibernia  and  go  abroad  to  St.  Columba.  Burning  with  that 
desire,  he  went  to  an  old  friend,  the  most  prudent  and  vener 
able  cleric  in  his  country,  who  was  called  in  the  Scotic  tongue 
Columb  Crag,  to  get  some  sound  advice  from  him.  When  he 
had  laid  open  his  mind  to  him,  he  received  the  following 
answer :  "  As  thy  devout  wish  is,  I  feel,  inspired  by  God,  who 
can  presume  to  say  that  thou  shouldest  not  cross  the  sea  to  St. 
Columba  ?"  At  the  same  moment  two  monks  of  St.  Columba 
happened  to  arrive,  and  when  they  were  asked  about  their 
journey,  they  replied :  "We  have  lately  come  across  from  Britain, 
and  to-day  we  have  come  from  the  Oakwood  of  Calgach  (Daire 
Calgaich,  or  Deny).  "Is he  well,"  says  Columb  Crag, "  your  holy 
father  Columba?"  Then  they  burst  into  tears,  and  answered 
with  great  sorrow,  "  Our  patron  is  indeed  well,  for  a  few  days 
ago  he  departed  to  Christ."  Hearing  this,  Finten  and  Columb, 
and  all  who  were  there  present,  fell  on  their  faces  on  the  ground, 
and  wept  bitterly.  Finten  then  asked,  "  Whom  did  he  leave 
as  his  successor  ?"  "  Baithene,  his  disciple,"  they  replied.  And 
as  all  cried  out,  "  It  is  meet  and  right,"  Columba  said  to  Finten, 
"  What  wilt  thou  now  do,  Finten  ?"  He  answered,  "  With  God's 
permission,  I  will  sail  over  to  Baithene,  that  wise  and  holy 
man,  and  if  he  receive  me  I  will  take  him  as  my  abbot."  Then 
kissing  the  forementioned  Columb,  and  bidding  him  farewell,  he 
prepared  for  his  voyage,  and  setting  sail  without  the  least  delay, 


8  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I. 

arrived  at  the  louan  island  (Hy,  now  corruptly  lona).  As  up 
to  that  time  his  name  was  wholly  unknown  in  those  places,  he 
was  only  received  at  first  with  the  hospitality  given  to  every  un 
known  stranger ;  but  next  day  he  sent  a  messenger  to  Baithene, 
and  asked  to  have  a  personal  interview.  Baithene,  ever  kind  and 
affable  to  strangers,  ordered  him  to  be  introduced.  Being  at  once 
brought  in,  he  first,  as  seemed  meet,  knelt  down  upon  the  ground; 
and  then  being  ordered  by  the  holy  abbot  to  rise  and  be  seated, 
he  was  asked  by  Baithene,  who  as  yet  knew  nothing  of  his  family, 
province,  name,  or  life,  what  was  his  motive  for  encountering 
the  labour  of  the  voyage.  In  reply  to  the  inquiry  thus  made 
he  told  everything  in  order,  and  then  humbly  asked  to  be  ad 
mitted.  The  holy  abbot,  hearing  these  things  from  his  guest, 
and  recognising  him  at  the  same  time  as  the  man  of  whom  St. 
Columba  had  some  time  previously  made  a  prophecy,  replied  : 
"  Truly,  my  son,  I  ought  to  give  thanks  to  my  God  for  thy 
arrival,  but  be  thou  assured  of  this,  that  thou  wilt  not  be  one 
of  our  monks."  On  hearing  this  the  stranger  was  very  much 
grieved,  and  said  :  "  Perhaps  I  am  unworthy  to  become  thy 
monk."  "  It  is  not  because  thou  art  unworthy,  as  thou  sayest, 
that  I  gave  that  answer,"  immediately  replied  the  abbot,  "  for  I 
would  indeed  prefer  retaining  you  with  me,  but  I  cannot  dis 
obey  the  command  of  St.  Columba,  my  predecessor,  by  whom 
the  Holy  Ghost  prophesied  of  thee.  For,  as  I  was  alone  with 
him  one  day,  among  other  things  which  he  foretold  was  the 
following  :  '  Hearken  very  attentively,  0  Baithene,'  said  he, 
'  to  these  my  words,  for  shortly  after  my  welcome  and  earnestly 
longed-for  departure  from  this  world  to  Christ,  a  certain  brother 
from  Scotia  (Ireland),  named  Finten,  son  of  Tailchan,  of  the  tribe 
Mocumoie,  who  is  now  carefully  guarding  his  youthful  years 
with  a  good  life,  and  is  very  well  versed  in  sacred  studies,  will, 
I  say,  come  to  thee,  and  humbly  ask  thee  to  receive  and  enrol 
him  with  your  other  monks.  But  this  has  not  been  appointed 
for  him  in  the  foreknowledge  of  God,  that  he  should  become 
the  monk  of  any  abbot,  for  he  has  long  since  been  chosen  of 
God  to  be  an  abbot  of  monks  and  a  leader  of  souls  to  the  king 
dom  of  heaven.  Thou  shalt  not  therefore  detain  that  illustrious 
man  with  thee  on  these  islands  of  ours,  lest  thou  shouldst  even 
seem  to  oppose  the  will  of  God,  but  thou  shalt  make  known  to 
him  what  I  have  told  thee,  and  send  him  back  in  peace  to 
Scotia  (Ireland),  that  he  may  found  a  monastery  in  the  parts  of 
the  Leinstermen,  near  the  sea,  and  that  there  feeding  the  flock  of 
Christ,  he  shall  lead  a  countless  host  of  souls  to  their  heavenly 
country.'"  The  holy  youth  hearing  this  burst  into  tears,  and 
returning  thanks  to  Christ,  said :  "  Be  it  unto  me  according  to 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I.  9 

the  prophecy  and  wonderful  foreknowledge  of  St.  Columba." 
At  the  same  time,  in  obedience  to  the  words  of  the  saints,  he 
received  the  blessing  of  Baithene,  and  sailed  back  in  peace  to 
Scotia  (Ireland). 

I  have  heard  this  as  an  undoubted  fact  from  the  lips  of  an 
aged  and  pious  priest  and  soldier  of  Christ,  called  Oissene,  son 
of  Ernan,  of  the  tribe  Mocu  Neth  Corb,  who  averred  that  he  had 
himself  heard  these  very  words  from  the  lips  of  St.  Finten,  son 
of  Tailchan,  whose  monk  he  himself  had  been. 


CHAPTEE   III. 

Prophecy  of  St.  Columba  regarding  Ernene,  son  of  Crasen. 

ON  another  occasion,  while  the  blessed  man  was  residing  for 
a  few  months  in  the  midland  part  of  Hibernia,  when  founding 
by  divine  inspiration  his  monastery,  which  in  the  Scotic  tongue 
is  called  Dair-mag  (Durrow),  was  pleased  to  pay  a  visit  to  the 
brethren  who  dwelt  in  St.  Ceran's  monastery,  Clon  (Clonmac- 
noise).  As  soon  as  it  was  known  that  he  was  near,  all  flocked 
from  their  little  grange  farms  near  the  monastery,  and,  along 
with  those  who  were  within  it,  ranged  themselves,  with  enthu 
siasm,  under  the  abbot  Alither;  then  advancing  beyond  the 
enclosure  of  the  monastery,  they  went  out  as  one  man  to 
meet  St.  Columba,  as  if  he  were  an  angel  of  the  Lord. 
Humbly  bowing  down,  with  their  faces  to  the  ground,  in  his 
presence,  they  kissed  him  most  reverently,  and  singing  hymns 
of  praise  as  they  went  they  conducted  him  with  all  honour 
to  the  Church.  Over  the  saint,  as  he  walked,  a  canopy  made 
of  wood  was  supported  by  four  men  walking  by  his  side,  lest 
the  holy  abbot,  St.  Columba,  should  be  troubled  by  the  crowd 
of  brethren  pressing  upon  him.  At  that  very  time,  a  boy 
attached  to  the  monastery,  who  was  mean  in  dress  and  look, 
and  hitherto  had  not  stood  well  in  the  opinions  of  the 
seniors,  concealing  himself  as  well  as  he  could,  came  forward 
stealthily,  that  he  might  touch  unperceived  even  the  hem  of  the 
cloak  which  the  blessed  man  wore,  without  his  feeling  or  know 
ing  it.  This,  however,  did  not  escape  the  saint,  for  he  knew 
with  the  eyes  of  his  soul  what  he  could  not  see  taking  place 
behind  him  with  the  eyes  of  his  body.  Stopping  therefore 
suddenly,  and  putting  out  his  hand  behind  him,  he  seized  the 
boy  by  the  neck,  and  bringing  him  round  set  him  before  his 
face.  The  crowd  of  bystanders  cried  out :  "  Let  him  go,  let 
him  go  :  why  do  you  touch  that  unfortunate  and  naughty 


10  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I. 

boy  ? "  But  the  saint  solemnly  uttered  these  prophetic  words 
from  his  pure  heart :  "  Suffer  it  to  be  so  now,  brethren  ; "  then 
turning  to  the  boy,  who  was  in  the  greatest  terror,  he  said, 
"  My  son,  open  thy  mouth,  and  put  out  thy  tongue."  The  boy 
did  as  he  was  bid,  and  in  great  alarm  opened  his  mouth  and  put 
out  his  tongue  :  the  saint  extended  to  it  his  holy  hand,  and 
after  carefully  blessing  it  pronounced  his  prophecy  in  the  fol 
lowing  words  :  "  Though  this  boy  appears  to  you  now  very  con 
temptible  and  worthless,  let  no  one  on  that  account  despise 
him.  For  from  this  hour,  not  only  will  he  not  displease  you, 
but  he  will  give  you  every  satisfaction ;  from  day  to  day  he 
shall  advance  by  degrees  in  good  conduct,  and  in  the  virtues  of 
the  soul ;  from  this  day,  wisdom  and  prudence  shall  be  more 
and  more  increased  in  him,  and  great  shall  be  his  progress  in 
this  your  community  :  his  tongue  also  shall  receive  from  God 
the  gift  of  both  wholesome  doctrine  and  eloquence."  This  was 
Ernene,  son  of  Crasen,  who  was  afterwards  famous  and  most 
highly  honoured  in  all  the  churches  of  Scotia  (Ireland).  He  him 
self  told  all  these  words  which  were  prophesied  regarding  him 
self,  as  written  above,  to  the  abbot  Segine,  in  the  attentive  hearing 
of  my  predecessor  Failbe,  who  was  present  at  the  time  with 
Segine,  and  from  whose  lips  I  myself  have  come  to  know  all 
that  I  have  stated.  But  during  this  short  time  that  the  saint 
was  a  guest  in  the  monastery  of  Clon,  there  were  many  other 
things  also  which  he  prophesied  by  the  revelation  of  the  Holy 
Ghost ;  as,  for  instance,  about  the  discord  which  arose  a  long 
time  after  among  the  churches  of  Scotia  (Ireland),  on  account 
of  the  difference  with  regard  to  the  Easter  Feast ;  and  about 
some  visits  of  angels  distinctly  made  to  himself,  certain  places 
within  the  enclosure  of  the  monastery  being  at  that  time  thus 
resorted  to  by  the  angels. 

CHAPTER   IV. 

Of  the  arrival  of  St.  Cainnech,  the  Abbot,  who  had  been  previously 
announced  in  prophecy  ly  St.  Colutriba. 

AT  another  time,  in  the  louan  island  (Hy,  now  lona),  on  a 
day  when  the  tempest  was  fierce  and  the  sea  was  exceedingly 
boisterous,  the  saint,  as  he  sat  in  the  house,  gave  orders  to  his 
brethren,  saying,  "  Prepare  the  guest-chamber  quickly,  and  draw 
water  to  wash  the  strangers'  feet."  One  of  the  brethren  upon 
this  inquired :  "  Who  can  cross  the  Sound  safely,  narrow  though 
it  be,  on  so  perilous  and  stormy  a  day?"  The  saint,  on  hearing 
this,  thus  made  answer,  "The  Almighty  has  given  a  calm  even  in 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I.  11 

this  tempest  to  a  certain  holy  and  excellent  man,  who  will 
arrive  here  among  us  before  evening."  And  lo  !  the  same  day, 
the  ship  for  which  the  brethren  had  some  time  been  looking 
out  arrived,  according  to  the  saint's  prediction,  and  brought  St. 
Cainnech.  The  saint  went  forth  with  the  brethren  to  meet  him 
and  received  him  with  all  honour  and  hospitality.  But  the 
sailors  who  had  been  with  St.  Cainnech,  when  they  were  asked 
by  the  brethren  what  sort  of  a  voyage  they  had  had,  told  them, 
even  as  St.  Columba  had  predicted,  about  both  the  tempest  and 
the  calm  which  God  had  given  in  the  same  sea  and  at  the  same 
time,  with  an  amazing  distinction  between  the  two.  The  tem 
pest  they  saw  at  a  distance,  yet  they  said  they  did  not  feel  it. 


CHAPTEE   V. 

Of  the  Danger  to  the  holy  Bishop  Colman  Mocusailni  in  the  Sea, 
near  the  island  called  Bechru. 

ON  another  day,  also,  while  St.  Columba  was  engaged  in  his 
mother-church, he  suddenly  cried  out,  with  a  smile,  "Columbanus, 
the  son  of  Beogna,  has  just  now  set  out  on  a  voyage  to  us,  and 
is  in  great  danger  in  the  rolling  tides  of  Brecan's  whirlpool :  he 
is  sitting  at  the  prow  and  raising  both  his  hands  to  heaven :  he 
is  also  blessing  that  angry  and  dreadful  sea :  yet  in  this  the 
Lord  only  frightens  him,  for  the  ship  in  which  he  is  shall  not 
be  wrecked  in  the  storm ;  but  this  is  rather  to  excite  him  to 
pray  more  fervently,  that  by  God's  favour  he  may  escape  the 
danger  of  his  voyage,  and  reach  us  in  safety. 


CHAPTER   VI. 

Of  Cormac. 

ON  another  occasion  also  St.  Columba  prophesied  in  the 
following  manner  of  Cormac,  grandson  of  Lethan,  a  truly  pious 
man,  who  not  less  than  three  times  went  in  search  of  a  desert 
in  the  ocean,  but  did  not  find  it.  "  In  his  desire  to  find  a  desert, 
Cormac  is  this  day,  for  the  second  time,  now  embarking  from 
that  district  which  lies  at  the  other  side  of  the  river  Moda  (the 
Moy,  in  Sligo),  and  is  called  Eirros  Domno  (Erris,  in  Mayo) ; 
nor  even  this  time  shall  he  find  what  he  seeks,  and  that  for 
no  other  fault  than  that  he  has  irregularly  allowed  to  accom 
pany  him  in  the  voyage  a  monk  who  is  going  away  from  his 
own  proper  abbot  without  obtaining  his  consent." 


1 2  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I. 


CHAPTEE   VII. 

Prophecy  of  the  blessed  man  regarding  the  Tumults  of  Battles 
,^,,    fought  at  a  distance. 

ABOUT  two  years,  as  we  have  been  told,  after  the  battle  of 
Cule-Drebene  (in  Connaught),  at  which  time  the  blessed  man 
first  set  sail  and  took  his  departure  from  Scotia  (Ireland),  it 
happened  that  on  the  very  day  and  at  the  same  hour  when  the 
battle,  called  in  Scotic  Ondemone  (near  Coleraine),  was  fought 
in  Scotia  (Ireland),  the  same  man  of  God  was  then  living  in 
Britain  with  King]  Connall,  the  son  of  Comgell,  and  told  him 
everything,  as  well  about  the  battle  itself,  as  also  about  those 
kings  to  whom  the  Lord  granted  the  victory  over  their  enemies. 
These  kings  were  known  as  Ainmore,  son  of  Setna,  and  the 
two  sons  of  Mac  Erca,  Domnall  and  Forcus.  And  the  saint, 
in  like  manner,  prophesied  of  the  king  of  the  Cruithne,  who 
was  called  Echoid  Laib,  and  how,  after  being  defeated,  he 
escaped  riding  in  his  chariot. 

On  the  Battle  of  the  Miathi. 

AT  another  time,  after  the  lapse  of  many  years  from  the 
above-mentioned  battle,  and  while  the  holy  man  was  in  the  y 
louan  island  (Hy,  now  lona),  he  suddenly  said  to  his  minister, 
Diormit,  "  King  the  bell."  The  brethren,  startled  at  the  sound, 
proceeded  quickly  to  the  church,  with  the  holy  prelate  himself 
at  their  head.  There  he  began,  on  bended  knees,  to  say  to 
them,  "  Let  us  pray  now  earnestly  to  the  Lord  for  this  people 
and  King  Aidan,  for  they  are  engaging  in  battle  at  this  moment." 
Then  after  a  short  time  he  went  out  of  the  oratory,  and,  look-  ( 
ing  up  to  heaven,  said,  "  The  barbarians  are  fleeing  now,  and  to 
Aidan  is  given  the  victory — a  sad  one  though  it  be."  And  the 
blessed  man  in  his  prophecy  declared  the  number  of  the  slain 
in  Aidan's  army  to  be  three  hundred  and  three  men. 

CHAPTER   VIII. 

Prophecy  of  St.  Columba  regarding  the  Sons  of  King  Aidan. 

At  another  time,  before  the  above-mentioned  battle,  the  saint 
asked  King  Aidan  about  his  successor  to  the  crown.  The  -king 
answered  that  of  his  three  sons,  Artur,  Eochoid  Eind,  and 
Domingart,  he  knew  not  which  would  have  the  kingdom  after 
him.  Then  at  once  the  saint  prophesied  on  this  wise,  "  None  of 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I.  13 

these  three  shall  be  king,  for  they  shall  fall  in  battle,  slain  by 
their  enemies ;  but  now  if  thou  hast  any  younger  sons,  let  them 
come  to  me,  and  that  one  of  them  whom  the  Lord  has  chosen  to 
be  king  will  at  once  rush  into  my  lap."  When  they  were  called 
in,  Eochoid  Buide,  according  to  the  word  of  the  saint,  advanced 
and  rested  in  his  bosom.  Immediately  the  saint  kissed  him, 
and,  giving  him  his  blessing,  said  to  his  father,  "  This  one  shall 
survive  and  reign  as  king  after  thee,  and  his  sons  shall  reign 
after  him."  And  so  were  all  these  things  fully  accomplished 
afterwards  in  their  time.  For  Artur  and  Eochoid  Find  were 
not  long  after  killed  in  the  above-mentioned  battle  of  the 
Miathi;  Domingart  was  also  defeated  and  slain  in  battle  in 
Saxonia;  while  Eochoid  Buide  succeeded  his  father  on  the 
throne. 

Of  Domnall,  son  of  Aid. 

DOMNALL,  son  of  Aid,  while  yet  a  boy,  was  brought  by  those 
who  brought  him  up  to  St.  Columba  on  the  ridge  of  Ceatt 
(Druim  Ceatt  in  Londonderry),  who  looked  at  him  and  inquired, 
"Whose  son  is  this  whom  you  have  brought  here?"  They 
answered,  "This  is  Domnall,  son  of  Aid,  who  is  brought  to 
thee  for  this  purpose,  that  he  may  return  enriched  by  thy 
blessing."  The  saint  blessed  him  immediately,  and  said,  "  He 
shall  survive  all  his  brethren,  and  be  a  very  famous  king,  nor 
shall  he  be  ever  delivered  into  the  hands  of  his  enemies  ;  but 
in  his  old  age,  in  his  own  house,  and  with  a  crowd  of  his 
familiar  friends  around  him,  he  shall  die  peacefully  in  his  bed." 
All  this  was  truly  fulfilled  in  him,  as  the  blessed  man  had 
foretold. 

Of  Scandlan,  son  of  Colman. 

AT  the  same  time  and  place,  the  saint,  wishing  to  visit 
Scandlan,  son  of  Colman,  went  to  him  where  he  was  kept  in 
prison  by  King  Aid,  and  when  he  had  blessed  him  he  comforted 
him,  saying,  "  Son,  do  not  distress  yourself,  but  rather  rejoice 
and  take  courage,  for  King  Aid,  who  has  you  a  prisoner,  will  go 
out  of  this  world  before  you,  and  after  some  time  of  exile  you 
shall  reign  in  your  own  nation  for  thirty  years.  And  again 
you  shall  be  driven  from  your  kingdom,  and  be  in  exile  for 
some  days ;  but  after  that  you  shall  be  called  home  again  by 
your  people,  and  shall  reign  for  three  short  terms."  All  this 
was  fully  accomplished  according  to  the  prediction  of  the  saint. 
For  in  thirty  years  he  had  to  leave  his  throne,  and  continued 
in  exile  for  some  time ;  and  then  being  recalled  by  his  people, 


1  4  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I. 

he  reigned  not  three  years,  as  he  expected,  but  three  months, 
and  at  the  end  of  that  time  he  died. 

A  Prophecy  of  the  Messed  man  regarding  two  other  Kings,  icho 
were  called  the  two  grandsons  of  Muiredach — Baitan,  son  of 
Maic  JErc,  and  Eochoid,  son  of  Domnall. 

AT  another  time,  while  travelling  through  the  rough  and 
rocky  country  which  is  called  Artdamuirchol  (Ardnamurchan), 
he  heard  his  companions — Laisran,  son  of  Feradach,  and 
Diormit,  his  minister — speaking  on  the  way  of  the  two  above- 
named  kings,  and  addressed  them  in  these  words,  "  0  my  dear 
children,  why  do  you  talk  thus  foolishly  of  these  men  ?  Both 
of  these  kings  of  whom  you  are  now  conversing  are  newly 
slain,  and  have  had  their  heads  cut  off  by  their  enemies.  And 
this  very  day  some  sailors  shall  come  here  from  Scotia  (Ireland), 
and  tell  you  the  same  about  these  kings."  That  same  day  some 
sailors  arrived  from  Hibernia,  at  a  place  which  is  called  Muir- 
bolc  Paradisi  (Portnamurloch  in  Lismore),  and  told  the  two 
above-named  companions,  who  were  now  sailing  in  the  same 
ship  with  the  saint,  how  these  kings  had  been  slain,  and  thus 
the  prophecy  of  the  venerable  man  fulfilled. 

Prophecy  of  the  holy  man  regarding  Oingus,  son  of  Aid 
Comman. 

WHEN  he  and  his  two  brothers  were  driven  from  his  country, 
he  came  as  an  exile  to  the  saint,  who  was  then  wandering  in 
Britain,  and  who,  in  blessing  him,  uttered  these  prophetic 
words  from  his  holy  heart,  "  This  youth  shall  survive  when  his 
other  brothers  are  gone,  and  he  shall  reign  a  long  time  in  his 
native  country;  his  enemies  shall  fall  before  him,  while  he 
shall  never  fall  into  their  hands,  but  in  old  age  he  shall  die 
peacefully  in  the  midst  of  his  friends."  All  this  was  fully 
accomplished  according  to  the  saint's  words.  This  was  Oingus, 
surnamed  Bronbachal. 

Prophecy  of  the  blessed  man  regarding  the  son  of  King  Dermit, 
who  in  the  Scotic  language  is  called  Aid  Slane. 

ON  another  occasion,  when  the  blessed  man  was  sojourning  for 
some  days  in  Scotia  (Ireland),  he  spoke  in  the  following  prophetic 
strain  to  the  above-mentioned  Aid,  who  had  come  to  visit  him  : 
— "  Thou  must  take  care,  my  son,  lest,  for  the  sin  of  murdering 
thy* kinsman,  thou  lose  the  right  of  governing  the  whole  of 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I.  15 

Hibernia,  as  was  first  assigned  tliee  by  God ;  for  if  at  any  time 
thou  dost  commit  that  sin,  thou  shalt  not  hold  the  whole  of 
thy  father's  kingdom,  but  only  a  part  of  it  in  thine  own  tribe, 
and  that  but  for  a  short  time."  These  words  of  the  saint  were 
on  this  wise  fulfilled  according  to  the  prediction,  that  after  Aid 
had  treacherously  killed  Suibne,  son  of  Columban,  he  reigned, 
it  is  said,  no  longer  than  four  years  and  three  months,  and  that 
only  as  colleague  in  the  kingdom. 


Prophecy  of  the  blessed  man  regarding  King  Roderc,  son  of  Tothal, 
who  reigned  on  the  Rock  of  Cluaith  (Alcluith  or  Dumbarton). 

THIS  same  king  being  on  friendly  terms  with  the  holy  man, 
sent  to  him  on  one  occasion  a  secret  message  by  Lugbe  Mocu- 
min,  as  he  was  anxious  to  know  whether  he  would  be  killed 
by  his  enemies  or  not.  But  when  Lugbe  was  being  closely 
inquired  at  by  the  saint  regarding  the  king,  his  kingdom,  and 
people,  he  answered  in  a  tone  of  pity,  "  Why  do  you  ask  about 
that  wretched  man,  who  is  quite  unable  to  tell  at  what  hour  he 
may  be  killed  by  his  enemies  ? "  Then  the  saint  replied,  "  He 
shall  never  be  delivered  into  the  hands  of  his  enemies  ;  he  will 
die  at  home  on  his  own  pillow."  And  the  prophecy  of  the 
saint  regarding  King  Eoderc  was  fully  accomplished ;  for,  ac 
cording  to  his  word,  he  died  quietly  in  his  own  house. 


CHAPTEE  IX. 

Prophecy  of  the  Saint  regarding  two  "boys,  one  of  whom,  according 
to  the  Saint's  word,  died  at  the  end  of  a  week. 

ON  another  occasion,  two  men  of  low  rank  in  life  came  to 
the  saint,  who  was  then  in  the  louan  island  (Hy,  now  lona). 
One  of  them,  named  Meldan,  brought  his  son  to  the  saint  and 
asked  him  what  kind  of  future  he  would  enjoy.  To  whom  the 
saint  replied,  "  Is  not  this  the  Sabbath  day?  Thy  son  will  die 
on  the  sixth  day  at  the  end  of  next  week,  and  will  be  buried 
here  on  the  eighth  day,  that  is  the  Sabbath."  Then  the  other 
man,  named  Glasderc,  also  took  his  son  along  with  him,  and 
venturing  to  make  a  similar  inquiry,  received  the  following 
answer  from  the  saint,  "Thy  son  Ernan  will  see  his  grand 
children,  and  be  buried  in  old  age  in  this  island."  All  this 
was  fully  accomplished  in  its  own  time,  regarding  the  two 
boys,  according  to  the  words  of  the  saint, 


1 6  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  1. 


CHAPTER  X. 

Prophecy  of  the  Saint  regarding  Colca,  son  of  Aid  Draignich, 
sprung  from  the  grandsons  of  Fechureg,  and  regarding  some 
secret  sin  of  his  mother. 

THIS  Colca  residing  one  time  in  the  louan  island  (Hy,  now 
lona)  with  the  saint,  was  asked  by  him  concerning  his  mother 
whether  she  was  a  pious  woman  or  not.  Colca  answered  him, 
"  I  have  always  known  my  mother  to  be  good,  and  to  bear  that 
character."  The  saint  then  spoke  these  prophetic  words :  "  Set 
out  now  at  once  for  Scotia  (Ireland),  with  God's  help,  and 
question  thy  mother  closely  regarding  her  very  grievous  secret 
sin,  which  she  will  not  confess  to  any  man."  To  carry  out 
the  advice  thus  given  him  he  departed  to  Hibernia :  and  when 
he  interrogated  his  mother  closely,  she  at  first  denied,  and  then 
she  at  last  confessed  her  sin.  When  she  had  done  penance 
according  to  the  judgment  of  the  saint,  she  was  absolved,  won 
dering  very  much  all  the  while  at  what  was  made  known  to 
the  saint  regarding  her. 


CHAPTER   XL 

COLCA,  however,  returned  to  the  saint,  and  remained  with 
him  for  some  days,  and  then  asking  about  the  end  of  his  own 
days,  received  this  answer  from  the  saint: — "In  thine  own 
beloved  country  thou  shalt  be  head  of  a  church  for  many  years, 
and  when  at  any  time  thou  happenest  to  see  thy  butler  making 
merry  with  a  company  of  his  friends  at  supper,  and  twirling 
the  ladle  round  in  the  strainer,  know  that  then  in  a  short 
time  thou  shalt  die."  What  more  need  I  say  ?  This  same 
prophecy  of  the  blessed  man  was  exactly  fulfilled,  as  it  was 
foretold  to  Colca. 


CHAPTER  XII. 

Regarding  Laisrean,  the  gardener,  a  holy  man. 

ON  a  certain  day,  the  holy  man  ordered  one  of  his  monks 
named  Trena,  of  the  tribe  Mocuruntir,  to  go  a  message  for  him 
to  Scotia  (Ireland).  While  he  was  preparing  the  ship  in  haste  to 
obey  the  orders  of  the  man  of  God,  he  complained  before  the 
saint  that  one  of  the  sailors  was  wanting.  The  saint  immedi 
ately  answered  him,  and  uttered  these  words  from  his  sacred 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I.  17 

breast,  "  The  sailor  who  is,  thou  sayest,  absent,  I  cannot  just 
now  find.  But  go  in  peace ;  thou  shalt  have  a  favourable  and 
steady  breeze  till  thou  reach  Hibernia.  Thou  shalt  see  a  man 
coming  to  meet  thee  from  a  distance,  and  he  will  be  the  first  to 
seize  the  prow  of  thy  ship  in  Scotia  (Ireland) ;  he  shall  be  with 
thee  during  the  time  of  thy  sojourn  in  Hibernia,  and  accompany 
thee  on  thy  return  to  us,  as  a  man  chosen  by  God,  who  in  this 
very  monastery  of  mine  will  live  piously  the  remainder  of  his 
days."  What  more  can  I  add  ?  Trena  received  the  saint's 
blessing,  and  crossed  over  at  full  sail  during  the  whole  voyage, 
and  lo !  as  his  little  ship  was  nearing  the  port,  Laisran  Mocu- 
moie  ran  forward  before  the  others  and  caught  the  prow.  The 
sailors  knew  that  this  was  the  very  man  of  whom  the  saint  had 
spoken  beforehand. 

CHAPTER  XIII. 

How  the  Saint  'knew  and  told  beforehand  about  a  great  Whale. 

ONE  day  when  the  venerable  man  was  staying  in  the  Ion  an 
island  (Hy,  now  lona),  a  certain  brother  named  Berach  intended 
to  sail  to  the  Ethican  island  (Tiree),  and  going  to  the  saint  in  the 
morning  asked  his  blessing.  The  saint  looking  at  him,  said, 
"  0  my  son,  take  very  great  care  this  day  not  to  attempt  sailing- 
direct  over  the  open  sea  to  the  Ethican  land  (Tiree) ;  but  rather 
take  a  circuit,  and  sail  round  by  the  smaller  islands,  for  this 
reason,  that  thou  be  not  thrown  into  great  terror  by  a  huge 
monster,  and  hardly  be  able  to  escape."  On  receiving  the 
saint's  blessing  he  departed,  and  when  he  reached  his  ship,  he 
set  sail  without  giving  heed  to  the  saint's  words.  But  as  he 
was  crossing  over  the  larger  arms  of  the  Ethican  sea,  he  and 
the  sailors  who  were  with  him  looked  out,  and  lo,  a  whale,  of 
huge  and  amazing  size,  raised  itself  like  a  mountain,  and  as  it 
floated  on  the  surface,  it  opened  its  mouth,  which,  as  it  gaped, 
was  bristling  with  teeth.  Then  the  rowers,  hauling  in  their 
sail,  pulled  back  in  the  utmost  terror,  and  had  a  very  narrow 
escape  from  the  agitation  of  the  waves  caused  by  the  motion  of 
the  monster ;  and  they  were  also  struck  with  wonder  as  they 
remembered  the  prophetic  words  of  the  saint.  On  the  morning 
of  that  same  day,  as  Baithene  was  going  to  sail  to  the  forenamed 
island,  the  saint  told  him  about  this  whale,  saying,  "  Last  night, 
at  midnight,  a  great  whale  rose  from  the  depth  of  the  sea,  and  it 
will  float  this  day  on  the  surface  of  the  ocean  between  the  louan 
and  Ethican  islands  (lona  and  Tiree)."  Baithene  answered  and 
said,  "  That  beast  and  I  are  under  the  power  of  God."  "  Go  in 

B 


1 8  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I. 

peace,"  said  the  saint ;  "  thy  faith  in  Christ  shall  defend  thee 
from  this  danger."  Baithene  accordingly,  having  received  the 
saint's  blessing,  sailed  from  the  harbour;  and  after  they  had 
sailed  a  considerable  distance,  he  and  his  companions  saw  the 
whale  ;  and  while  all  the  others  were  much  terrified,  he  alone 
was  without  fear,  and  raising  up  both  his  hands,  blessed  the 
sea  and  the  whale.  At  the  same  moment  the  enormous  brute 
plunged  down  under  the  waves,  and  never  afterwards  appeared 
to  them. 

CHAPTEE  XIV. 

Prophecy  of  the  holy  man  regarding  a  certain  Baitan,  who  with 
others  sailed  in  search  of  a  desert  in  the  ocean. 

At  another  time,  a  certain  man  named  Baitan,  by  race  a 
descendant  of  Niath  Taloirc,  when  setting  out  with  others  to 
seek  a  desert  in  the  sea,  asked  the  saint's  blessing.  The  saint 
bidding  him  adieu  uttered  this  prophecy  regarding  him  :  "  This 
man  who  is  going  in  search  of  a  desert  in  the  ocean  shall  not  be 
buried  in  the  desert,  but  in  that  place  where  a  woman  shall  drive 
sheep  over  his  grave."  The  same  Baitan,  after  long  wanderings 
on  stormy  seas,  returned  to  his  native  country  without  finding 
the  desert,  and  remained  for  many  years  the  head  of  a  small 
monastic  house,  which  is  called  in  the  Scotic  tongue  Lathregin- 
den  (not  identified).  When  after  a  while  he  died  and  was 
buried,  in  the  Oakgrove  of  Galgach  (Deny),  it  happened  at  the 
same  time  that  on  account  of  some  hostile  inroad  the  poor  people 
with  their  wives  and  children  fled  for  sanctuary  to  the  church 
of  that  place.  Whence  it  occurred  that  on  a  certain  day  a  woman 
was  caught,  as  she  was  driving  her  lambs  over  the  grave  of 
this  same  man  who  was  newly  buried.  Then  a  holy  priest  who 
was  present  and  saw  this,  said,  "  Now  is  fulfilled  the  prophecy 
which  St.  Columba  uttered  many  years  ago."  And  this  I  myself 
was  told  regarding  Baitan,  by  that  same  priest  and  soldier  of 
Christ,  Mailodran  by  name,  of  the  tribe  of  Mocurin. 


CHAPTER   XV. 

Prophecy  of  the  holy  man  regarding  a  certain  Neman,  who  was 
not  a  real  penitent. 

AT  another  time,  the  saint  came  to  the  Hinbina  island 
(Eilean-na-naoimh,  one  of  the  Garveloch  islands),  and  that 
same  day  he  gave  orders  that  even  the  penitents  should 
enjoy  some  indulgence  in  respect  of  their  food.  Now  there 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I.  19 

was  among  the  penitents  in  that  place  a  certain  Neman,  son 
of  Cathair,  who,  though  ordered  by  the  saint,  declined  to  accept 
the  offer  of  this  little  indulgence.  Him  then  the  saint  addressed 
in  these  words :  "  0  Neman,  art  thou  not  accepting  some 
indulgence  in  food  as  it  is  kindly  granted  by  me  and  Baitan  ? 
The  time  shall  come  when  thou  wilt  be  stealthily  eating  mare's 
flesh,  as  thou  liest  concealed  in  the  woods  with  robbers."  And 
accordingly  that  same  man  afterwards  returned  to  the  world, 
and  was  found  in  a  forest  with  robbers  taking  and  eating  off  a 
wooden  griddle  such  flesh  as  the  saint  had  foretold. 


CHAPTER   XVI. 

Regarding  a  certain  unhappy  man  who  lay  with  his  Mother. 

AT  another  time,  the  saint  called  out  the  brethren  at  the 
dead  of  night,  and  when  they  were  assembled  in  the  church 
said  to  them  :  "  Now  let  us  pray  fervently  to  the  Lord,  for  at 
this  hour  a  sin  unheard  of  in  the  world  has  been  committed, 
for^  which  rigorous  vengeance  that  is  justly  due  is  very  much 
to  be  feared."  Next  day  he  spoke  of  this  sin  to  a  few  who 
were  asking  him  about  it.  "After  a  few  months,"  he  said, 
"  that  unhappy  wretch  will  come  here  to  the  louan  island  (Hy, 
now  lona)  with  Lugaid,  who  is  unaware  of  the  sin."  Accord 
ingly  after  the  few  months  had  passed  away,  the  saint  one  day 
spoke  to  Diormit,  and  ordered  him,  "  Rise  quickly ;  lo  !  Lugaid 
is  coming.  Tell  him  to  send  off  the  wretch  whom  he  has  with 
him  in  the  ship  to  the  Malean  island  (Mull),  that  he  may  not 
tread  the  sod  of  this  island."  He  went  to  the  sea  in  obedience 
to  the  saint's  injunction,  and  told  Lugaid  as  he  was  approaching 
all  the  words  of  the  saint  regarding  the  unhappy  man.  On  hear 
ing  the  directions,  that  unhappy  man  vowed  that  he  would  never 
eat  food  with  others  until  he  had  seen  St.  Columba  and  spoken 
to  him.  Diormit  therefore  returned  to  the  saint,  and  told  him 
the  words  of  the  poor  wretch.  The  saint,  on  hearing  them,  went 
down  to  the  haven,  and  as  Baitan  was  citing  the  authority  of 
Holy  Scriptures,  and  suggesting  that  the  repentance  of  the  un 
happy  man  should  be  received,  the  saint  immediately  replied  to 
him,  "O  Baitan!  this  man  has  committed  fratricide  like  Cain,  and 
become  an  adulterer  with  his  mother."  Then  the  poor  wretch, 
casting  himself  upon  his  knees  on  the  beach,  promised  that  he 
would  comply  with  all  the  rules  of  penance,  according  to  the 
judgment  of  the  saint.  The  saint  said  to  him,  "If  thou  do 
penance  in  tears  and  lamentations  for  twelve  years  among  the 
Britons,  and  never  to  the  day  of  thy  death  return  to  Scotia  (Ire- 


20  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I. 

land),  perhaps  God  may  pardon  thy  sin."  Having  said  these 
words,  the  saint  turned  to  his  own  friends  and  said,  "  This  man  is 
a  son  of  perdition,  who  will  not  perform  the  penance  he  has  pro 
mised,  but  will  soon  return  to  Scotia  (Ireland),  and  there  in  a 
short  time  be  killed  by  his  enemies."  All  this  happened  exactly 
according  to  the  saint?s  prophecy ;  for  the  wretched  man,  re 
turning  to  Hibernia  about  the  same  time,  fell  into  the  hands  of 
his  enemies  in  the  region  called  Lea  (Firli,  in  Ulster),  and  was 
murdered.  He  was  of  the  descendants  of  Turtre. 

CHAPTEK    XVII. 

Of  the  Vowel  I. 

ONE  day  Baithene  came  to  the  saint  and  said,  "  I  want  some 
one  of  the  brethren  to  look  over  with  me  and  correct  the 
psalter  which  I  have  written."  Hearing  this,  the  saint  said, 
"  Why  give  us  this  trouble  without  any  cause  ?  In  that  psalter 
of  thine,  of  which  thou  speakest,  there  is  not  one  superfluous 
letter  to  be  found,  nor  is  any  wanting  except  the  one  vowel  I." 
And  accordingly,  when  the  whole  psalter  was  read  over,  what 
the  saint  had  said  was  found  to  be  true. 

CHAPTEE    XVIII. 

Of  the  Book  which  fell  into  the  Water-vessel,  as  the  Saint  had 
foretold. 

IN  the  same  way,  on  another  day,  as  he  was  sitting  by  the 
hearth  in  the  monastery,  he  saw  at  some  distance  Lugbe,  of 
the  tribe  Mocumin,  reading  a  book,  and  suddenly  said  to  him, 
"  Take  care,  my  son,  take  care,  for  I  think  that  the  book  thou 
readest  is  about  to  fall  into  a  vessel  full  of  water."  And  so 
it  soon  happened,  for  when  the  same  youth  rose  soon  after  to 
perform  some  duty  in  the  monastery,  he  forgot  the  word  of  the 
blessed  man,  and  the  book  which  he  held  negligently  under  his 
arm  suddenly  fell  into  the  water-pot,  which  was  full  of  water. 

CHAPTEK    XIX. 

Of  the  Inkhorn,  awkwardly  spilled. 

ON  another  day  a  shout  was  given  on  the  other  side  of  the 
Sound  of  the  louan  island  (Sound  of  lona)  ;  the  saint  hearing 
the  shout,  as  he  was  sitting  in  his  little  hut,  which  was  made 
of  planks,  said,  "  The  man  who  is  shouting  beyond  the  Sound 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I.  21 

is  not  of  very  sharp  wit,  for  when  he  is  here  to-day  he  will 
upset  my  inkhorn  and  spill  the  ink.  Diormit,  his  minister, 
hearing  this,  stood  a  little  in  front  of  the  door,  and  waited  for 
the  arrival  of  this  troublesome  guest,  in  order  to  save  the  ink- 
horn.  But  for  some  cause  or  other  he  had  soon  to  leave  his 
place,  and  after  his  departure  the  unwelcome  guest  arrived; 
in  his  eager  haste  to  kiss  the  saint,  he  upset  the  inkhorn  with 
the  hem  of  his  garment  and  spilled  the  ink. 

CHAPTEE  XX. 

Of  the  arrival  of  another  Guest  foretold  ~by  the  Saint. 

So  again  at  another  time  the  saint  spoke  thus  to  his  brethren 
on  the  third  day  of  the  week,  "  We  intend  to  fast  to-morrow, 
being  Wednesday  :  and  yet  by  the  arrival  of  a  certain  trouble 
some  guest  the  usual  fast  will  be  broken."  And  so  it  happened 
as  had  been  shown  to  the  saint  beforehand ;  for  on  the  morn 
ing  of  that  same  Wednesday,  another  stranger  was  heard  signal 
ling  across  the  Sound.  This  was  Aidan,  the  son  of  Fergno,  who, 
it  is  said,  was  minister  for  twelve  years  to  Brendan  Mocualti. 
He  was  a  very  religious  man,  and  his  arrival,  as  the  saint  had 
foretold,  broke  the  fast  of  that  day. 

CHAPTEE  XXL 

Of  another  man  in  distress  who  was  crying  across  the  same  Sound. 

ON  another  day  the  saint  heard  some  person  shouting  across 
the  Sound,  and  spoke  on  this  wise,  "That  man  who  is  shouting  is 
much  to  be  pitied,  for  he  is  coming  here  to  us  to  ask  some  cure 
for  the  disease  of  his  body;  but  it  were  better  for  him  this  day  to 
do  true  penance  for  his  sins,  for  at  the  close  of  this  week  he  shall 
die."  These  words  those  who  were  present  told  to  the  unhappy 
man  when  he  arrived.  But  he  gave  no  heed  to  them  when  he 
had  received  what  he  asked,  and  quickly  departed,  yet  before 
the  end  of  the  same  week  he  died,  according  to  the  prediction 
of  the  saint. 

CHAPTEE    XXII. 

The  Prophecy  of  the  holy  man  regarding  the  Roman  city,  burnt 
l>y  a  sulphurous  fire  which  fell  from  heaven. 

ANOTHER  time  also,  Lugbe,  of  the  tribe  Mocumin,  of  whom 
I  spoke  already,  came  to  the  saint  one  day  after  the  grinding  of 


22  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I. 

the  com,  but  the  saint's  countenance  shone  with  such  wonderful 
brilliancy  that  he  could  not  look  upon  it,  and  quickly  fled  in 
great  terror.  The  saint  gently  clapped  his  hands  and  called 
him  back ;  then  on  his  return  the  saint  asked  him  why  he  fled 
so  quickly.  "  I  fled,"  he  replied,  "  because  I  was  very  much 
alarmed."  Then  becoming  more  confident,  after  a  while,  he 
ventured  to  ask  the  saint,  "  Hath  any  awful  vision  been  shown 
to  thee  just  now  ? "  The  saint  answered,  "  A  very  fearful  ven 
geance  hath  just  now  been  exacted  in  a  distant  corner  of  the 
world."  "  What  vengeance  ?"  says  the  youth,  "  and  where  hath 
it  taken  place  ? "  The  saint  then  addressed  him  thus :  "  A  sul 
phurous  fire  hath  been  poured  down  from  heaven  this  moment  on 
a  city  which  is  subject  to  Borne,  and  within  the  Italian  territory, 
and  about  three  thousand  men,  besides  women  and  children, 
have  perished.  Before  the  end  of  this  year  Gallican  sailors  shall 
come  here  from  the  provinces  of  Gaul,  and  tell  thee  these  same 
things."  His  words  proved  true  in  a  few  months  ;  for  the  same 
Lugbe,  happening  to  accompany  the  saint  to  the  Head  of  the 
land  (Kintyre),  inquired  at  the  captain  and  crew  of  a  bark 
that  had  just  arrived,  and  received  from  them  all  the  news 
regarding  the  city  and  its  inhabitants,  exactly  as  it  was  fore 
told  by  the  illustrious  man. 

CHAPTER    XXIII. 

The  Vision  of  the  Uessed  man  regarding  Laisran,  son  of  Feradach. 

ONE  very  cold  day  in  winter  the  saint  was  much  afflicted,  and 
wept  bitterly.  His  attendant,  Diormit,  asked  the  cause  of  his 
sadness,  and  received  this  answer  from  him,  "  With  just  reason 
am  I  sad  to-day,  my  little  child,  seeing  that  my  monks,  now 
wearied  after  their  severe  labours,  are  engaged  by  Laisraii  in 
building  a  large  house  ;  with  this  I  am  very  much  displeased." 
Strange  to  say,  at  that  very  moment,  Laisran,  who  was  living 
at  the  time  in  the  monastery  of  the  Oakwood  Plain  (Deny),  felt 
somehow  impelled,  and  as  it  were  consumed  by  a  fire  within  him, 
so  that  he  commanded  the  monks  to  stop  from  working,  and  some 
refreshments  to  be  made  ready  for  them.  He  also  gave  direc 
tions  that  they  were  to  rest  not  only  that  day,  but  also  on  other 
occasions  of  severe  weather.  The  saint,  hearing  in  spirit  these 
words  of  consolation  addressed  by  Laisran  to  his  brethren,  ceased 
weeping,  and  though  he  himself  was  living  in  the  louan  island 
(Hy,  now  lona),  he  rejoiced  with  exceeding  great  joy,  and  told 
all  the  circumstances  to  his  brethren,  while  at  the  same  time 
he  blessed  Laisran  for  his  timely  relief  to  the  monks. 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I.  23 


CHAPTEE    XXIV. 

How  Feachna  the  Wise  came  as  a  Penitent  to  St.  Columba,  as  he 

had  foretold. 

ANOTHER  time  the  saint  was  sitting  on  the  top  of  the  moun 
tain  which  overhangs  this  our  monastery,  at  some  distance  from 
it,  and  turning  to  his  attendant  Diormit,  said  to  him,  "  I  am  sur 
prised  that  a  certain  ship  from  Scotia  (Ireland)  does  not  appear 
sooner :  there  is  on  board  a  certain  wise  man  who  has  fallen  into  a 
great  crime,  but  who,  with  tears  of  repentance,  shall  soon  arrive." 
Not  long  after  the  attendant,  looking  to  the  south,  saw  the  sail 
of  a  ship  that  was  approaching  the  harbour.  When  its  arrival 
was  pointed  out  to  the  saint  he  got  up  quickly  and  said,  "  Let 
us  go  to  meet  this  stranger,  whose  sincere  penance  is  accepted 
by  Christ."  As  soon  as  Feachna  came  on  shore,  he  ran  to  meet 
the  saint,  who  was  coming  down  to  the  shore,  and  falling  on  his 
knees  before  him  lamented  most  bitterly  with  wailing  and  tears, 
and  there  in  the  presence  of  all  made  open  confession  of  his  sins. 
Then  the  saint,  also  shedding  tears,  said  to  him,  "  Arise,  my  son, 
and  be  comforted ;  the  sins  thou  hast  committed  are  forgiven 
thee,  because,  as  it  is  written, '  a  humble  and  contrite  heart  God 
doth  not  despise.'  "  He  then  arose,  and  the  saint  received  him 
with  great  joy.  After  a  few  days  he  was  sent  to  Baithene,  who 
at  that  time  was  the  superior  of  the  monastery  in  the  plain 
of  Lunge  (Maigh  Lunge,  in  Tiree),  and  he  journeyed  thither  in 
peace. 

CHAPTER    XXV. 

The  Prophecy  of  the  holy  man  regarding  his  monk  Cailtan. 

AT  another  time  he  sent  two  of  his  monks  to  another  of  them 
named  Cailtan,  who  was  then  superior  in  the  cell  which  is  called 
to  this  day  after  his  brother  Diuni,  and  is  situated  near  the  lake  of 
the  river  Aba  (Lochawe).  The  saint  gave  them  the  following 
instructions,  "  Run  quickly  to  Cailtan,  and  tell  him  to  come  to 
me  without  delay."  In  obedience  to  the  saint's  command  they 
went  to  the  cell  of  Diuni,  and  told  Cailtan  the  object  of  their 
mission.  At  once,  and  without  the  least  delay,  he  set  out  along 
with  the  messengers  of  the  saint,  and  soon  reached  his  abode  in 
the  louan  island  (Hy,  now  lona).  On  making  his  appearance 
he  was  addressed  by  the  saint,  "  0  Cailtan,  thou  hast  done  well 
by  coming  hither  quickly  in  obedience  to  my  summons ;  rest 


24  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I. 

now  for  a  while.  I  sent  for  you  to  come  to  me  for  this  reason, 
that,  loving  thee  as  a  friend,  I  would  wish  thee  to  end  thy  days 
with  me  here  in  true  obedience.  For  before  the  close  of  this 
week  thou  shalt  depart  in  peace  to  the  Lord."  When  he  heard 
these  words  he  gave  thanks  to  God,  embraced  the  saint  with 
tears,  and  receiving  his  blessing,  retired  to  the  guest-chamber. 
He  fell  sick  that  same  night,  and  passed  away  to  Christ  the 
Lord  during  that  very  week,  as  the  saint  had  said. 


CHAPTER    XXVI. 

The  Foresight  and  Prophecy  of  the  Saint  regarding  the  two 
brothers  who  were  Strangers. 

ONE  Lord's  day  a  loud  cry  was  heard  beyond  the  above- 
mentioned  Sound  of  which  I  speak  so  often.  As  soon  as  the 
saint  heard  it,  he  said  to  the  brethren  who  were  then  with  him, 
"  Go  directly  and  bring  here  before  us  at  once  the  strangers  that 
have  now  arrived  from  a  distant  land."  They  went  accordingly 
and  ferried  the  strangers  across.  The  saint,  after  embracing 
them,  asked  them  at  once  the  object  of  their  journey.  In  reply 
they  said,  "We  are  come  to  reside  with  thee  for  this  year." 
The  saint  replied,  "  With  me,  as  you  say,  you  cannot  reside  for 
a  year,  unless  you  take  first  the  monastic  vow."  When  those 
who  were  present  heard  these  words  addressed  to  strangers  who 
were  only  newly  arrived  they  wondered  very  much.  But  the 
elder  brother,  in  answer  to  the  saint's  remarks,  replied, 
"Although  we  never  up  to  the  present  hour  entertained  the 
thought  before,  yet  we  shall  follow  thy  advice,  believing  that  it 
cometh  from  God."  What  more  need  I  say  ?  That  very  moment 
they  entered  the  chapel  with  the  saint,  and  on  bended  knees 
devoutly  took  the  monastic  vow.  The  saint  then  turned  to  his 
monks  and  said,  "  These  two  strangers  who  are  presenting  them 
selves  '  a  living  sacrifice  to  God/  and  within  a  short  time  are 
fulfilling  a  long  time  of  Christian  warfare,  shall  pass  away  in 
peace  this  very  month  to  Christ  our  Lord."  The  two  brothers, 
on  hearing  this,  gave  thanks  to  God,  and  were  led  away  to  the 
guest-room.  After  seven  days  the  elder  brother  fell  sick,  and 
departed  to  the  Lord  in  the  course  of  that  week.  After  other 
seven  days  the  other  brother  also  fell  sick,  and  within  the  same 
week  passed  to  the  Lord  with  joy,  so  that,  according  to  the 
truthful  prophecy  of  the  saint,  both  closed  their  lives  in  this 
world  within  the  space  of  one  month. 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I.  25 

CHAPTEE  XXVII. 

The  Prophecy  of  the  holy  man  regarding  a  certain  Artlranan. 

WHEN  the  blessed  man  was  staying  for  some  days  in  the  Scian 
island  (Sky),  he  struck  a  spot  of  ground  near  the  sea  with  his 
staff,  and  said  to  his  companions  :  "  Strange  to  say,  my  children, 
this  day,  an  aged  heathen,  whose  natural  goodness  has  been 
preserved  through  all  his  life,  will  receive  baptism,  die,  and  be 
buried  on  this  very  spot."  And  lo  !  about  an  hour  after,  a  boat 
came  into  the  harbour,  on  whose  prow  sat  a  decrepit  old  man, 
the  chief  of  the  Geona  cohort.  Two  young  men  took  him 
out  of  the  boat  and  laid  him  at  the  feet  of  the  blessed  man. 
After  being  instructed  in  the  word  of  God  by  the  saint  through 
an  interpreter,  the  old  man  believed,  and  was  baptized  at  once 
by  him,  and  when  the  baptism  was  duly  administered,  he  in 
stantly  died  on  the  same  spot,  according  to  the  saint's  predic 
tion,  and  was  buried  there  by  his  companions,  who  raised  a 
heap  of  stones  over  his  grave.  This  cairn  may  be  seen  still  on 
the  sea-coast,  and  the  river  in  which  he  was  baptized  is  called 
to  this  day  by  the  inhabitants,  Dobur  Artbranan. 


CHAPTEK   XXVIII. 

Of  the  Boat  that  was  removed  ly  the  Saint's  order. 

ANOTHER  time,  as  the  saint  was  travelling  beyond  the  Dorsal 
ridge  of  Britain  (Drumalban),  he  came  to  a  small  village,  lying 
amid  deserted  fields,  on  the  banks  of  a  river,  where  it  flows  into 
a  lake.  There  the  saint  took  up  his  abode,  and  that  same  night, 
while  they  were  yet  but  falling  asleep,  he  awoke  his  companions, 
and  said  to  them :  "  Go  out  this  instant  with  all  speed,  bring 
hither  quickly  the  boat  you  left  on  the  other  side  of  the  stream, 
and  put  it  in  a  house  near  us."  They  did  at  once  as  they  were 
ordered,  and  soon  after  they  were  again  asleep,  the  saint  roused 
Diormit,  and  said  to  him :  "  Stand  outside  the  door,  and  see 
what  has  happened  to  the  village  in  which  you  had  left  your 
boat."  Diormit  went  out  accordingly  and  saw  the  whole  village 
on  fire,  and  returning  to  the  saint  he  told  him  what  was  taking 
place.  Then  the  saint  told  the  brethren  the  name  of  the  ran 
corous  foe  who  had  burnt  the  houses  that  night. 


26  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I. 


CHAPTEE   XXIX. 

0  Gfallan,  son  of  Fachtna,  who  resided  in  the  jurisdiction  of 
Colga,  son  of  CellacJi. 

ONE  day  again,  as  the  saint  was  sitting  in  his  little  hut,  he 
said,  in  prophecy  to  the  same  Colca,  then  reading  by  his  side, 
"  Just  now  demons  are  dragging  with  them  down  to  hell  one  of 
the  chiefs  of  thy  district  who  is  a  niggardly  person."  When 
Colca  heard  this,  he  marked  the  time  accurately  in  a  tablet, 
and,  coming  home  within  a  few  months,  learned  on  inquiry 
from  the  inhabitants  of  the  place,  that  Gallan,  son  of  Fachtna, 
died  at  the  very  moment  that  the  saint  said  to  him  the  man 
was  being  carried  off  by  demons. 

The  Prophecy  of  the  blessed  man  regarding  Findchan,  a  Priest, 
and  the  founder  of  the  monastery  called  in  Scotic  Artchain, 
in  the  Ethican  land  (Tiree). 

AT  another  time  Findchan,  the  priest  and  soldier  of  Christ, 
named  above,  brought  with  him  from  Scotia  (Ireland)  to  Britain, 
Aid,  surnamed  the  Black,  descended  of  a  royal  family,  and  a  Cru- 
thinian  by  race.  Aid  wore  the  clerical  habit,  and  came  with  the 
purpose  of  residing  with  him  in  the  monastery  for  some  years. 
Now  this  Aid  the  Black  had  been  a  very  bloodthirsty  man,  and 
cruelly  murdered  many  persons,  amongst  others  Diormit,  son  of 
Cerbul,  by  divine  appointment  king  of  all.  This  same  Aid, 
then,  after  spending  some  time  in  his  retirement,  was  irregularly 
ordained  priest  by  a  bishop  invited  for  the  purpose,  in  the  pre 
sence  of  the  above-named  Findchan.  The  bishop,  however, 
would  not  venture  to  lay  a  hand  upon  his  head  unless  Findchan, 
who  was  greatly  attached  to  Aid,  in  a  carnal  way,  should  first 
place  his  right  hand  on  his  head  as  a  mark  of  approval.  When 
such  an  ordination  afterwards  became  known  to  the  saint,  he 
was  deeply  grieved,  and  in  consequence  forthwith  pronounced 
this  fearful  sentence  on  the  ill-fated  Findchan  and  Aid :  "  That 
right  hand  which,  against  the  laws  of  God  and  the  Church, 
Findchan  placed  on  the  head  of  the  son  of  perdition,  shall  soon 
be  covered  with  sores,  and  after  great  and  excruciating  pain 
shall  precede  himself  to  the  grave,  and  he  shall  survive  the 
burial  of  his  hand  for  many  years.  And  Aid,  thus  irregularly 
ordained,  shall  return  as  a  dog  to  his  vomit,  and  be  again  a 
bloody  murderer,  until  at  length,  pierced  in  the  neck  with  a 
spear,  he  shall  fall  from  a  tree  into  the  water  and  be  drowned." 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I.  27 

Such  indeed  was  the  end  long  due  to  him  who  murdered  the  king 
of  all  Scotia  (Ireland).  The  blessed  man's  prophecy  was  fulfilled 
regarding  both,  for  the  priest  Findchan's  right  hand  festered 
from  the  effects  of  a  blow,  and  went  before  him  into  the  ground, 
being  buried  in  an  island  called  Ommon  (not  identified),  while 
he  himself  survived  for  many  years,  according  to  the  saying  of 
St.  Coluniba.  But  Aid  the  Black,  a  priest  only  in  name,  be 
taking  himself  again  to  his  former  evil  doings,  and  being  treach 
erously  wounded  with  a  spear,  fell  from  the  prow  of  a  boat  into 
a  lake  and  was  drowned. 


Of  the  Consolation  which  the  Monks,  when  they  were  vieary  on 
their  journey,  received  from  the  Saint  visiting  them  in  spirit. 

AMONG  these  wonderful  manifestations  of  prophetical  spirit 
it  does  not  seem  alien  from  the  purpose  of  our  short  treatise  to 
mention  also  here  the  spiritual  comfort  which  the  monks  of 
St.  Columba  at  one  time  received  from  his  spirit's  meeting  them 
by  the  way.  For  as  the  brethren,  on  one  occasion  after  the 
harvest  work,  were  returning  in  the  evening  to  the  monastery, 
and  came  to  a  place  called  in  Scotic  Cuuleilne,  which  is 
said  to  lie  on  the  western  side  of  the  louan  island  (Hy,  now 
lona),  midway  between  the  field  on  the  plain  and  our  monastery, 
each  of  them  thought  he  felt  something  strange  and  unusual, 
which,  however,  they  did  not  venture  to  speak  of  to  one  another. 
And  so  they  had  the  same  feeling  for  some  days  successively, 
at  the  same  place,  and  at  the  same  hour  in  the  evening. 

The  holy  Baithen  at  that  particular  time  had  charge  of  the 
work,  and  one  day  he  said  to  them :  "  Now,  my  brethren,  if  any 
of  you  ever  notices  anything  wonderful  and  unusual  in  this 
spot  which  lies  between  the  corn-field  and  the  monastery,  it  is 
your  duty  to  declare  it  openly."  An  elder  brother  said,  "  As 
you  have  ordered  me,  I  shall  tell  you  what  I  observed  on  this 
spot.  For  both  in  the  past  few  days,  and  even  now,  I  perceive 
the  fragrance  of  such  a  wonderful  odour,  just  as  if  all  the 
flowers  on  earth  were  gathered  together  into  one  place ;  I  feel 
also  a  glow  of  heat  within  me,  not  at  all  painful,  but  most 
pleasing,  and  a  certain  unusual  and  inexpressible  joy  poured  into 
my  heart,  which  on  a  sudden  so  refreshes  and  gladdens  me,  that 
I  forget  grief  and  weariness  of  every  kind.  Even  the  load,  how 
ever  heavy,  which  I  carry  on  my  back,  is  in  some  mysterious 
way  so  much  lightened,  from  this  place  all  the  way  to  the 
monastery,  that  I  do  not  seem  to  have  any  weight  to  bear." 
What  need  I  add  ?  All  the  other  reapers  in  turn  declared  they  had 
exactly  the  same  feeling  as  the  first  had  described.  All  then  knelt 


28  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I. 

down  together,  and  requested  of  the  holy  Baithen  that  he  would 
learn  and  inform  them  of  the  as  yet  unknown  cause  and  origin 
of  this  wonderful  relief,  which  both  he  and  they  were  feeling. 
"  Ye  all  know,"  he  immediately  replied,  "our  father  Columba's 
tender  care  regarding  us,  and  how,  ever  mindful  of  our  toil,  he 
is  always  grieved  when  we  return  later  than  usual  to  the 
monastery.  And  now  because  he  cannot  come  in  person  on 
this  occasion  to  meet  us,  his  spirit  cometh  forth  to  us  as  we 
walk  along,  and  conveyeth  to  us  such  great  comfort."  Having 
heard  these  words,  they  raised  their  hands  to  heaven  with 
intense  joy  as  they  knelt,  and  venerated  Christ  in  the  holy  and 
blessed  man. 

I  must  not  pass  over  another  well-authenticated  story,  told, 
indeed,  by  those  who  heard  it,  regarding  the  voice  of  the 
blessed  man  in  singing  the  psalms.  The  venerable  man,  when 
singing  in  the  church  with  the  brethren,  raised  his  voice  so 
wonderfully  that  it  was  sometimes  heard  four  furlongs  off,  that 
is  five  hundred  paces,  and  sometimes  eight  furlongs,  that  is  one 
thousand  paces.  But  what  is  stranger  still :  to  those  who  were 
with  him  in  the  church,  his  voice  did  not  seem  louder  than  that 
of  others ;  and  yet  at  the  same  time  persons  more  than  a  mile 
away  heard  it  so  distinctly  that  they  could  mark  each  syllable 
of  the  verses  he  was  singing,  for  his  voice  sounded  the  same 
whether  far  or  near.  It  is  however  admitted,' that  this  wonder 
ful  character  in  the  voice  of  the  blessed  man  was  but  rarely 
observable,  and  even  then  it  could  never  happen  without  the 
aid  of  the  Holy  Ghost. 

But  another  story  concerning  the  great  and  wonderful  power 
of  his  voice  should  not  be  omitted.  The  fact  is  said  to  have  taken 
place  near  the  fortress  of  King  Brude  (near  Inverness) .  When  the 
saint  himself  was  chanting  the  evening  hymns  with  a  few  of  the 
brethren,  as  usual,  outside  the  king's  fortifications,  some  Druids, 
coming  near  to  them,  did  all  they  could  to  prevent  God's 
praises  being  sung  in  the  midst  of  a  pagan  nation.  On  seeing 
this,  the  saint  began  to  sing  the  44th  Psalm,  and  at  the  same 
moment  so  wonderfully  loud,  like  pealing  thunder,  did  his  voice 
become,  that  king  and  people  were  struck  with  terror  and 
amazement. 


CHAPTEK   XXX. 

Concerning  a  rich  man  named  Lugud  Clodus. 

AT  another  time,  when  the  saint  was  staying  some  days  in 
Scotia  (Ireland),  he  saw  a  cleric  mounted  on  a  chariot,  and  driving 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I.  29 

pleasantly  along  the  plain  of  Breg  (MaghBregh,  in  Meath). 
On  asking  who  the  person  was,  the  cleric's  friend  made  this 
reply  regarding  him :  "  This  is  Lugud  Clodus,  who  is  rich,  and 
much  respected  by  the  people."  The  saint  immediately 
answered,  "  He  does  not  seem  so  to  me,  but  a  poor  wretched 
creature,  who  on  the  day  of  his  death  shall  have  within  his 
own  walled  enclosure  three  of  his  neighbour's  cattle  which 
have  strayed  on  to  his  property.  The  best  of  the  strayed  cows 
he  shall  order  to  be  killed  for  his  own  use,  and  a  part  of  the 
meat  he  shall  direct  to  be  cooked  and  served  up  to  him  at 
the  very  time  that  he  is  lying  on  the  same  couch  with  a  prosti 
tute,  but  by  the  first  morsel  that  he  eats  shall  he  be  choked  and 
die  immediately."  Now  all  these  things,  as  we  heard  from 
well-informed  persons,  afterwards  happened  according  to  the 
saint's  prophecy. 


CHAPTER   XXXI. 

Prophecy  of  the  Saint  regarding  Neman,  son  of  Ghruthrich. 

FOR  when  the  saint  corrected  this  man  for  his  faults,  he  re 
ceived  the  saint's  reproof  with  derision.  The  blessed  man  then 
said  to  him,  "  In  God's  name  I  will  declare  these  words  of  truth 
concerning  thee,  Neman,  that  thine  enemies  shall  find  thee  in 
bed  with  a  prostitute  and  put  thee  to  death,  and  the  evil  spirits 
shall  carry  off  thy  soul  to  the  place  of  torments."  A  few  years 
after  his  enemies  found  this  same  Neman  on  a  couch  along 
with  a  prostitute,  in  the  district  of  Cainle  (not  identified),  and 
beheaded  him,  as  was  foretold  by  the  saint. 

CHAPTER    XXXII. 

Prophecy  of  the  holy  man  regarding  a  certain  Priest. 

AT  another  time,  as  the  saint  was  staying  in  that  part  of 
Scotia  (Ireland),  named  a  little  before,  he  came  by  chance  on 
the  Lord's  day  to  a  neighbouring  little  monastery,  called  in 
the  Scotic  language  Trioit  (Trevet,  in  Meath).  The  same  day 
a  priest  celebrated  the  holy  mysteries  of  the  Eucharist,  who 
was  selected  by  the  brethren  who  lived  there  to  perform  the 
solemn  offices  of  the  Mass,  because  they  thought  him  very 
pious.  The  saint,  on  hearing  him,  suddenly  opened  his  mouth 
and  uttered  this  fearful  sentence :  "  The  clean  and  unclean 
are  now  equally  mingled  together ;  that  is,  the  clean  mysteries 
of  the  holy  sacrifice  are  offered  by  an  unclean  person,  who 


30  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I. 

just  now  conceals  within  his  own  conscience  a  grievous  crime." 
The  bystanders,  hearing  these  words,  were  struck  with  terror ; 
but  he  of  whom  they  were  said  was  forced  to  confess  his  sin 
before  them  all.  And  the  fellow-soldiers  of  Christ,  who  stood 
round  the  saint  in  the  church,  and  had  heard  him  making  mani 
fest  the  secrets  of  the  heart,  greatly  wondered,  and  glorified  the 
heavenly  knowledge  that  was  seen  in  him. 

CHAPTER    XXXIII. 

The  Prophecy  of  the  holy  man  regarding  the  roller  Ere  Mocu- 
druidi,  who  dwelt  in  the  island  Coloso  (Colonsay). 

AT  another  time,  when  the  saint  was  in  the  louan  island  (Hy, 
now  lona),  he  called  two  of  the  brothers,  Lugbe  and  Silnan,  and 
gave  them  this  charge,  "  Sail  over  now  to  the  Malean  island 
(Mull),  and  on  the  open  ground,  near  the  sea-shore,  look  for  Ere, 
a  robber,  who  came  alone  last  night  in  secret  from  the  island 
Coloso  (Colonsay).  He  strives  to  hide  himself  among  the  sand 
hills  during  the  daytime  under  his  boat,  which  he  covers  with 
hay,  that  he  may  sail  across  at  night  to  the  little  island  where 
our  young  seals  are  brought  forth  and  nurtured.  When  this 
furious  robber  has  stealthily  killed  as  many  as  he  can,  he  then 
fills  his  boat,  and  goes  back  to  his  hiding-place."  They  pro 
ceeded  at  once  in  compliance  with  their  orders,  and  found  the 
robber  lying  hid  in  the  very  spot  that  was  indicated,  and  they 
brought  him  to  the  saint,  as  they  had  been  told.  The  saint 
looked  at  him,  and  said,  "  Why  dost  thou  transgress  the  com 
mandment  of  God  so  often  by  stealing  the  property  of  others  ? 
If  thou  art  in  want  at  any  time,  come  to  us  and  thy  needs  shall 
be  supplied."  At  the  same  time  he  ordered  some  wethers  to 
be  killed,  and  given  to  the  wretched  thief  in  place  of  the  seals, 
that  he  might  not  return  empty.  A  short  time  after  the  saint 
saw  in  spirit  that  the  death  of  the  robber  was  at  hand,  and 
ordered  Baithen,  then  steward  in  the  plain  of  Lunge  (Maigh 
Lunge,  in  Tiree),  to  send  a  fat  sheep  and  six  pecks  of  corn  as  a 
last  gift.  Baithen  sent  them  at  once  as  the  saint  had  recom 
mended,  but  he  found  that  the  wretched  robber  had  died  sud 
denly  the  same  day,  and  the  presents  sent  over  were  used  at 
his  burial. 

CHAPTER    XXXIV. 

Prophecy  of  the  holy  man  regarding  the  poet  Cronan. 

AT  another  time,  as  the  saint  was  sitting  one  day  with  the 
brothers  beside  the  lake  Ce  (Lough  Key,  in  Roscommon),  at  the 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I.  31 

inouth  of  the  river  called  in  Latin  Bos  (the  Boyle),  a  certain 
Scotic  poet  came  to  them,  and  when  he  retired,  after  a  short 
interview,  the  brothers  said  to  the  saint,  "  Why  didst  thou  not 
ask  the  poet  Cronan,  before  he  went  away,  to  sing  us  a  song 
with  accompaniment,  according  to  the  rules  of  his  profession  ?  " 
The  saint  replied,  "Why  do  even  you  now  utter  such  idle 
words?  How  could  I  ask  that  poor  man  to  sing  a  song  of 
joy,  who  has  now  been  murdered,  and  thus  hastily  has  ended 
his  days,  at  the  hands  of  his  enemies  ? "  The  saint  had  no 
sooner  said  these  words  than  immediately  a  man  cried  out 
from  beyond  the  river,  "  That  poet  who  left  you  in  safety  a  few 
minutes  ago  has  just  now  been  met  and  put  to  death  by  his 
enemies."  Then  all  that  were  present  wondered  very  much, 
and  looked  at  one  another  in  amazement. 


CHAPTER    XXXV. 

The  holy  man's  Prophecy  regarding  the  two  Noblemen  who  died 
of  wounds  mutually  inflicted. 

AGAIN,  at  another  time,  as  the  saint  was  living  in  the  louan 
island  (Hy>  now  lona),  on  a  sudden,  while  he  was  reading,  and 
to  the  great  surprise  of  all,  he  moaned  very  heavily.  Lugbe 
Mocublai,  who  was  beside  him,  on  seeing  this,  asked  the  cause  of 
such  sudden  grief.  The  saint,  in  very  great  affliction,  answered 
him,  "  Two  men  of  royal  blood  in  Scotia  (Ireland)  have  perished 
of  wounds  mutually  inflicted  near  the  monastery  called  Cellrois, 
in  the  province  of  the  Maugdorna  (Magheross,  in  Monaghan) ; 
and  on  the  eighth  day  from  the  end  of  this  week,  one  shall 
give  the  shout  on  the  other  side  of  the  Sound,  who  has  come 
from  Hibernia,  and  will  tell  you  all  as  it  happened.  But 
oh !  my  dear  child,  tell  this  to  nobody  so  long  as  I  live."  On 
the  eighth  day,  accordingly,  the  voice  was  heard  beyond  the 
firth.  Then  the  saint  called  quietly  to  Lugbe,  and  said  to 
him,  "This  is  the  aged  traveller  to  whom  I  alluded,  who 
now  crieth  aloud  beyond  the  strait ;  go  and  bring  him  here  to 
me."  The  stranger  was  speedily  brought,  and  told,  among 
other  things,  how  two  noblemen  in  the  district  of  the  Maug 
dorna,  near  the  confines  of  the  territory  in  which  is  situate 
the  monastery  of  Cellrois,  died  of  wounds  received  in  single 
combat — namely,  Colman  the  Hound,  son  of  Ailen,  and  Eonan, 
son  of  Aid,  son  of  Colga,  both  descended  of  the  kings  of 
the  Anteriores  (the  Airtheara,  or  people  of  Oriel  in  Ulster). 
After  these  things  were  thus  narrated,  Lugbe,  the  soldier  of 
Christ,  began  to  question  the  saint  in  private.  "  Tell  me,  I 


32  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I. 

entreat  of  thee,  about  these  and  such  like  prophetic  revelations, 
how  they  are  made  to  thee,  whether  by  sight  or  hearing,  or 
other  means  unknown  to  man."  To  this  the  saint  replied, 
"  Thy  question  regardeth  a  most  difficult  subject,  on  which  I  can 
give  thee  no  information  whatever,  unless  thou  first  strictly 
promise,  on  thy  bended  knees,  by  the  name  of  the  Most  High 
God,  never  to  communicate  this  most  secret  mystery  to  any 
person  all  the  days  of  my  life."  Hearing  this,  Lugbe  fell  at 
once  on  his  knees,  and,  with  face  bent  down  to  the  ground, 
promised  everything  faithfully  as  the  saint  demanded.  After 
this  pledge  had  been  promptly  given  he  arose,  and  the  saint 
said  to  him,  "  There  are  some,  though  very  few,  who  are  enabled 
by  divine  grace  to  see  most  clearly  and  distinctly  the  whole 
compass  of  the  world,  and  to  embrace  within  their  own  won- 
drously  enlarged  mental  capacity  the  utmost  limits  of  the 
heavens  and  the  earth  at  the  same  moment,  as  if  all  were 
illumined  by  a  single  ray  of  the  sun."  In  speaking  of  this 
miracle,  the  saint,  though  he  seems  to  be  referring  to  the  expe 
rience  of  other  favoured  persons,  yet  was  in  reality  alluding  to 
his  own,  though  indirectly,  that  he  might  avoid  the  appearance 
of  vain-glory ;  and  no  one  can  doubt  this  who  reads  the  apostle 
Paul,  that  vessel  of  election,  when  he  relates  the  visions  revealed 
to  himself.  For  he  did  not  write,  "  I  know  that  I,"  but  "  I  know 
a  man  caught  up  even  to  the  third  heavens."  Now,  although 
the  words  seem  strictly  to  refer  to  another  person,  yet  all  admit 
that  he  spoke  thus  of  none  but  himself  in  his  great  humility. 
This  was  the  model  followed  by  our  Columba  in  relating  those 
visions  of  the  Spirit  spoken  of  above,  and  that,  too,  in  such  a 
way  that  even  Lugbe,  for  whom  the  saint  showed  a  special 
affection,  could  hardly  force  him  to  tell  these  wonders  after 
much  entreaty.  And  to  this  fact  Lugbe  himself,  after  St. 
Columba's  death,  bore  witness  in  the  presence  of  other  holy 
men,  from  whom  I  learned  the  undoubted  truths  which  I  have 
now  related  of  the  saint. 

Of  Cronan  the  Bishop. 

AT  another  time,  a  stranger  from  the  province  of  the  Munster- 
men,  who  in  his  humility  did  all  he  could  to  disguise  himself, 
so  that  nobody  might  know  he  was  a  bishop,  came  to  the  saint ; 
but  his  rank  could  not  be  hidden  from  the  saint.  For  next 
Lord's  day,  being  invited  by  the  saint,  as  the  custom  was,  to 
consecrate  the  Body  of  Christ,  he  asked  the  saint  to  join  him, 
that,  as  two  priests,  they  might  break  the  bread  of  the  Lord 
together.  The  saint  went  to  the  altar  accordingly,  and  suddenly 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I.  33 

looking  into  the  stranger's  face,  thus  addressed  him :  "  Christ 
bless  thee,  brother ;  do  thou  break  the  bread  alone,  according 
to  the  episcopal  rite,  for  I  know  now  that  thou  art  a  bishop. 
Why  hast  thou  disguised  thyself  so  long,  and  prevented  our 
giving  thee  the  honour  we  owe  to  thee  ? "  On  hearing  the 
saint's  words,  the  humble  stranger  was  greatly  astonished,  and 
adored  Christ  in  His  saint,  and  the  bystanders  in  amazement 
gave  glory  to  God. 

The  Saint's  prophecy  regarding  Ernan  the  Priest. 

AT  another  time,  the  venerable  man  sent  Ernan,  his  uncle, 
an  aged  priest,  to  preside  over  the  monastery  he  had  founded 
many  years  before  in  Hinba  island  (Eilean-na-Naoimh).  On 
his  departure  the  saint  embraced  him  affectionately,  blessed 
him,  and  then  foretold  what  would  by  and  by  happen  to  him, 
saying,  "  This  friend  of  mine,  who  is  now  going  away  from  me,  I 
never  expect  to  see  alive  again  in  this  world."  After  a  few  days 
this  same  Ernan  became  very  unwell,  and  desired  to  be  taken 
back  to  the  saint,  who  was  much  rejoiced  at  his  return,  and  set 
out  for  the  harbour  to  meet  him.  Ernan  also  himself,  though 
with  feeble  step,  attempted  very  boldly,  and  without  assistance, 
to  walk  from  the  harbour  to  meet  him ;  but  when  there  was  only 
the  short  distance  of  twenty-four  paces  between  them,  death 
came  suddenly  upon  him  before  the  saint  could  see  his  face  in 
life,  and  he  breathed  his  last  as  he  fell  to  the  ground,  that  the 
word  of  the  saint  might  be  fulfilled.  Hence  on  that  spot, 
before  the  door  of  the  kiln,  a  cross  was  raised,  and  another 

(cross  was  in  like  manner  put  up  where  the  saint  resided  at  the 
time  of  his  death,  which  remaineth  unto  this  day. 

The  Saint's  prophecy  regarding  the  Family  of  a  certain  Peasant. 

AT  another  time,  when  the  saint  was  staying  in  that  district 
which  is  called  in  the  Scotic  tongue  Coire  Salchain  (Corrie  Sal- 
lachan,  now  Corry,  in  Morvern),  the  peasants  came  to  him,  and 
one  evening  when  he  saw  one  of  them  approaching  he  said  to 
him,  "  Where  dost  thou  live ? "  "I  live,"  said  he,  " in  that  dis 
trict  which  borders  the  shore  of  Lake  Crogreth  (Loch  Creran).' 
"  That  district  of  which  thou  speakest,"  replied  the  saint,  "  is 
now  being  pillaged  by  savage  marauders."  On  hearing  this,  the 
unhappy  peasant  began  to  lament  his  wife  and  children ;  but 
when  the  saint  saw  him  so  much  afflicted  he  consoled  him, 
saying,  "  Go,  my  poor  man,  go ;  thy  whole  family  hath  escaped 
by  flight  to  the  mountains,  but  thy  cattle,  furniture,  and  other 

c 


34  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I. 

effects  the  ruthless  invaders  have  taken  off  with  their  unjust 
spoils."  When  the  poor  man  heard  these  words  he  went  home, 
and  found  that  all  had  happened  exactly  as  the  saint  foretold. 

The  Saint's  prophecy  regarding  a  Peasant  called  Goire,  son 
of  Aidan. 

AT  another  time,  in  the  same  way,  a  peasant,  who  at  that 
time  was  by  far  the  bravest  of  all  the  inhabitants  of  Korkureti 
(Corkaree,  in  Westmeath),  asked  the  saint  by  what  death  he 
would  die.  "  Not  in  the  battle-field  shalt  thou  die,"  said  the 
saint,  "  nor  at  sea ;  but  the  travelling  companion  of  whom  thou 
hast  no  suspicion  shall  cause  thy  death."  "  Perhaps,"  said 
Goire,  "  one  of  the  friends  who  accompany  me  on  my  journey 
may  be  intending  to  murder  me,  or  my  wife,  in  her  love  for  some 
younger  man,  may  treacherously  kill  me."  "  Not  so,"  replied 
the  saint.  "  Why,"  asked  Goire,  "  wilt  thou  not  tell  now  the 
cause  of  my  death  ? "  "  Because,"  said  the  saint,  "  I  do  not 
wish  to  tell  more  clearly  just  now  the  companion  that  is  to 
injure  thee,  lest  the  frequent  thought  of  the  fact  should  make 
thee  too  unhappy,  until  the  hour  come  when  thou  shalt  find 
that  my  words  are  verified.  Why  dwell  longer  on  what  I  have 
said  ? "  After  the  lapse  ot  a  few  years,  this  same  Goire  hap 
pened  to  be  lying  one  day  under  his  boat  scraping  off  the  bark 
from  a  spear-handle,  when  he  heard  others  fighting  near  him. 
He  rose  hastily  to  stop  the  fighting,  but  his  knife,  through 
some  neglect  in  the  rapid  movement,  fell  to  the  ground,  and 
made  a  very  deep  wound  in  his  knee.  By  such  a  companion, 
then,  was  his  death  caused,  and  he  himself  at  once  remembered 
with  surprise  the  holy  man's  prophecy.  After  a  few  months 
he  died,  carried  off  by  that  same  wound. 

The  Saint's  foreknowledge  and  prophecy  concerning  a  matter  of 
less  moment,  but  so  beautiful  that  it  cannot,  I  think,  be 
over  in  silence. 


FOB  at  another  time,  while  the  saint  was  living  in  the  louan 
island  (Hy,  now  lona),  he  called  one  of  the  brothers,  and  thus 
addressed  him :  "  In  the  morning  of  the  third  day  from  this  date 
thou  must  sit  down  and  wait  on  the  shore  on  the  western  side  of 
this  island,  for  a  crane,  which  is  a  stranger  from  the  northern  re 
gion  of  Hibernia,  and  hath  been  driven  about  by  various  winds, 
shall  come,  weary  and  fatigued,  after  the  ninth  hour,  and  lie 
down  before  thee  on  the  beach  quite  exhausted.  Treat  that  bird 
tenderly,  take  it  to  some  neighbouring  house,  where  it  may  be 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I.  35 

kindly  received  and  carefully  nursed  and  fed  by  thee  for  three 
days  and  three  nights.  When  the  crane  is  refreshed  with  the 
three  days'  rest,  and  is  unwilling  to  abide  any  longer  with  us,  it 
shall  fly  back  with  renewed  strength  to  the  pleasant  part  of  Scotia 
(Ireland)  from  which  it  originally  hath  come.  This  bird  do  I 
consign  to  thee  with  such  special  care  because  it  cometh  from  our 
own  native  place."  The  brother  obeyed,  and  on  the  third  day, 
after  the  ninth  hour,  he  watched  as  he  was  bid  for  the  arrival 
of  the  expected  guest.  As  soon  as  the  crane  came  and  alighted 
on  the  shore,  he  took  it  up  gently  in  its  weakness,  and  carried 
it  to  a  dwelling  that  was  near,  where  in  its  hunger  he  fed  it. 
On  his  return  to  the  monastery  in  the  evening,  the  saint,  without 
any  inquiry,  but  as  stating  a  fact,  said  to  him,  "  God  bless  thee, 
my  child,  for  thy  kind  attention  to  this  foreign  visitor,  that 
shall  not  remain  long  on  its  journey,  but  return  within  three 
days  to  its  old  home."  As  the  saint  predicted,  so  exactly  did  the 
event  prove,  for  after  being  nursed  carefully  for  three  days,  the 
bird  then  gently  rose  on  its  wings  to  a  great  height  in  the  sight 
of  its  hospitable  entertainer,  and  marking  for  a  little  its  path 
through  the  air  homewards,  it  directed  its  course  across  the  sea 
to  Hibernia,  straight  as  it  could  fly,  on  a  calm  day. 

The  blessed  man's  foreknowledge  regarding  the  Battle  fought  many 
years  after  in  the  fortress  of  Cethirn,  and  regarding  the  Well 
near  that  place. 

ANOTHER  time,  after  the  convention  of  the  kings  at  the  Eidge 
of  Ceate  (Druim  Ceatt) — that  is,  of  Aidan,  son  of  Gabran,  and  Aid, 
son  of  Ainmure — the  blessed  man  returned  to  the  sea-coast,  and 
on  a  calm  day  in  summer  he  and  the  Abbot  Comgell  sat  down 
not  far  from  the  above-named  fort.  Then  water  was  brought 
in  a  bronze  vessel  to  the  saints  from  a  well  that  was  close  by  to 
wash  their  hands.  When  St.  Columba  had  received  the  water, 
he  thus  spoke  to  Abbot  Comgell,  who  was  sitting  at  his  side, 
"A  day  shall  come,  0  Comgell!  when  the  well  whence  this 
water  now  poured  out  for  us  was  drawn  will  be  no  longer  fit 
for  man's  use."  "  How  ? "  said  Comgell ;  "  shall  the  water  of  this 
spring  be  defiled  ? "  "  From  this,"  said  St.  Columba,  "  that  it 
shall  be  filled  with  human  blood  ;  for  thy  relatives  and  mine — 
that  is,  the  people  of  the  Cruithni  and  the  race  of  Niall — shall 
be  at  war  in  the  neighbouring  fortress  of  Cethirn  (now  called 
the  Giant's  Sconce,  near  Coleraine).  Whence,  at  this  same 
well,  an  unhappy  relative  of  mine  shall  be  slain,  and  his  blood, 
mingling  with  that  of  many  others,  shall  fill  it  up."  This 
truthful  prophecy  was  duly  accomplished  after  many  years,  for 


36  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I. 

in  that  battle,  as  is  well  known  to  many,  Domnall,  son  of 
Aid,  came  off  victorious,  and  at  that  well,  according  to  the 
saint's  word,  a  near  kinsman  of  his  was  slain. 

Another  soldier  of  Christ,  called  Finan,  who  led  the  life  of  an 
anchorite  blamelessly  for  many  years  near  the  monastery  of 
the  Oakwood  Plain  (Derry),  and  who  was  present  at  the  battle, 
in  relating  these  things  to  me,  Adamnan,  assured  me  that  he 
saw  a  man's  dead  body  lying  in  the  well,  and  that  on  his  return 
from  the  battle-field  the  same  day  to  the  monastery  of  St. 
Comgell,  which  is  called  in  the  Scotic  tongue  Cambas  (on  the 
river  Bann,  in  diocese  of  Derry),  and  from  which  he  had  first 
set  out,  he  found  there  two  aged  monks,  of  St.  Comgell,  who, 
when  he  told  them  of  the  battle  he  saw,  and  of  the  well  defiled 
with  human  blood,  at  once  said  to  him :  "  A  true  prophet  is 
Columba,  for  he  foretold  all  the  circumstances  you  now  mention 
to-day  regarding  the  battle  and  the  well,  many  years  indeed 
before  they  occurred  ;  this  he  did  in  our  hearing  to  St.  Com 
gell,  as  he  sat  by  the  fort  Cethirn." 

How  the  Saint  was  favoured  ly  God's  grace  with  the  power  of 
distinguishing  different  Presents. 

ABOUT  the  same  time  Conall,  bishop  of  Culerathin  (Coleraine), 
collected  almost  countless  presents  from  the  people  of  the  plain 
of  Eilne  (Magh  Elne,  on  the  Bann),  to  give  a  hospitable  recep 
tion  to  the  blessed  man,  and  the  vast  multitude  that  accom 
panied  him,  on  his  return  from  the  meeting  of  the  kings  men 
tioned  above. 

Many  of  these  presents  from  the  people  were  laid  out  in  the 
paved  court  of  the  monastery,  that  the  holy  man  might  bless 
them  on  his  arrival;  and  as  he  was  giving  the  blessing  he 
specially  pointed  out  one  present,  the  gift  of  a  wealthy  man. 
"  The  mercy  of  God,"  said  he,  "attendeth  the  man  who  gave  this, 
for  his  charity  to  the  poor  and  his  munificence."  Then  he 
pointed  out  another  of  the  many  gifts,  and  said :  "  Of  this 
wise  and  avaricious  man's  offering,  I  cannot  partake  until 
he  repent  sincerely  of  his  sin  of  avarice."  Now  this  saying 
was  quickly  circulated  among  the  crowd,  and  soon  reaching  the 
ears  of  Columb,  son  of  Aid,  his  conscience  reproached  him  ;  and 
he  ran  immediately  to  the  saint,  and  on  bended  knees  repented 
of  his  sin,  promising  to  forsake  his  former  greedy  habits,  and  to 
be  liberal  ever  after,  with  amendment  of  life.  The  saint  bade 
him  rise :  and  from  that  moment  he  was  cured  of  the  fault  of 
greediness,  for  he  was  truly  a  wise  man,  as  was  revealed  to  the 
saint  through  that  present. 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  I.  37 

But  the  munificent  rich  man,  called  Brenden,  of  whose  pre 
sent  mention  was  made  above,  hearing  the  words  of  the  saint 
regarding  himself,  knelt  down  at  his  feet  and  besought  him  to 
pray  for  him  to  the  Lord.  When  at  the  outset  the  saint 
reproved  him  for  certain  other  sins  of  which  he  was  guilty,  he 
expressed  his  heartfelt  sorrow,  and  purpose  of  amendment.  And 
thus  both  these  men  were  cured  of  the  peculiar  vices  in  which 
they  were  wont  to  indulge.  With  like  knowledge  at  another 
time,  on  the  occasion  of  his  visit  to  the  Great  Cell  of  Deathrib 
(Kilmore,  in  Boscommon),  the  saint  knew  the  offering  of  a 
stingy  man,  called  Diormit,  from  many  others  collected  in  that 
place  on  his  arrival. 

To  have  written  thus  much  in  the  course  of  this  first  Book, 
selecting  a  few  instances  out  of  many  of  the  prophetic  gifts  of 
the  blessed  man,  may  suffice.  Indeed,  I  have  recorded  only  a 
few  facts  regarding  this  venerable  person,  for  no  doubt  there 
were  very  many  more  which  could  not  come  to  men's  know 
ledge,  from  being  hidden  under  a  kind  of  sacramental  character, 
while  those  mentioned  were  like  a  few  little  drops  which  oozed 
out,  as  it  were,  like  newly  fermented  wine  through  the  chinks 
of  a  full  vessel.  For  holy  and  apostolic  men,  in  general,  in 
order  to  avoid  vain-glory,  strive  as  much  as  they  can  to  conceal 
the  wonders  of  God's  secret  working  within  them.  Yet  God 
sometimes,  whether  they  will  or  no,  maketh  some  of  these  known 
to  the  world,  and  bringeth  them  into  view  by  various  means, 
wishing  thus,  as  He  doth,  to  honour  those  saints  who  honour 
Him,  that  is,  our  Lord  Himself,  to  whom  be  glory  for  ever,  and 
ever. 

Here  endeth  this  first  Book,  and  the  next  Book  treateth  of 
the  wonderful  miracles,  which  generally  accompanied  his  pro 
phetic  foreknowledge. 


BOOK     IT. 
ON    HIS    MIRACULOUS    POWERS. 


CHAPTER    I. 

Of  the  Wine  which,  was  formed  from  water. 

AT  another  time,  while  the  venerable  man  was  yet  a  youth 
in  Scotia  (Ireland)  learning  the  wisdom  of  the  Holy  Scripture 
under  St.  Findbarr,  the  bishop,  it  happened  that  on  a  festival  day 
not  the  least  drop  of  wine  could  be  found  for  the  mystic  sacrifice. 
Hearing  the  ministers  of  the  altar  complaining  among  them 
selves  of  this  want,  he  took  the  vessel  and  went  to  the  fountain, 
that,  as  a  deacon,  he  might  bring  pure  spring  water  for  the 
celebration  of  the  Holy  Eucharist ;  for  at  that  time  he  was 
himself  serving  in  the  order  of  deacon.  The  holy  man  then 
blessed  in  faith  that  element  of  water  taken  from  the  spring, 
invoking,  as  he  did  so,  the  name  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  who 
in  Cana  of  Galilee  had  changed  water  into  wine :  and  the 
result  was  that  by  His  operation  in  this  miracle  also,  an  inferior 
element,  namely  pure  water,  was  changed  into  one  of  a  more 
excellent  kind,  namely  wine,  by  the  hands  of  this  illustrious 
man.  The  holy  man,  then  returning  from  the  fountain  and 
entering  the  church,  placed  beside  the  altar  the  vessel  contain 
ing  this  liquid,  and  said  to  the  ministers  :  "  Here  is  wine,  which 
the  Lord  Jesus  hath  sent,  for  the  celebration  of  His  mysteries." 
The  holy  bishop  and  his  ministers  having  ascertained  the  fact, 
returned  most  ardent  thanks  to  God.  But  the  holy  youth 
ascribed  this,  not  to  himself,  but  to  the  holy  bishop  Vinnian. 
This  first  proof  of  miraculous  power,  Christ  the  Lord  manifested 
in  His  disciple,  just  as  under  like  circumstances  He  had  made 
it  the  first  of  His  own  miracles  in  Cana  of  Galilee. 

Let  this  divine  miracle,  worked  by  our  Columba,  shine  as  a 
light  in  the  beginning  of  this  book,  that  it  may  lead  us  on  to 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II.  39 

the  other  divine  and  miraculous  powers  which  were  seen  in 
him. 

CHAPTER   II. 

Of  the  litter  fruit  of  a  tree  changed  into  sweet  ~by  the  blessing 
of  the  Saint. 

THEEE  was  a  certain  very  fruitful  apple-tree  on  the  south 
side  of  the  monastery  of  the  Oakwood  Plain  (Deny),  in  its 
immediate  vicinity.  When  the  inhabitants  of  the  place  were 
complaining  of  the  exceeding  bitterness  of  the  fruit,  the  saint, 
one  day  in  autumn,  came  to  it,  and  seeing  the  boughs  bearing 
to  no  purpose  a  load  of  fruit  that  injured  rather  than  pleased 
those  who  tasted  it,  he  raised  his  holy  hand  and  blessed  it, 
saying,  "  In  the  name  of  the  Almighty  God,  0  bitter  tree,  let 
all  thy  bitterness  depart  from  thee;  and  let  all  thy  apples, 
hitherto  so  very  bitter,  be  now  changed  into  the  sweetest." 
Wonderful  to  be  told,  quicker  than  the  word,  and  at  that  very 
instant,  all  the  apples  of  the  tree  lost  their  bitterness,  and 
were  changed  to  an  amazing  sweetness,  according  to  the  saint's 
word. 

CHAPTER    III. 

Of  Corn  sown  after  Midsummer  and  reaped  in  the  beginning  of 
the  month  of  August,  at  the  Saint's  prayer,  while  he  was 
residing  in  the  louan  island  (Hy,  now  lona). 

AT  another  time  the  saint  sent  his  monks  to  bring  from  the 
little  farm  of  a  peasant  some  bundles  of  twigs  to  build  a  dwell 
ing.  When  they  returned  to  the  saint,  with  a  freight-ship 
laden  with  the  foresaid  bundles  of  twigs,  they  told  the  saint 
that  the  poor  man  was  very  sorry  on  account  of  the  loss.  The 
saint  immediately  gave  them  these  directions,  saying,  "  Lest 
we  do  the  man  any  wrong,  take  to  him  from  us  twice  three 
measures  of  barley,  and  let  him  sow  it  now  in  his  arable  land." 
According  to  the  saint's  orders,  the  corn  was  sent  and  delivered 
over  to  the  poor  man,  who  was  called  Findchan,  with  the  above 
directions.  He  received  them  with  thanks,  but  asked,  "  What 
good  can  any  corn  do,  which  is  sown  after  midsummer,  against 
the  nature  of  this  soil  ? "  But  his  wife,  on  the  contrary,  said, 
"  Do  what  thou  hast  been  ordered  by  the  saint,  to  whom  the 
Lord  will  give  whatever  he  asketh  from  Him."  And  the  mes 
sengers  likewise  said  further,  "  St.  Columba,  who  sent  us  to  thee 
with  this  gift,  intrusted  us  also  with  this  form  of  instruction 


40  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II. 

regarding  thy  crop,  saying, '  Let  that  man  trust  in  the  omni 
potence  of  God ;  his  corn,  though  sown  now,  when  twelve 
days  of  the  month  of  June  are  passed,  shall  be  reaped  in  the 
beginning  of  the  month  of  August.' "  The  peasant  accordingly 
ploughed  and  sowed,  and  the  crop  which,  against  hope,  he  sowed 
at  the  above-mentioned  time  he  gathered  in  ripe,  to  the  admira 
tion  of  all  his  neighbours,  in  the  beginning  of  the  month  of 
August,  in  that  place  which  is  called  Delcros  (not  identified). 


CHAPTER  IV. 

Of  a  Pestilential  Cloud,  and  the  curing  of  many. 

AT  another  time  also,  while  the  saint  was  living  in  the  louan 
island  (Hy,  now  lona),  and  was  sitting  on  the  little  hill  which  is 
called,  in  Latin,  Munitio  Magna,  he  saw  in  the  north  a  dense  rainy 
cloud  rising  from  the  sea  on  a  clear  day.  As  the  saint  saw  it 
rising,  he  said  to  one  of  his  monks,  named  Silnan,  son  of  Neman - 
don  Mocusogin,  who  was  sitting  beside  him,  "  This  cloud  will 
be  very  baleful  to  man  and  beast,  and  after  rapidly  passing  to 
day  over  a  considerable  part  of  Scotia  (Ireland) — namely,  from 
the  stream  called  Ailbine  (Delvin,  in  Meath)  as  far  as  the  Ford 
Clied  (Athcliath,  now  Dublin) — it  will  discharge  in  the  evening 
a  pestilential  rain,  which  will  raise  large  and  putrid  ulcers 
on  the  bodies  of  men  and  on  the  udders  of  cows ;  so  that  men 
and  cattle  shall  sicken  and  die,  worn  out  with  that  poisonous 
complaint.  But  we,  in  pity  for  their  sufferings,  ought  to  relieve 
them  by  the  merciful  aid  of  God;  do  thou  therefore,  Silnan, 
come  down  with  me  from  this  hill,  and  prepare  for  thy  to 
morrow's  voyage.  If  God  be  willing  and  life  spared  to  us,  thou 
shalt  receive  from  me  some  bread  which  has  been  blessed  by 
the  invocation  of  the  name  of  God ;  this  thou  shalt  dip  in  water, 
and  on  thy  sprinkling  therewith  man  and  beast,  they  shall 
speedily  recover  their  health."  Why  need  we  linger  over  it  ? 
On  the  next  day,  when  all  things  necessary  had  been  hastily 
got  ready,  Silnan  received  the  blessed  bread  from  the  hands  of 
the  saint,  and  set  out  on  his  voyage  in  peace.  As  he  was 
starting,  the  saint  gave  him  these  words  of  comfort,  saying, 
"  Be  of  good  courage,  my  dear  son,  for  thou  shalt  have  fair  and 
pleasant  breezes  day  and  night  till  thou  come  to  that  district 
which  is  called  Ard-Ceannachta  (in  Meath),  that  thou  mayest 
bring  the  more  speedily  relief  with  the  healing  bread  to  those 
who  are  there  sick."  What  more  ?  Silnan,  obeying  the  saint's 
words,  had  a  quick  and  prosperous  voyage,  by  the  aid  of  God, 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II.  41 

and  coming  to  the  above-mentioned  part  of  the  district,  found  the 
people  of  whom  the  saint  had  been  speaking  destroyed  by  the 
pestilential  rain  falling  down  from  the  aforesaid  cloud,  which 
had  passed  rapidly  on  before  him.  In  the  first  place,  twice 
three  men  were  found  in  the  same  house  near  the  sea  reduced 
to  the  agonies  of  approaching  death,  and  when  they  were 
sprinkled  by  Silnan  with  the  blessed  water,  were  very  happily 
healed  that  very  day.  The  report  of  this  sudden  cure  was  soon 
carried  through  the  whole  country  which  was  attacked  by  this 
most  fatal  disease,  and  drew  all  the  sick  people  to  St.  Columba's 
messenger,  who,  according  to  the  saint's  orders,  sprinkled  man 
and  beast  with  the  water  in  which  the  blessed  bread  had  been 
dipped,  and  immediately  they  were  restored  to  perfect  health ; 
then  the  people  finding  themselves  and  their  cattle  healed, 
praised  with  the  utmost  expression  of  thankfulness  Christ  in 
St.  Columba.  Now,  in  the  incidents  here  related  these  two 
things,  I  think,  are  clearly  associated — namely,  the  gift  of  pro 
phecy  regarding  the  cloud  and  the  miraculous  power  in  healing 
the  sick.  And  to  the  truth  of  all  these  things,  in  every  par 
ticular,  the  above-named  Silnan,  the  soldier  of  Christ  and 
messenger  of  St.  Columba,  bore  testimony  in  the  presence  of 
the  Abbot  Segine  and  the  other  fathers. 


CHAPTEE  V. 

Of  Ma/ugina  the  holy  virgin,  daughter  of  Daimen,  who  had 
lived  in  Glochur,  of  the  sons  of  Daimen  (Clogher). 

AT  another  time,  while  the  saint  was  staying  in  the  louan 
island  (Hy,  now  lona),  he  one  day  at  prime  called  to  him  a  certain 
brother,  named  Lugaid,  who  in  the  Scotic  tongue  was  surnamed 
Lathir,  and  thus  addressed  him,  saying,  "  Prepare  quickly  for 
a  rapid  voyage  to  Scotia  (Ireland),  for  it  is  of  the  very  utmost 
importance  to  me  that  thou  be  sent  with  a  message  from  me 
to  Clocher,  of  the  sons  of  Daimen  (Clogher).  For  this  last 
night,  by  some  accident,  the  holy  virgin  Maugina,  daughter  of 
Daimen,  when  she  was  returning  home  from  the  oratory  after 
mass,  stumbled  and  broke  her  thigh  quite  through.  She  is  now 
crying  out,  and  very  often  calling  on  my  name,  in  hope  that 
through  me  she  may  receive  some  comfort  from  the  Lord." 
What  more  need  I  say?  As  Lugaid  was  setting  out  in 
accordance  with  the  directions  given  him,  the  saint  gave  him 
a  little  box  made  of  pine,  saying,  "Let  the  blessed  gift 
which  is  contained  in  this  little  box  be  dipped  in  a  vessel 


42  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II. 

of  water  when  thou  comest  to  visit  Maugina,  and  let  the  water 
thus  blessed  be  poured  on  her  thigh  ;  then  at  once,  by  the 
invocation  of  God's  name,  her  thigh-bone  shall  be  joined 
together  and  made  strong,  and  the  holy  virgin  shall  recover 
perfect  health."  This,  too,  the  saint  added,  "  Lo  !  here  in  thy 
presence  I  write  on  the  lid  of  this  little  box  the  number  of 
twenty-three  years,  which  the  holy  virgin  shall  enjoy  of  this 
present  life  after  receiving  her  health."  All  this  was  exactly 
fulfilled  as  the  saint  had  foretold ;  for  as  soon  as  Lugaid  came 
to  the  holy  virgin  her  thigh  was  washed,  as  the  saint  recom 
mended,  with  the  blessed  water,  and  was  in  an  instant  com 
pletely  healed  by  the  closing  up  of  the  bone.  At  the  arrival 
of  the  messenger  of  St.  Columba,  she  expressed  her  joy  in  the 
most  earnest  thanksgiving,  and,  after  recovering  her  health,  she 
lived,  according  to  the  prophecy  of  the  saint,  twenty-three 
years  in  the  constant  practice  of  good  works. 


CHAPTER   VI. 

Of  the  Cures  of  various  Diseases  which  took  place  in  the 
Ridge  of  Ceate  (Druimceatf). 

WE  have  been  told  by  well-informed  persons  that  this  man 
of  admirable  life,  by  invoking  the  name  of  Christ,  healed  the 
disorders  of  various  sick  persons  in  the  course  of  that  short  time 
which  he  spent  at  the  Eidge  of  Ceate  (Druimceatt),  when  attend 
ing  there  the  meeting  of  the  kings.  For  either  by  his  merely 
stretching  out  his  holy  hand,  or  by  the  sprinkling  of  the  sick 
with  the  water  blessed  by  him,  or  by  their  touching  even  the 
hem  of  his  cloak,  or  by  their  receiving  his  blessing  on  any 
thing,  as,  for  instance,  on  bread  or  salt,  and  dipping  it  in 
water,  they  who  believed  recovered  perfect  health. 


CHAPTEE  VII. 

Of  a  lump  of  Salt  blessed  by  the  Saint,  which  could  not  be 
consumed  by  thejire. 

ON  another  occasion  also,  Colga,  son  of  Cellach,  asked  and 
obtained  from  the  saint  a  lump  of  salt  which  he  had  blessed, 
for  the  cure  of  his  sister,  who  had  nursed  him,  and  was  now 
suffering  from  a  very  severe  attack  of  ophthalmia.  This  same 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II.  43 

sister  and  nurse  having  received  such  a  blessed  gift  from  the 
hand  of  her  brother,  hung  it  up  on  the  wall  over  her  bed  ;  and 
after  some  days  it  happened  by  accident  that  a  destructive  fire 
entirely  consumed  the  village  where  this  took  place,  and  with 
others  the  house  of  the  aforesaid  woman.  Yet,  strange  to  say, 
in  order  that  the  gift  of  the  blessed  man  might  not  be  destroyed, 
the  portion  of  the  wall  from  which  it  was  suspended  still  stood 
uninjured  after  the  rest  of  the  house  had  been  burned  down ; 
nor  did  the  fire  venture  to  touch  even  the  two  uprights  from 
which  the  lump  of  salt  was  suspended. 


CHAPTEK  VIII. 

Of  a  volume  of  a  book  in  the  Saint's  handwriting  ivhich  could 
not  be  destroyed  by  water. 

I  CANNOT  think  of  leaving  unnoticed  another  miracle  which 
once  took  place  by  means  of  the  opposite  element.  For  many 
years  after  the  holy  man  had  departed  to  the  Lord,  a  certain 
youth  fell  from  his  horse  into  the  river  which  in  Scotic  is  called 
Boend  (the  Boyne),  and,  being  drowned,  was  for  twenty  days 
under  the  water.  When  he  fell  he  had  a  number  of  books 

rked  up  in  a  leathern  satchel  under  his  arm ;  and  so,  when 
.  was  found  after  the  above-mentioned  number  of  days,  he 
still  had  the  satchel  of  books  pressed  between  his  arm  and 
side.  When  the  body  was  brought  out  to  the  dry  ground,  and 
the  satchel  opened,  it  was  found  to  contain,  among  the  volumes 
of  other  books,  which  were  not  only  injured,  but  even  rotten, 
a  volume  written  by  the  sacred  fingers  of  St.  Columba ;  and 
it  was  as  dry  and  wholly  uninjured  as  if  it  had  been  enclosed 
in  a  desk. 

Of  another  Miracle  in  similar  circumstances. 

AT  another  time  a  book  of  hymns  for  the  office  of  every  day  in 
the  week,  and  in  the  handwriting  of  St.  Columba,  having  slipt, 
with  the  leathern  satchel  which  contained  it,  from  the  shoulder 
of  a  boy  who  fell  from  a  bridge,  was  immersed  in  a  certain 
river  in  the  province  of  the  Lagenians  (Leinster).  This  very  book 
lay  in  the  water  from  the  Feast  of  the  Nativity  of  our  Lord  till 
the  end  of  the  Paschal  season,  and  was  afterwards  found  on  the 
bank  of  the  river  by  some  women  who  were  walking  there  :  it 
was  brought  by  them  in  the  same  satchel,  which  was  not  only 


44  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II. 

soaked,  but  even  rotten,  to  a  certain  priest  named  logenan,  a 
Pict  by  race,  to  whom  it  formerly  belonged.  On  opening  the 
satchel  himself,  logenan  found  his  book  uninjured,  and  as  clean 
and  dry  as  if  it  had  been  as  long  a  time  in  his  desk,  and  had 
never  fallen  into  the  water.  And  we  have  ascertained,  as  un 
doubted  truth,  from  those  who  were  well  informed  in  the  matter, 
that  the  like  things  happened  in  several  places  with  regard  to 
books  written  by  the  hands  of  St.  Columba — namely,  that  the 
books  could  suffer  no  injury  from  being  immersed  in  water. 
But  the  account  we  have  given  of  the  above-mentioned  book  of 
logenan  we  have  received  from  certain  truthful,  excellent,  and 
honourable  men,  who  saw  the  book  itself,  perfectly  white  and 
beautiful,  after  a  submersion  of  so  many  days,  as  we  have 
stated. 

These  two  miracles,  though  wrought  in  matters  of  small 
moment,  and  shown  in  opposite  elements — namely,  fire  and 
water, — redound  to  the  honour  of  the  blessed  man,  and  prove 
his  great  and  singular  merits  before  the  Lord. 


CHAPTEE   IX. 

Of  Water  drawn  from  the  hard  rock  ly  the  Saint's  prayers. 

AND  since  mention  has  been  made  a  little  before  of  the 
element  of  water,  we  must  not  pass  over  in  silence  some  other 
miracles  which  the  Lord  wrought  by  the  saint  at  different  times 
and  places,  in  which  the  same  element  was  concerned.  On 
another  occasion,  then,  when  the  saint  was  engaged  in  one  of 
his  journeys,  a  child  was  presented  to  him  in  the  course  of  his 
travels  for  baptism  by  its  parents ;  and  because  there  was  no 
water  to  be  found  in  the  neighbourhood,  the  saint  turned  aside 
to  a  rock  that  was  near,  and  kneeling  down,  prayed  for  a  short 
time ;  then  rising  up  after  his  prayer,  he  blessed  the  face  of  the 
rock,  from  which  there  immediately  gushed  out  an  abundant 
stream  of  water ;  and  there  he  forthwith  baptized  the  child. 
Concerning  the  child  that  was  baptized  he  uttered  the  follow 
ing  prophecy,  saying,  "  This  child  shall  live  to  a  very  great  age ; 
in  his  youth  he  will  indulge  freely  the  desires  of  the  flesh ; 
afterwards  he  will  devote  himself  to  the  warfare  of  a  Christian 
until  the  very  end  of  his  life,  and  thus  depart  to  the  Lord  in  a 
good  old  age."  All  this  happened  to  the  man  according  to  the 
prophecy  of  the  saint.  This  was  Lugucencalad,  whose  parents 
were  from  Artdaib  Muirchol  (Ardnamurchan),  where  there  is 
seen  even  to  this  day  a  well  called  by  the  name  of  St.  Columba. 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II.  45 


CHAPTER  X. 

Of  a  poisonous  Fountain  of  Water  to  which  the  blessed  man  gave 
his  blessing  in  the  country  of  the  Picts. 

AGAIN,  while  the  blessed  man  was  stopping  for  some  days  in 
the  province  of  the  Picts,  he  heard  that  there  was  a  fountain 
famous  amongst  this  heathen  people,  which  foolish  men,  having 
their  senses  blinded  by  the  devil,  worshipped  as  a  god.  For 
those  who  drank  of  this  fountain,  or  purposely  washed  their 
hands  or  feet  in  it,  were  allowed  by  God  to  be  struck  by 
demoniacal  art,  and  went  home  either  leprous  or  purblind,  or 
at  least  suffering  from  weakness  or  other  kinds  of  infirmity. 
By  all  these  things  the  Pagans  were  seduced,  and  paid  divine 
honour  to  the  fountain.  Having  ascertained  this,  the  saint  one 
day  went  up  to  the  fountain  fearlessly  ;  and,  on  seeing  this,  the 
Druids,  whom  he  had  often  sent  away  from  him  vanquished  and 
confounded,  were  greatly  rejoiced,  thinking  that  he  would  suffer 
like  others  from  the  touch  of  that  baneful  water.  But  he, 
having  first  raised  his  holy  hand  and  invoked  the  name  of 
Christ,  washed  his  hands  and  feet;  and  then  with  his  com 
panions,  drank  of  the  water  which  he  had  blessed.  And  from 
that  day  the  demons  departed  from  the  fountain  ;  and  not  only 
was  it  not  allowed  to  injure  any  one,  but  even  many  diseases 
amongst  the  people  were  cured  by  this  same  fountain,  after  it 
had  been  blessed  and  washed  in  by  the  saint. 


CHAPTER    XL 

Of  the  Danger  to  the  blessed  man  at  Sea,  and  the  sudden  calm 
produced  by  his  prayers. 

AT  another  time  the  holy  man  began  to  be  in  great  danger 
at  sea,  for  the  whole  vessel  was  violently  tossed  and  shaken 
with  the  huge  dashing  waves,  and  a  great  storm  of  wind  was 
raging  on  all  hands.  The  sailors  then  chanced  to  say  to  the 
saint,  as  he  was  trying  to  help  them  to  bale  the  vessel,  "  What 
thou  art  now  doing  is  of  little  use  to  us  in  our  present  danger, 
thou  shouldst  rather  pray  for  us  as  we  are  perishing."  On 
hearing  this  he  ceased  to  throw  out  the  bitter  waters  of  the 
green  sea  wave,  and  began  to  pour  out  a  sweet  and  fervent 
prayer  to  the  Lord.  Wonderful  to  relate !  The  very  moment 
the  saint  stood  up  at  the  prow,  with  his  hands  stretched  out  to 
heaven,  and  prayed  to  the  Almighty,  the  whole  storm  of  wind 


46  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II. 

and  the  fury  of  the  sea  ceased  more  quickly  than  can  be  told, 
and  a  perfect  calm  instantly  ensued.  But  those  who  were  in 
the  vessel  were  amazed,  and  giving  thanks  with  great  admira 
tion,  glorified  the  Lord  in  the  holy  and  illustrious  man. 

CHAPTEE   XII. 

Of  another  similar  Peril  to  Mm  at  Sea. 

AT  another  time,  also,  when  a  wild  and  dangerous  storm  was 
raging,  and  his  companions  were  crying  out  to  the  saint  to 
pray  to  the  Lord  for  them,  he  gave  them  this  answer,  saying, 
"  On  this  day  it  is  not  for  me,  but  for  that  holy  man,  the  Abbot 
Cainnech,  to  pray  for  you  in  your  present  peril."  What  I  am 
to  relate  is  wonderful.  The  very  same  hour  St.  Cainnech  was 
in  his  monastery,  which  in  Latin  is  called  Campulus  Bovis, 
but  in  Scotic  Ached-bou  (Aghaboe,  in  Queen's  County),  and 
heard  with  the  inner  ear  of  his  heart,  by  a  revelation  of  the 
Holy  Ghost,  the  aforesaid  words  of  St.  Columba ;  and  when 
he  had  just  begun  to  break  the  blessed  bread  in  the  refectory 
after  the  ninth  hour,  he  hastily  left  the  table,  and  with  one 
shoe  on  his  foot,  while  the  other  in  his  extreme  haste  was  left 
behind,  he  went  quickly  to  the  church,  saying,  "  It  is  not  for  us 
now  to  take  time  to  dine,  when  the  vessel  of  St.  Columba  is  in 
danger  at  sea,  for  at  this  moment  he  is  lamenting  and  calling 
on  the  name  of  Cainnech  to  pray  to  Christ  for  him  and  his 
companions  in  peril."  When  he  had  said  this  he  entered  the 
oratory  and  prayed  for  a  short  time  on  his  bended  knees ;  and 
the  Lord  heard  his  prayer,  the  storm  immediately  ceased,  and 
the  sea  became  very  calm.  Whereupon  St.  Columba,  seeing 
in  spirit,  though  there  was  a  far  distance  between  them,  the 
haste  of  Cainnech  in  going  to  the  church,  uttered,  to  the  wonder 
of  all,  from  his  pure  heart,  these  words,  saying,  "Now  I  know, 
0  Cainnech,  that  God  has  heard  thy  prayer;  now  hath  thy 
swift  running  to  the  church  with  a  single  shoe  greatly  profited 
us."  In  such  a  miracle  as  this,  then,  we  believe  that  the 
prayers  of  both  saints  had  their  share  in  the  work. 

CHAPTEE   XIII. 

Of  the  Staff  of  St.  Cainnech  which  was  forgotten  in  the  Harbour. 

ON  another  occasion,  the  same  Cainnech  above  mentioned 
embarked  for  Scotia  (Ireland)  from  the  harbour  of  the  louan 
island  (Hy,  now  lona),  and  forgot  to  take  his  staff  with  him.  After 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II.  47 

his  departure  the  staff  was  found  on  the  shore,  and  given  into 
the  hands  of  St.  Columba,  who,  on  his  return  home,  brought  it 
into  the  oratory,  and  remained  there  for  a  very  long  time  alone 
in  prayer.  Cainnech,  meanwhile,  on  approaching  the  Oidechan 
island  (Oidech,  near  Isla,  probably  Texa)  suddenly  felt  pricked 
at  heart  at  the  thought  of  his  forgetfulness,  and  was  deeply 
afflicted  at  it.  But  after  some  time,  leaving  the  vessel,  and 
falling  upon  his  knees  in  prayer  on  the  ground,  he  found  before 
him  on  the  turf  of  the  little  land  of  Aithche  (genitive  of  Aitech) 
the  staff  which,  in  his  forgetfulness,  he  had  left  behind  him  at 
the  landing-place  in  the  louan  island  (Hy,  now  lona).  He  was 
greatly  surprised  at  its  being  thus  brought  to  him  by  the  divine 
power,  and  gave  thanks  to  God. 

CHAPTEE  XIV. 

How  BaitTiene  and  Columban,  the  son  of  Beogna,  holy  priests, 
asked  of  the  Lord,  through  the  prayers  of  the  blessed  man, 
that  he  would  grant  them  on  the  same  day  a  favourable  wind, 
though  sailing  in  different  directions. 

AT  another  time,  also,  the  above-named  holy  men  came  in 
company  to  the  saint,  and  asked  him,  with  one  consent,  to  seek 
and  obtain  for  them  from  the  Lord  a  favourable  wind  on  the 
next  day,  though  they  were  to  set  out  in  different  directions. 
The  saint  in  answer  gave  them  this  reply,  "To-morrow  morning, 
Baithene,  setting  sail  from  the  harbour  of  the  louan  island  (Hy, 
now  lona),  shall  have  a  favourable  wind  until  he  reaches  the 
landing-place  of  the  plain  of  Lunge  (Magh  Lunge,  in  Tiree)." 
And  the  Lord  granted  this  favour  according  to  the  word  of  the 
saint ;  for  Baithene  on  that  same  day  crossed,  with  full  sails, 
the  whole  of  the  open  sea,  as  far  as  the  Ethican  land  (Tiree). 
But  at  the  third  hour  of  the  same  day,  the  venerable  man  called 
to  him  the  priest  Columban,  saying,  "  Baithene  has  now 
happily  arrived  at  the  wished-for  haven,  prepare  thou  then 
to  sail  to-day;  the  Lord  will  soon  change  the  wind  to  the 
north."  And  the  same  hour  the  wind  from  the  south  obey 
ing  the  word  thus  spoken  by  the  holy  man,  wheeled  round 
and  became  a  northern  breeze  ;  and  thus  on  the  same  day 
these  two  holy  men  departed  the  one  from  the  other  in  peace 
and  both  set  sail,  Baithene  in  the  morning  for  the  Ethican  land 
(Tiree),  and  Columban  in  the  afternoon  for  Hibernia,  and  made 
the  voyages  with  full  sails  and  fair  winds.  The  Lord  wrought 
this  miracle  in  answer  to  the  prayer  of  the  illustrious  man, 
according  as  it  is  written,  "All  things  are  possible  to  him 


48  THE  LIFE  OF. SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II. 

that  believeth."  After  the  departure  of  St.  Columban  on  that 
day,  St.  Columba  uttered  this  prophecy  concerning  him  :  "  The 
holy  man,  Columban,  whom  we  have  blessed  on  his  departure, 
shall  never  see  my  face  again  in  this  world."  And  this  was 
afterwards  fulfilled,  for  the  same  year  St.  Columban  passed 
away  to  the  Lord. 

CHAPTER   XV. 

Of  the  driving  out  of  a  Demon  that  lurked  in  a  Milk-pail. 

AT  another  time,  a  certain  youth,  named  Columban,  grandson 
of  Brian,  came  forward  hurriedly,  and  stopped  at  the  door  of 
the  little  cell  in  which  the  blessed  man  was  writing.  This  same 
person,  being  on  his  way  home  from  the  milking  of  the  cows, 
and  carrying  on  his  back  a  vessel  full  of  new  milk,  asked  the 
saint  to  bless  his  burden,  as  he  usually  did.  Then  the  saint, 
being  at  the  time  at  some  distance  away  in  front  of  him,  raised 
his  hand,  and  formed  the  saving  sign  in  the  air,  which  at  once 
was  greatly  agitated ;  the  bar,  which  fastened  the  lid  of  the 
pail,  being  pushed  back  through  the  two  openings  that  received 
it,  was  shot  away  to  a  great  distance,  while  the  lid  fell  to  the 
earth,  and  the  greater  part  of  the  milk  was  spilled  upon  the 
ground.  The  young  lad  then  laid  down  the  vessel,  with  the  little 
milk  that  remained,  on  its  bottom  on  the  ground,  and  kneeled 
down  in  prayer.  The  saint  said  to  him,  "  Eise  up,  Columban, 
for  thou  hast  acted  negligently  in  thy  work  to-day,  inasmuch 
as  thou  didst  not  banish  the  demon  that  lurked  in  the  bottom 
of  the  empty  vessel  by  forming  on  it  the  sign  of  the  cross  of 
our  Lord  before  the  milk  was  poured  into  it ;  and  now,  as  thou 
seest,  being  unable  to  bear  the  power  of  that  sign,  he  has  quickly 
lied  in  terror,  troubled  the  whole  vessel  in  every  corner,  and 
spilled  the  milk.  Bring  the  vessel,  then,  nearer  to  me  here  that 
I  may  bless  it."  This  being  done,  the  half-empty  pail,  which 
the  saint  had  blessed,  was  found  the  same  instant,  filled  by 
divine  agency  ;  and  the  little  that  had  previously  remained  in 
the  bottom  was  at  once  increased  under  the  blessing  of  his  holy 
hand,  so  as  to  fill  it  to  the  brim. 

CHAPTER   XVI. 

Concerning  a  Vessel  which  'a  sorcerer  named  Silnan  had  filled  with 
milk  taken  from  a  bull. 

THE  following  is  told  as  having  occurred  in  the  house  of  a 
rich  peasant  named  Foirtgirn,  who  lived  in  Mount  Cainle 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II.  49 

(not  identified).  When  the  saint  was  staying  there,  he  decided 
justly  a  dispute  between  two  rustics,  whose  coming  to  him  he 
knew  beforehand :  and  one  of  them,  who  was  a  sorcerer,  took 
milk,  by  his  diabolical  art,  at  the  command  of  the  saint,  from 
a  bull  that  was  near.  This  the  saint  directed  to  be  done,  not  to 
confirm  these  sorceries — God  forbid !  but  to  put  an  end  to  them 
in  the  presence  of  all  the  people.  The  blessed  man,  therefore, 
demanded  that  the  vessel,  full,  as  it  seemed  to  be,  of  this  milk, 
should  be  immediately  given  to  him ;  and  he  blessed  it  with 
this  sentence,  saying  :  "  Now  it  shall  in  this  way  be  proved 
that  this  is  not  true  milk,  as  it  is  supposed  to,  be^  but  blood, 
which  is  coloured  by  the  artifice  of  demons  to  impose  on  men." 
This  was  no  sooner  said  than  the  milky  colour  gave  place  to 
the  true  natural  colour  of  blood.  The  bull  also,  which  in  the 
space  of  one  hour  wasted  and  pined  away  with  a  hideous  lean 
ness,  and  was  all  but  dead,  was  sprinkled  with  water  that  had 
been  blessed  by  the  saint,  and  recovered  with  astonishing 
rapidity. 

CHAPTEE  XVII. 

Of  Lugne  Mocumin. 

ONE  day  a  young  man  of  good  disposition  and  parts,  named 
Lugne,  who  afterwards,  in  his  old  age,  was  prior  of  the 
monastery  of  the  Elena  island  (Eilean  Naomh,  now  Nave 
island,  near  Isla),  came  to  the  saint,  and  complained  of  a 
bleeding  which  for  many  months  had  often  poured  profusely 
from  the  nostrils.  Having  asked  him  to  come  nearer,  the  saint 
pressed  both  his  nostrils  with  two  fingers  of  his  right  hand  and 
blessed  him.  And  from  that  hour  when  he  received  the  bless 
ing,  till  the  last  day  of  his  life,  a  drop  of  blood  never  came 
from  his  nose. 

CHAPTEE   XVIII. 

Of  the  Fishes  which  were  specially  provided  ly  God  for  the 
blessed  man. 

ON  another  occasion,  when  some  hardy  fishermen,  com 
panions  of  this  renowned  man,  had  taken  five  fish  in  their  net 
in  the  river  Sale  (the  Shiel,  or  Seil),  which  abounds  in  fish, 
the  saint  said  to  them,  "  Try  again,"  said  he ;  "  cast  thy  net 
into  the  stream,  and  you  shall  at  once  find  a  large  fish  which 
the  Lord  has  provided  for  me."  In  obedience  to  the  saint's 
command  they  hauled  in  their  nets  a  salmon  of  astonishing 
size,  which  God  had  provided  for  him. 


50  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  IT. 


CHAPTEE   XIX. 

AT  another  time  also,  when  the  saint  was  stopping  some 
days  beside  the  lake  of  Ce  (Loughkey,  in  Eoscommon),  he 
delayed  his  companions  when  they  were  anxious  to  go  a-fishing, 
saying :  "No  fish  will  be  found  in  the  river  to-day  or  to-morrow; 
but  on  the  third  day  I  will  send  you,  and  you  shall  find  two 
large  river-salmon  taken  in  the  net."  And  so,  after  two  short 
days,  they  cast  their  nets,  and  landed  two,  of  the  most  extra 
ordinary  size,  which  they  found  in  the  river  which  is  named 
Bo  (the  Boyle).  In  the  capture  of  fish  on  these  two  occasions, 
the  power  of  miracles  appears  accompanied  at  the  same  time 
by  a  prophetic  foreknowledge,  and  for  both  graces  the  saint 
and  his  companions  gave  fervent  thanks  to  God. 

CHAPTEE  XX. 

Regarding  Nesan  the  Crooked,  who  lived  in  the  country  bordering 
on  the  Lake  of  Apors  (Loehaber). 

THIS  Nesan,  though  very  poor,  joyfully  received  on  one  occa 
sion  the  saint  as  his  guest.  And  after  he  had  entertained  him 
as  hospitably  as  his  means  would  afford  for  one  night,  the  saint 
asked  him  the  number  of  his  heifers.  He  answered,  "  Five." 
The  saint  then  said,  "  Bring  them  to  me  that  I  may  bless  them." 
And  when  they  were  brought  the  saint  raised  his  holy  hand 
and  blessed  them,  and  said :  "  From  this  day  thy  five  little 
heifers  shall  increase  to  the  number  of  one  hundred  and  five 
cows."  '  And  as  this  same  Nesan  was  a  man  of  humble  condi 
tion,  having  a  wife  and  children,  the  saint  added  this  further 
blessing,  saying :  "  Thy  seed  shall  be  blessed  in  thy  children 
and  grandchildren."  And  all  this  was  completely  fulfilled 
without  any  failure,  according  to  the  word  of  the  saint. 

CHAPTEE   XXL 

ON  the  other  hand,  he  pronounced  the  following  prophetic 
sentence  on  a  certain  rich  and  very  stingy  man  named  Uigene, 
who  despised  St.  Columba,  and  showed  him  no  hospitality, 
saying :  "  But  the  riches  of  that  niggardly  man  who  hath  de 
spised  Christ  in  the  strangers  that  came  to  be  his  guests,  will 
gradually  become  less  from  this  day,  and  be  reduced  to  nothing; 
and  he  himself  shall  be  a  beggar ;  and  his  son  shall  go  about 
from  house  to  house  with  a  half-empty  wallet :  and  he  shall  be 
slain  by  a  rival  beggar  with  an  axe,  in  the  pit  of  a  threshing- 
floor."  All  this  was  exactly  fulfilled  in  both  cases,  according 
to  the  prophecy  of  the  holy  man. 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II.  51 


CHAPTEE    XXII. 

How  the  Iwly  man  blessed  the  few  Cattle  belonging  to  Columban, 
a  man  of  equally  humble  condition;  and  how,  after  his 
blessing,  they  increased  to  the  number  of  a  hundred. 

AT  another  time  also,  the  blessed  man  was  one  night  kindly 
treated  as  his  guest  by  the  aforesaid  Columban,  who  was  then 
very  poor,  and,  as  he  had  done  before  in  the  above  account  of 
Nesan,  he  asked  his  host,  early  next  morning,  as  to  the  amount 
and  kind  of  his  goods.  When  asked,  he  said :  "  I  have  only 
five  small  cows,  but  if  thou  bless  them  they  will  increase  to 
more."  And  immediately  he  was  directed  by  the  saint  to  bring 
them  before  him,  and  in  the  same  manner  as  was  related  concern 
ing  the  five  cows  of  Nesan,  he  gave  as  rich  a  blessing  to  those  of 
Columban,  and  said,  "  Thou  shalt  have,  by  God's  gift,  a  hundred 
and  five  cows,  and  an  abundant  blessing  shall  be  also  upon  thy 
children  and  grandchildren."  All  this  was  granted  to  the  full 
in  his  lands,  and  cattle,  and  offspring,  according  to  the  prophecy 
of  the  blessed  man ;  and,  what  is  very  strange,  the  number  of 
cattle  determined  by  the  saint  for  both  these  men,  whenever  it 
reached  one  hundred  and  five,  could  not  in  any  way  be  in 
creased  ;  for  those  that  were  beyond  this  stated  number,  being 
carried  off  by  various  accidents,  never  appeared  to  be  of  any 
value,  except  in  so  far  as  anything  might  be  employed  for  the 
use  of  the  family,  or  spent  in  almsgiving.  In  this  history, 
then,  as  in  the  others,  the  gifts  both  of  miracles  and  prophecy 
are  clearly  shown  together,  for  in  the  large  increase  of  the 
cattle  we  see  the  virtue  of  his  blessing  and  of  his  prayer,  and, 
in  the  determination  of  the  number,  his  prophetic  knowledge. 


CHAPTER   XXIII. 

Of  the  Death  of  some  wicked  men  who  had  spurned  the  Saint. 

THE  venerable  man  had  a  great  love  for  the  above-named 
Columban,  on  account  of  the  many  acts  of  kindness  he  had 
done  to  him,  and  caused  him  by  blessing  him,  from  being  poor 
to  become  very  rich.  Now,  there  was  at  that  time  a  certain 
wicked  man,  a  persecutor  of  the  good,  named  Joan,  son  of 
Conall,  son  of  Domnall,  sprung  from  the  royal  tribe  of  Gabran. 
This  man  troubled  the  foresaid  Columban,  the  friend  of  St. 
Columba  ;  and  not  once,  but  twice,  attacked  and  plundered  his 


52  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II. 

house  and  carried  off  all  he  could  find  in  it.  Hence  it  not  un 
fitly  happened  to  this  wicked  man,  that  as  he  and  his  associates, 
after  having  plundered  the  house  of  the  same  person  a  third 
time,  were  returning  to  their  vessel,  laden  with  plunder,  he  met 
advancing  towards  him,  the  holy  man  whom  he  had  despised, 
when  he  thought  he  was  afar  off.  When  the  saint  reproached 
him  for  his  evil  deeds,  and  advised  and  besought  him  to  give 
up  the  plunder,  he  remained  hardened  and  obstinate,  and 
scorned  the  holy  man  ;  and  thus  mocking  and  laughing  at  the 
blessed  man,  he  embarked  with  the  booty.  Yet  the  saint 
followed  him  to  the  water's  edge,  and  wading  up  to  the  knees  in 
the  clear  green  sea- water,  with  both  his  hands  raised  to  heaven, 
earnestly  invoked  Christ,  who  glorifies  His  elect,  who  are  giving 
glory  to  Him. 

Now  the  haven  where  he  thus  for  some  time  stood  and  be 
sought  the  Lord  after  the  departure  of  the  oppressor,  is  at  a 
place  called  in  Scotic  Ait-Chambas  Art-Muirchol  (Camus-an- 
Gaall,  Ardnamurchan) .  Then  the  saint,  as  soon  as  he  had  finished 
his  prayer,  returned  to  the  dry  ground,  and  sat  down  on  the 
higher  ground  with  his  companions,  and  spoke  to  them  in 
that  hour  these  very  terrible  words,  saying :  "  This  miserable 
wretch  who''  hath  despised  Christ  in  His  servants  will  never 
return  to  the  port  from  which  you  have  now  seen  him  set  sail : 
neither  shall  he,  nor  his  wicked  associates,  reach  the  land  for 
which  they  are  bound,  for  a  sudden  death  shall  prevent  it.  This 
day  a  furious  storm  shall  proceed  from  a  cloud,  which  you  will 
soon  see  rising  in  the  north,  shall  overwhelm  him  and  his 
companions,  so  that  not  one  of  them  will  survive  to  tell  the 
tale."  After  the  lapse  of  a  few  moments,  even  while  the  day 
was  perfectly  calm,  behold  !  a  cloud  arose  from  the  sea,  as  the 
saint  had  said,  and  caused  a  great  hurricane,  which  overtook  the 
plunderer  with  his  spoil,  between  the  Malean  and  Colosus  islands 
(Mull  and  Colonsay),  and  overwhelmed  him  in  the  midst  of  the 
sea,  which  was  suddenly  lashed  into  fury :  and  not  even  one  of 
those  in  the  vessel  escaped,  as  the  saint  had  said :  and  in  this 
wonderful  manner,  by  such  a  singular  storm,  while  the  whole 
sea  around  remained  quiet,  were  the  robbers  miserably,  but 
justly,  overwhelmed  and  sunk  into  the  deep. 

CHAPTEK  XXIV. 

Of  a  certain  Feradacli,  who  was  cut  off  by  sudden  death. 

AT  another  time  also,  the  holy  man  specially  recommended 
a  certain  exile,  of  noble  race  among  the  Picts,  named  Tarain,  to 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II.  53 

the  care  of  one  Feradach,  a  rich  man,  who  lived  in  the  Ilean  island 
(Isla),  that  he  might  be  received  in  his  retinue  for  some  months 
as  one  of  his  friends.  After  he  had  accepted  the  person  thus 
highly  recommended  at  the  hand  of  the  holy  man,  he  in  a  few 
days  acted  treacherously,  and  cruelly  ordered  him  to  be  put  to 
death.  When  the  news  of  this  horrid  crime  was  carried  by 
travellers  to  the  saint,  he  replied  by  the  following  prediction : 
"  That  unhappy  wretch  hath  not  lied  unto  me,  but  unto  God, 
and  his  name  shall  be  blotted  out  of  the  book  of  life.  We  are 
speaking  these  words  now  in  the  middle  of  summer,  but  in 
autumn,  before  he  shall  eat  of  swine's  flesh  that  hath  been 
fattened  on  the  fruits  of  the  trees,  he  shall  be  seized  by  a  sudden 
death,  and  carried  off  to  the  infernal  regions."  When  the 
miserable  man  was  told  this  prophecy  of  the  saint,  he  scorned 
and  laughed  at  him ;  and  when  some  days  of  the  autumn  months 
had  passed,  he  ordered  a  sow  that  had  been  fattened  on  the 
kernels  of  nuts  to  be  killed,  none  of  his  other  swine  having  yet 
been  slaughtered :  he  ordered  also,  that  its  entrails  should  be 
immediately  taken  out  and  a  piece  quickly  roasted  for  him  on 
the  spit,  so  that  by  hurrying  and  eating  of  it  thus  early,  he 
might  falsify  the  prediction  of  the  blessed  man.  As  soon  as  it 
was  roasted  he  asked  for  a  very  small  morsel  to  taste  it,  but 
before  the  hand  which  he  stretched  out  to  take  it  had  reached 
his  mouth  he  expired,  and  fell  down  on  his  back  a  corpse.  And 
all  who  saw  or  heard  it  were  greatly  astonished  and  terrified ; 
and  they  honoured  and  glorified  Christ  in  his  holy  prophet. 


CHAPTEE   XXV. 

Concerning  a  certain  other  impious  man,  a  persecutor  of  the 
Churches,  who  ivas  called  in  Latin  Manus  Dextera. 

ON  one  occasion  when  the  blessed  man  was  living  in  the  Hinba 
island  (Eilean-na-Naoimh),  and  set  about  excommunicating 
some  destroyers  of  the  churches,  and  amongst  them  the  sons  of 
Conall,  son  of  Domnall,  one  of  whom  was  the  Joan  before 
mentioned,  one  of  their  wicked  associates  was  instigated  by 
the  devil  to  rush  on  the  saint  with  a  spear,  on  purpose  to  kill 
him.  To  prevent  this,  one  of  the  brethren,  named  Findlugan, 
put  on  the  saint's  cowl  and  interposed,  being  ready  to  die 
for  the  holy  man.  But  in  a  wonderful  way  the  saint's  gar 
ment  served  as  a  kind  of  strong  and  impenetrable  fence 
which  could  not  be  pierced  by  the  thrust  of  a  very  sharp 


54  THE  LfFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II. 

spear  though  made  by  a  powerful  man,  but  remained  un 
touched,  and  he  who  had  it  on  was  safe  and  uninjured  under 
the  protection  of  such  a  guard.  But  the  ruffian  who  did  this, 
whose  name  was  Manus  Dextera,  retraced  his  steps  thinking  he 
had  transfixed  the  saint  with  his  spear.  Exactly  a  year  after 
wards,  when  the  saint  was  staying  in  the  louan  island  (Hy, 
now  lona),  he  said,  "  A  year  is  just  now  elapsed  since  the  day 
Lam-dess  did  what  he  could  to  put  Findlugan  to  death  in  my 
place  ;  but  he  himself  is  slain,  I  believe,  this  very  hour."  And 
so  it  happened,  at  that  very  moment,  according  to  the  revela 
tion  of  the  saint,  in  the  island  which  in  Latin  may  be  called 
Longa  (Luing),  where,  in  a  battle  fought  •  between  a  number  of 
men  on  both  sides,  this  Lam-dess  alone  was  slain  by  Cronan, 
son  of  Baithene,  with  a  dart,  shot,  it  is  said,  in  the  name  of 
St.  Coluniba ;  and  when  he  fell  the  battle  ceased. 


CHAPTER   XXVI. 

Of  yd  another  Oppressor  of  the  innocent. 

WHEN  the  holy  man,  while  yet  a  youth  in  deacon's  orders, 
was  living  in  the  region  of  the  Lagenians  (Leinster),  learning 
the  divine  wisdom,  it  happened  one  day^that  an  unfeeling  and 
pitiless  oppressor  of  the  innocent  was  pursuing  a  young  girl  who 
fled  before  him  on  a  level  plain.  As  she  chanced  to  observe  the 
aged  Gemman,  master  of  the  foresaid  young  deacon,  reading 
on  the  plain,  she  ran  straight  to  him  as  fast  as  she  could. 
Being  alarmed  at  such  an  unexpected  occurrence,  he  called 
on  Columba,  who  was  reading  at  some  distance,  that  both  to 
gether,  to  the  best  of  their  ability,  might  defend  the  girl  from 
her  pursuer ;  but  he  immediately  came  up,  and  without  any 
regard  to  their  presence,  stabbed  the  girl  with  his  lance  under 
their  very  cloaks,  and  leaving  her  lying  dead  at  their  feet 
turned  to  go  away  back.  Then  the  old  man,  in  great  affliction, 
turning  to  Columba,  said :  "  How  long,  holy  youth  Columba, 
shall  God,  the  just  Judge,  allow  this  horrid  crime  and  this 
insult  to  us  to  go  unpunished  ?"  Then  the  saint  at  once 
pronounced  this  sentence  on  the  perpetrator  of  the  deed: 
"  At  the  very  instant  the  soul  of  this  girl  whom  he  hath  mur 
dered  ascendeth  into  heaven,  shall  the  soul  of  the  murderer  go 
down  into  hell."  And  scarcely  had  he  spoken  the  words  when 
the  murderer  of  the  innocent,  like  Ananias  before  Peter,  fell 
down  dead  on  the  spot  before  the  eyes  of  the  holy  youth.  The 
news  of  this  sudden  and  terrible  vengeance  was  soon  spread 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II.  55 

abroad  throughout  many  districts  of  Scotia  (Ireland),  and  with 
it  the  wonderful  fame  of  the  holy  deacon. 

What  we  have  said  may  suffice  concerning  the  terrible  pun 
ishments  inflicted  on  those  who  were  opposed  to  him ;  we  will 
now  relate  a  few  things  regarding  wild  beasts. 


CHAPTEK  XXVII. 

How  a  Wild  Boar  was  destroyed  through  his  prayers. 

ON  one  occasion  when  the  blessed  man  was  staying  some  days 
in  the  Scian  island  (Sky),  he  left  the  brethren  and  went  alone 
a  little  farther  than  usual  to  pray ;  and  having  entered  a  dense 
forest  he  met  a  huge  wild  boar  that  happened  to  be  pursued  by 
hounds.  As  soon  as  the  saint  saw  him  at  some  distance,  he 
stood  looking  intently  at  him.  Then  raising  his  holy  hand 
and  invoking  the  name  of  God  in  fervent  prayer,  he  said  to  it, 
"  Thou  shalt  proceed  no  further  in  this  direction :  perish  in  the 
spot  which  thou  hast  now  reached."  At  the  sound  of  these 
words  of  the  saint  in  the  woods,  the  terrible  brute  was  not  only 
unable  to  proceed  farther,  but  by  the  efficacy  of  his  word  im 
mediately  fell  dead  before  his  face. 


CHAPTER   XXVIII. 

How  an  Aquatic  Monster  was  driven  off  ly  virtue  of  the  blessed 
man's  prayer. 

ON  another  occasion  also,  when  the  blessed  man  was  living 
for  some  days  in  the  province  of  the  Picts,  he  was  obliged  to  cross 
the  river  Nesa  (the  Ness) ;  and  when  he  reached  the  bank  of  the 
river,  he  saw  some  of  the  inhabitants  burying  an  unfortunate 
man,  who,  according  to  the  account  of  those  who  were  burying 
him,  was  a  short  time  before  seized,  as  he  was  swimming,  and 
bitten  most  severely  by  a  monster  that  lived  in  the  water  ;  his 
wretched  body  was,  though  too  late,  taken  out  with  a  hook,  by 
those  who  came  to  his  assistance  in  a  boat.  The  blessed  man, 
on  hearing  this,  was  so  far  from  being  dismayed,  that  he  directed 
one  of  his  companions  to  swim  over  and  row  across  the  coble 
that  was  moored  at  the  farther  bank.  And  Lugne  Mocumin 
hearing  the  command  of  the  excellent  man,  obeyed  without  the 


56  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II. 

least  delay,  taking  off  all  his  clothes,  except  his  tunic,  and  leap 
ing  into  the  water.  But  the  monster,  which,  so  far  from  being 
satiated,  was  only  roused  for  more  prey,  was  lying  at  the  bottom 
of  the  stream,  and  when  it  felt  the  water  disturbed  above  by  the 
man  swimming,  suddenly  rushed  out,  and,  giving  an  awful  roar, 
darted  after  him,  with  its  mouth  wide  open,  as  the  man  swam 
in  the  middle  of  the  stream.  Then  the  blessed  man  observing 
this,  raised  his  holy  hand,  while  all  the  rest,  brethren  as  well 
as  strangers,  were  stupefied  with  terror,  and,  invoking  the  name 
of  God,  formed  the  saving  sign  of  the  cross  in  the  air,  and  com 
manded  the  ferocious  monster,  saying,  "  Thou  shalt  go  no 
further,  nor  touch  the  man ;  go  back  with  all  speed."  Then  at 
the  voice  of  the  saint,  the  monster  was  terrified,  and  fled  more 
quickly  than  if  it  had  been  pulled  back  with  ropes,  though  it 
had  just  got  so  near  to  Lugne,  as  he  swam,  that  there  was  not 
more  than  the  length  of  a  spear-staff  between  the  man  and  the 
beast.  Then  the  brethren  seeing  that  the  monster  had  gone 
back,  and  that  their  comrade  Lugne  returned  to  them  in  the 
boat  safe  and  sound,  were  struck  with  admiration,  and  gave 
glory  to  God  in  the  blessed  man.  And  even  the  barbarous 
heathens,  who  were  present,  were  forced  by  the  greatness  of 
this  miracle,  which  they  themselves  had  seen,  to  magnify  the 
God  of  the  Christians. 


CHAPTEE   XXIX. 

How  the  Saint  Messed  the  Soil  of  this  Island  that  no  poison  of 
Serpents  should  henceforth  hurt  any  one  in  it. 

ON  a  certain  day  in  that  same  summer  in  which  he  passed 
to  the  Lord,  the  saint  went  in  a  chariot  to  visit  some  of  the 
brethren,  who  were  engaged  in  some  heavy  work  in  the  western 
part  of  the  louan  island  (Hy,  now  lona).  After  speaking  to 
them  some  words  of  comfort  and  encouragement,  the  saint  stood 
upon  the  higher  ground,  %and  uttered  the  following  prophecy : — 
"  My  dear  children,  I  know  that  from  this  day  you  shall  never 
see  my  face  again  anywhere  in  this  field."  Seeing  the  brethren 
filled  with  sorrow  upon  hearing  these  words,  the  saint  tried  to 
comfort  them  as  best  he  could ;  and,  raising  both  his  holy  hands, 
he  blessed  the  whole  of  this  our  island,  saying : — "  From  this 
very  moment  poisonous  reptiles  shall  in  no  way  be  able  to  hurt 
men  or  cattle  in  this  island,  so  long  as  the  inhabitants  shall 
continue  to  observe  the  commandments  of  Christ."  . 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II.  57 


CHAPTEE  XXX. 

Of  the  Knife  which  the  Saint  blessed  ly  signing  it  with  the 
Lord's  Cross. 

AT  another  time,  a  certain  brother  named  Molua,  grandson 
of  Brian,  came  to  the  saint  whilst  he  was  writing,  and  said  to 
him,  "  This  knife  which  I  hold  in  my  hand  I  beseech  thee  to 
bless."  The  saint,  without  turning  his  face  from  the  book  out 
of  which  he  was  writing,  extended  his  holy  hand  a  little, 
with  the  pen  in  it,  and  blessed  the  knife  by  signing  it.  But 
when  the  foresaid  brother  had  departed  with  the  knife  thus 
blessed,  the  saint  asked,  "  What  sort  of  a  knife  have  I  blessed 
for  that  brother?"  Diormit,  the  saint's  faithful  attendant, 
replied,  "  Thou  hast  blessed  a  knife  for  killing  bulls  or  oxen." 
The  saint  then,  on  the  contrary,  said,  "  I  trust  in  my  Lord  that 
the  knife  I  have  blessed  will  never  wound  men  or  cattle." 
This  word  of  the  holy  man  received  the  strongest  confirmation 
the  same  hour ;  for  the  same  brother  went  beyond  the  enclosure 
of  the  monastery  and  attempted  to  kill  an  ox,  but,  although  he 
made  three  strong  efforts  with  all  his  strength,  yet  he  could  not 
even  cut  the  skin.  When  this  came  to  the  knowledge  of  the 
monks,  they  skilfully  melted  down  the  iron  of  the  knife  and 
applied  a  thin  coating  of  it  to  all  the  iron  tools  used  in  the 
monastery.  And  such  was  the  abiding  virtue  of  the  saint's 
blessing,  that  these  tools  could  never  afterwards  inflict  a  wound 
on  flesh. 

CHAPTEE  XXXI. 

Of  the  cure  of  Diormit  when  sick. 

AT  another  time,  Diormit,  the  saint's  faithful  attendant,  was 
sick  even  unto  death,  and  the  saint  went  to  see  him  in  his 
extremity.  Having  invoked  the  name  of  Christ,  he  stood  at 
the  bed  of  the  sick  man  and  prayed  for  him,  saying,  "  0  my 
Lord,  be  propitious  to  me,  I  beseech  thee,  and  take  not  away 
the  soul  of  my  faithful  attendant  from  its  dwelling  in  the  flesh 
whilst  I  live."  Having  said  this,  he  remained  silent  for  a 
short  time,  and  then  again  he  spoke  these  words,  with  his  sacred 
mouth,  "  My  son  shall  not  only  not  die  at  present,  but  will  even 
live  for  many  years  after  my  death."  This  prayer  of  the  saint 
was  heard,  for,  on  the  instant  that  the  saint's  prayer  was  made, 
Diormit  was  restored  to  perfect  health,  and  lived  also  for  many 
years  after  St.  Columba  had  passed  to  the  Lord. 


58  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II. 


CHAPTEE  XXXII. 

Of  the  cure  of  Finten,  the  son  of  Aid,  when  at  the  point 
of  death. 

AT  another  time  also,  as  the  saint  was  making  a  journey 
beyond  the  Dorsal  Eidge  of  Britain  (Drumalban),  a  certain 
youth  named  Finten,  one  of  his  companions,  was  seized  with  a 
sudden  illness  and  reduced  to  the  last  extremity.  His  comrades 
were  much  afflicted  on  his  account,  and  besought  the  saint  to 
pray  for  him.  Yielding  at  once  to  their  entreaties,  Columba 
raised  his  holy  hands  to  heaven  in  earnest  prayer,  and  blessing 
the  sick  person,  said,  "  This  youth  for  whom  you  plead  shall 
enjoy  a  long  life ;  he  will  survive  all  who  are  here  present, 
and  die  in  a  good  old  age."  This  prophecy  of  the  blessed  man 
was  fulfilled  in  every  particular;  for  this  same  youth,  after 
founding  the  monastery  of  Kailli-au-inde  (not  identified),  closed 
this  present  life  at  a  good  old  age. 


CHAPTEE   XXXIII. 

Of  the  boy  whom  the  holy  man  raised  from  the  dead,  in  the 
name  of  the  Lord  Christ. 

AT  the  time  when  St.  Columba  was  tarrying  for  some  days 
in  the  province  of  the  Picts,  a  certain  peasant  who,  with  his 
whole  family,  had  listened  to  and  learned  through  an  inter 
preter  the  word  of  life  preached  by  the  holy  man,  believed  and 
was  baptized — the  husband,  together  with  his  wife,  children, 
and  domestics. 

A  very  few  days  after  his  conversion,  one  of  the  sons  of  this 
householder  was  attacked  with  a  dangerous  illness  and  brought 
to  the  very  borders  of  life  and  death.  When  the  Druids  saw 
him  in  a  dying  state  they  began  with  great  bitterness  to  up 
braid  his  parents,  and  to  extol  their  own  gods  as  more  power 
ful  than  the  God  of  the  Christians,  and  thus  to  despise  God  as 
though  He  were  weaker  than  their  gods.  When  all  this  was 
told  to  the  blessed  man,  he  burned  with  zeal  for  God,  and  pro 
ceeded  with  some  of  his  companions  to  the  house  of  the  friendly 
peasant,  where  he  found  the  afflicted  parents  celebrating  the 
obsequies  of  their  child,  who  was  newly  dead.  The  saint,  on 
seeing  their  bitter  grief,  strove  to  console  them  with  words  of 
comfort,  and  exhorted  them  not  to  doubt  in  any  way  the  omni 
potence  of  God.  He  then  inquired,  saying,  "  In  what  chamber 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II.  59 

is  the  dead  body  of  your  son  lying  ? "  And  being  conducted 
by  the  bereaved  father  under  the  sad  roof,  he  left  the  whole  crowd 
of  persons  who  accompanied  him  outside,  and  immediately 
entered  by  himself  into  the  house  of  mourning,  where,  falling 
on  his  knees,  he  prayed  to  Christ  our  Lord,  having  his  face 
bedewed  with  copious  tears.  Then  rising  from  his  kneeling 
posture,  he  turned  his  eyes  towards  the  deceased  and  said,  "  In 
the  name  of  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  arise,  and  stand  upon  thy 
feet."  At  the  sound  of  this  glorious  word  from  the  saint,  the 
soul  returned  to  the  body,  and  the  person  that  was  dead  opened 
his  eyes  and  revived.  The  apostolic  man  then  taking  him  by 
the  hand  raised  him  up,  and  placing  him  in  a  standing  position, 
led  him  forth  with  him  from  the  house,  and  restored  him  to  his 
parents.  Upon  this  the  cries  of  the  applauding  multitude 
broke  forth,  sorrow  was  turned  into  joy,  and  the  God  of  the 
Christians  glorified. 

We  must  thus  believe  that  our  saint  had  the  gift  of  miracles 
like  the  prophets  Elias  and  Eliseus,  and  like  the  apostles  Peter, 
Paul,  and  John,  he  had  the  honour  bestowed  on  him  of  raising 
the  dead  to  life,  and  now  in  heaven,  placed  amid  the  prophets 
and  apostles,  this  prophetic  and  apostolic  man  enjoys  a  glorious 
and  eternal  throne  in  the  heavenly  fatherland  with  Christ,  who 
reigns  with  the  Father  in  the  unity  of  the  Holy  Ghost  for  ever 
and  ever. 


CHAPTEE   XXXIV. 

Concerning  the  illness  with  which  the  Druid  Broichan  was  visited 
for  his  detention  of  a  female  slave,  and  his  cure  on  her  release. 

ABOUT  the  same  time  the  venerable  man,  from  motives  of 
humanity,  besought  Broichan  the  Druid  to  liberate  a  certain 
Scotic  female  slave,  and  when  he  very  cruelly  and  obstinately 
refused  to  part  with  her,  the  saint  then  spoke  to  him  to  the 
following  effect : — "  Know,  0  Broichan,  and  be  assured  that  if 
thou  refuse  to  set  this  captive  free,  as  I  desire  thee,  that  .thou 
shalt  die  suddenly  before  I  take  my  departure  again  from  this 
province."  Having  said  this  in  presence  of  Brude,  the  king, 
he  departed  from  the  royal  palace  and  proceeded  to  the  river 
Nesa  (the  Ness) ;  from  this  stream  he  took  a  white  pebble,  and 
showing  it  to  his  companions  said  to  them: — "Behold  this 
white  pebble  by  which  God  will  effect  the  cure  of  many  diseases 
among  this  heathen  nation." 

Having  thus  spoken,  he  instantly  added, "  Broichan  is  chas- 


60  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II. 

tised  grievously  at  this  moment,  for  an  angel  being  sent  from 
heaven,  and  striking  him  severely,  hath  broken  into  many  pieces 
the  glass  cup  in  his  hand  from  which  he  was  drinking,  and  hath 
left  him  gasping  deeply  for  breath,  and  half  dead.  Let  us  await 
here  a  short  time,  for  two  of  the  king's  messengers,  who  have 
been  sent  after  us  in  haste,  to  request  us  to  return  quickly  and 
help  the  dying  Broichan,  who,  now  that  he  is  thus  terribly  pun 
ished,  consenteth  to  set  the  girl  free." 

Whilst  the  saint  was  yet  speaking,  behold,  there  arrived,  as 
he  had  predicted,  two  horsemen  who  were  sent  by  the  king,  and 
who  related  all  that  had  occurred  to  Broichan  in  the  royal 
fortress,  according  to  the  prediction  of  the  saint — both  the 
breaking  of  the  drinking  goblet,  the  punishment  of  the  Druid, 
and  his  willingness  to  set  his  captive  at  liberty ;  they  then 
added :  "  The  king  and  his  friends  have  sent  us  to  thee  to 
request  that  thou  wouldst  cure  his  foster-father  Broichan,  who 
lieth  in  a  dying  state. 

Having  heard  these  words  of  the  messengers,  St.  Columba 
sent  two  of  his  companions  to  the  king  with  the  pebble  which 
he  had  blessed,  and  said  to  them  : — "  If  Broichan  shall  first  pro 
mise  to  set  the  maiden  free,  then  at  once  immerse  this  little 
stone  in  water,  and  let  him  drink  from  it  and  he  shall  be 
instantly  cured ;  but  if  he  break  his  vow  and  refuse  to  liberate 
her,  he  shall  die  that  instant." 

The  two  persons,  in  obedience  to  the  saint's  instructions,  pro 
ceeded  to  the  palace,  and  announced  to  the  king  the  words  of 
the  venerable  man.  When  they  were  made  known  to  the  king 
and  his  tutor  Broichan,  they  were  so  dismayed  that  they  imme 
diately  liberated  the  captive  and  delivered  her  to  the  saint's 
messengers.  The  pebble  was  then  immersed  in  water,  and  in 
a  wonderful  manner,  contrary  to  the  laws  of  nature,  the  stone 
floated  on  the  water  like  a  nut  or  an  apple,  nor,  as  it  had  been 
blessed  by  the  holy  man,  could  it  be  submerged.  Broichan 
drank  from  the  stone  as  it  floated  on  the  water,  and  instantly 
returning  from  the  verge  of  death  recovered  his  perfect  health 
and  soundness  of  body. 

This  remarkable  pebble,  which  was  afterwards  preserved 
among  the  treasures  of  the  king,  through  the  mercy  of  God 
effected  the  cure  of  sundry  diseases  among  the  people,  while  it 
in  the  same  manner  floated  when  dipped  in  water.  And  what 
is  very  wonderful,  when  this  same  stone  was  sought  for  by  those 
sick  persons  whose  term  of  life  had  arrived,  it  could  not  be 
found.  Thus,  on  the  very  day  on  which  King  Brude  died,  though 
it  was  sought  for,  yet  it  could  not  be  found  in  the  place  where 
it  had  been  previously  laid. 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLtJMBA.      BOOK  II.  61 


CHAPTER   XXXV. 

Of  the  manner  in  which  St.  Columba  overcame  Broichan  the  Druid 
and  sailed  against  the  wind. 

ON  a  certain  day  after  the  events  recorded  in  the  foregoing 
chapters,  Broichan,  whilst  conversing  with  the  saint,  said  to 
him  :  "  Tell  me,  Columba,  when  dost  thou  propose  to  set  sail  ?, " 
The  saint  replied,  "  I  intend  to  begin  my  voyage  after  three 
days,  if  God  permits  me,  and  preserves  my  life."  Broichan  said, 
"  On  the  contrary,  thou  shalt  not  be  able,  for  I  can  make  the 
winds  unfavourable  to  thy  voyage,  and  cause  a  great  darkness 
to  envelop  you  in  its  shade."  Upon  this  the  saint  observed : 
"  The  almighty  power  of  God  ruleth  all  things,  and  in  His  name 
and  under  His  guiding  providence  all  our  movements  are 
directed."  What  more  need  I  say  ?  That  same  day,  the  saint, 
accompanied  by  a  large  number  of  followers,  went  to  the  long 
lake  of  the  river  Nesa  (Loch  Ness),  as  he  had  determined.  Then 
the  Druids  began  to  exult,  seeing  that  it  had  become  very  dark, 
and  that  the  wind  was  very  violent  and  contrary.  Nor  should 
we  wonder,  that  God  sometimes  allows  them,  with  the  aid  of  evil 
spirits,  to  raise  tempests  and  agitate  the  sea.  For  thus  legions 
of  demons  once  met  in  the  midst  of  the  sea  the  holy  bishop 
Germanus,  whilst  on  his  voyage  through  the  Gallican  channel 
to  Britain,  whither  he  was  going  from  zeal  for  the  salvation  of 
souls,  and  exposed  him  to  great  dangers,  by  raising  a  violent 
storm  and  causing  great  darkness  whilst  it  was  yet  day.  But 
all  these  things  were  dissipated  by  the  prayers  of  St.  Ger 
manus  more  rapidly  than  his  words  were  uttered,  and  the  dark 
ness  passed  away. 

Our  Columba,  therefore,  seeing  that  the  sea  was  violently 
agitated,  and  that  the  wind  was  most  unfavourable  for  his  voy 
age,  called  on  Christ  the  Lord  and  embarked  in  his  small  boat ; 
and  whilst  the  sailors  hesitated,  he  the  more  confidently  ordered 
them  to  raise  the  sails  against  the  wind.  No  sooner  was  this 
order  executed,  while  the  whole  crowd  was  looking  on,  than  the 
vessel  ran  against  the  wind  with  extraordinary  speed.  And 
after  a  short  time,  the  wind,  which  hitherto  had  been  against 
them,  veered  round  to  help  them  on  their  voyage,  to  the  intense 
astonishment  of  all.  And  thus  throughout  the  remainder  of  that 
day  the  light  breeze  continued  most  favourable,  and  the  skiff  of 
blessed  man  was  carried  safely  to  the  wished-for  haven. 

Let  the  reader  therefore  consider  how  great  and  eminent  this 
venerable  man  must  have  been,  upon  whom  God  Almighty,  for 


G2  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II. 

the  purpose  of  manifesting  His  illustrious  name  before  a  heathen 
people,  bestowed  the  gift  of  working  such  miracles  as  those  we 
have  recorded. 


CHAPTEE    XXXVI. 

Of  the  sudden  opening  of  the  door  of  the  Royal  Fortress  of  its 
own  accord. 

AT  another  time,  when  the  saint  made  his  first  journey  to 
King  Brude,  it  happened  that  the  king,  elated  by  the  pride  of 
royalty,  acted  haughtily,  and  would  not  open  his  gates  on  the 
first  arrival  of  the  blessed  man.  When  the  man  of  God  observed 
this,  he  approached  the  folding  doors  with  his  companions,  and 
having  first  formed  upon  them  the  sign  of  the  cross  of  our 
Lord,  he  then  knocked  at  and  laid  his  hand  upon  the  gate,  which 
instantly  flew  open  of  its  own  accord,  the  bolts  having  been 
driven  back  with  great  force.  The  saint  and  his  companions 
then  passed  through  the  gate  thus  speedily  opened.  And  when 
the  king  learned  what  had  occurred,  he  and  his  councillors 
were  filled]  with  alarm,  and  immediately  setting  out  from  the 
palace,  he  advanced  to  meet  with  due  respect  the  blessed  man, 
whom  he  addressed  in  the  most  conciliating  and  respectful 
language.  And  ever  after  from  that  day,  so  long  as  he  lived, 
the  king  held  this  holy  and  reverend  man  in  very  great  honour, 
as  was  due. 


CHAPTEE    XXXVII. 

Of  a  similar  unclosing  of  the  Church  of  the  Field  of  the  Two 
Streams  (Tirdaglas,  in  the  county  of  Tipper  ary). 

UPON  another  occasion,  when  the  saint  was  staying  a  few 
days  in  Scotia  (Ireland),  he  went,  on  invitation,  to  visit  the 
brethren  in  the  monastery  of  the  Field  of  the  Two  Streams 
(Tirdaglas).  But  it  happened,  by  some  accident,  that  when  he 
arrived  at  the  church  the  keys  of  the  oratory  could  not  be  found. 
When  the  saint  observed  the  brethren  lamenting  to  one  another 
about  the  keys  being  astray,  and  the  door  locked,  he  went  him 
self  to  the  door  and  said,  "  The  Lord  is  able,  without  a  key, 
to  open  his  own  house  for  his  servants."  At  these  words,  the 
bolts  of  the  lock  were  driven  back  with  great  force,  and  the  door 
opened  of  itself.  The  saint  entered  the  church  before  all  with 
universal  admiration ;  and  he  was  afterwards  most  hospitably 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II.  03 

entertained  by  the  brethren,  and  treated  by  all  with  the  greatest 
respect  and  veneration. 


CHAPTEE    XXXVIII. 

Concerning  a  certain  Peasant  who  was  a  beggar,  for  whom  the 
Saint  made  and  blessed  a  stake  for  killing  wild  beasts. 

AT  another  time  there  came  to  St.  Columba  a  very  poor 
peasant,  who  lived  in  the  district  which  borders  the  shores  of 
the  Aporic  lake  (Lochaber).  The  blessed  man,  taking  pity  on 
the  wretched  man,  who  had  not  wherewithal  to  support  his 
wife  and  family,  gave  him  all  the  alms  he  could  afford,  and 
then  said  to  him,  "  Poor  man,  take  a  branch  from  the  neigh 
bouring  wood,  and  bring  it  to  me  quickly."  The  wretched  man 
brought  the  branch  as  he  was  directed,  and  the  saint,  taking  it 
in  his  own  hand,  sharpened  it  to  a  point  like  a  stake,  and, 
blessing  it,  gave  it  back  to  the  destitute  man,  saying,  "  Preserve 
this  stake  with  great  care,  and  it,  I  believe,  will  never  hurt 
men  or  cattle,  but  only  wild  beasts  and  fishes;  and  as  long  as 
thou  preservest  this  stake  thou  shalt  never  be  without  abund 
ance  of  venison  in  thy  house." 

The  wretched  beggar  upon  hearing  this  was  greatly  delighted, 
and  returning  home,  fixed  the  stake  in  a  remote  place  which 
was  frequented  by  the  wild  beasts  of  the  forest ;  and  when  that 
next  night  was  past,  he  went  at  early  morning  dawn  to  see  the 
stake,  and  found  a  stag  of  great  size  that  had  fallen  upon  it  and 
been  transfixed  by  it.  Why  should  I  mention  more  instances  ? 
Not  a  day  could  pass,  so  the  tradition  goes,  in  which  he  did  not 
find  a  stag  or  hind  or  some  other  wild  beast  fixed  upon  the 
stake ;  and  his  whole  house  being  thus  filled  with  the  flesh  of 
the  wild  beasts,  he  sold  to  his  neighbours  all  that  remained 
after  his  own  family  was  supplied.  But,  as  in  the  case  of 
Adam,  the  envy  of  the  devil  also  found  out  this  miserable  man 
also  through  his  wife,  who,  not  as  a  prudent  matron,  but  rather 
like  one  infatuated,  thus  spoke  to  her  husband :  "  Eemove  the 
stake  out  of  the  earth,  for  if  men,  or  cattle,  perish  on  it,  then 
thou  and  I  and  our  children  shall  be  put  to  death,  or  led  into 
captivity."  To  these  words  her  husband  replied,  "  It  will  not 
be  so,  for  when  the  holy  man  blessed  the  stake  he  said  it  would 
never  injure  men  or  cattle."  Still  the  miserable  man,  after 
saying  this,  yielded  to  his  wife,  and  taking  the  stake  out  of  the 
earth,  like  a  man  deprived  of  his  reason,  brought  it  into  the 
house  and  placed  it  against  the  wall.  Soon  after  his  house-dog 


64  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II. 

fell  upon  it  and  was  killed,  and  on  its  death  his  wife  said  to 
him,  "  One  of  thy  children  will  fall  upon  it  and  be  killed."  At 
these  words  of  his  wife  he  removed  the  stake  out  of  the  house, 
and  having  carried  it  to  a  forest,  placed  it  in  the  thickest  brush 
wood,  where,  as  he  thought,  no  animal  could  be  hurt  by  it ;  but 
upon  his  return  the  following  day  he  found  a  roe  had  fallen 
upon  it  and  perished.  He  then  took  it  away  and  concealed  it 
by  thrusting  it  under  the  water  in  the  edge  of  the  river,  which 
may  be  called  in  Latin  Mgra  Dea  (not  identified).  On  returning 
the  next  day  he  found  transfixed,  and  still  held  by  it,  a  salmon 
of  extraordinary  size,  which  he  was  scarcely  able  by  himself  to 
take  from  the  river  and  carry  home.  At  the  same  time,  he 
took  the  stake  again  back  with  him  from  the  water,  and  placed 
it  outside  on  the  top  of  his  house,  where  a  crow  having  soon 
after  lighted,  was  instantly  killed  by  the  force  of  the  fall. 
Upon  this  the  miserable  man,  yielding  again  to  the  advice  of 
his  foolish  wife,  took  down  the  stake  from  the  house-top,  and 
taking  an  axe  cut  it  in  many  pieces,  and  threw  them  into  the  fire. 
Having  thus  deprived  himself  of  this  effectual  means  of  alle 
viating  his  distress,  he  was  again,  as  he  deserved  to  be,  reduced 
to  beggary.  This  freedom  from  want  was  owing  to  the  stake, 
so  frequently  mentioned  above,  which  the  blessed  man  had 
blest  and  given  him,  and  which,  so  long  as  it  was  kept,  could 
suffice  for  snares  and  nets,  and  every  kind  of  fishing  and 
hunting ;  but  when  the  stake  was  lost,  the  wretched  peasant, 
though  he  had  been  enriched  for  the  time,  could  only,  when  too 
late,  lament  over  it  with  his  whole  family  all  the  rest  of  his 
life. 

CHAPTEK    XXXIX. 

Concerning  a  Leathern  Vessel  for  holding  milk  which  was  carried 
from  its  place  "by  the  ebb,  and  brought  back  again  by  the 
return  of  the  tide. 

ON  another  occasion,  when  the  blessed  man's  messenger,  who 
was  named  Lugaid,  and  surnamed  Laitir,  was  at  his  command 
making  preparations  for  a  voyage  to  Scotia  (Ireland),  he  searched 
for  and  found  amongst  the  sea-going^  articles  that  belonged  to 
the  saint's  ship  a  leathern  vessel  for  holding  milk.  This  vessel  he 
immersed  in  the  sea  in  order  to  moisten  it,  and  put  upon  it  stones 
of  considerable  size.  He  then  went  to  the  saint,  and  told  him 
what  he  had  done  with  the  leathern  bottle.  The  saint  smiled 
and  said,  "  I  do  not  think  that  this  vessel,  which  thou  sayest 
thou  hast  sunk  under  the  waves,  will  accompany  thee  to  Hibernia 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II.  65 

on  the  present  occasion."  "  Why,"  rejoined  Lugaid, "  can  I  not 
take  it  with  me  in  the  ship  ? "  The  saint  replied,  "  Thou  shalt 
learn  the  reason  to-morrow,  as  the  event  will  prove." 

On  the  following  morning,  therefore,  Lugaid  went  to  take  the 
vessel  out  of  the  sea,  but  the  ebb  of  the  tide  had  carried  it  away 
during  the  night.  When  he  could  not  find  it,  he  returned  in 
grief  to  the  saint,  and  on  his  bended  knees  on  the  ground  con 
fessed  his  negligence.  St.  Columba  consoled  him,  saying,  "  My 
brother,  grieve  not  for  perishable  things.  The  vessel  which 
the  ebbing  tide  has  carried  away  the  returning  tide  will,  after 
your  departure,  bring  back  to  the  spot  where  thou  didst  place 
it."  At  the  ninth  hour  of  the  same  day,  soon  after  the  de 
parture  of  Lugaid  from  the  louan  island  (Hy,  now  lona),  the 
saint  addressed  those  who  stood  near  him,  and  said,  "  Let  one 
of  you  now  go  to  the  sea,  for  the  leathern  vessel  for  which 
Lugaid  was  lamenting,  when  it  was  carried  away  by  the  ebbing 
tide,  hath  been  brought  back  by  the  returning  tide,  and  is  to 
be  found  at  the  place  from  which  it  was  taken."  Upon  hearing 
these  words  spoken  by  the  saint,  a  certain  active  youth  ran  to 
the  sea- shore,  where  he  found  the  vessel,  as  the  saint  had  pre 
dicted.  He  immediately  took  it  out  of  the  water,  and  with 
great  joy  hastened  back  at  full  speed  to  the  holy  man,  into 
whose  hands  he  delivered  it,  amid  the  great  admiration  of  all 
the  beholders. 

In  the  two  miracles  which  we  have  just  recorded,  and  which 
regard  such  common  and  trifling  things  as  a  wooden  stake  and 
a  leathern  vessel,  there  may,  nevertheless,  be  observed,  as  we 
noticed  before,  the  gift  of  prophecy  united  with  the  power  of 
working  miracles. 

Let  us  now  proceed  with  our  narrative  regarding  other  things. 


CHAPTER    XL. 

The  Saint's  prophecy  regarding  Libran,  of  the  Hush-ground. 

AT  another  time,  while  the  saint  was  living  in  the  louan 
island  (Hy,  now  lona),  a  certain  man  of  humble  birth,  who 
had  lately  assumed  the  clerical  habit,  sailed  over  from  Scotia 
(Ireland),  and  came  to  the  blessed  man's  monastery  on  the 
island.  The  saint  found  him  one  day  sitting  alone  in  the 
lodging  provided  for  strangers,  and  inquired  first  about  his 
country,  family,  and  the  object  of  his  journey.  He  replied  that 
he  was  born  in  the  region  of  the  Connacht  men  (Connaught), 
and  that  he  had  undertaken  that  long  and  weary  journey  to 

E 


66  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II. 

atone  for  his  sins  by  the  pilgrimage.  In  order  to  test  the  depth 
of  his  repentance,  the  saint  then  laid  down  minutely  before  his 
eyes  the  hardship  and  labour  attending  the  monastic  exercises. 
"  I  am  prepared,"  he  replied  at  once  to  the  saint,  "  to  do  every 
thing  whatever  thou  dost  bid  me,  however  hard  and  however 
humiliating."  Why  add  more  ?  That  same  hour  he  confessed 
all  his  sins,  and  promised,  kneeling  on  the  ground,  to  fulfil  the 
laws  of  penance.  The  saint  said  to  him,  "  Arise  and  take  a  seat." 
Then  he  thus  addressed  him  as  he  sat,  "  Thou  must  do  penance 
for  seven  years  in  the  Ethican  land  (Tiree) ;  thou  and  I,  with 
God's  blessing,  shall  survive  that  period  of  seven  years/'  Being 
comforted  by  the  saint's  words,  he  first  gave  thanks  to  God,  and 
turning  afterwards  to  the  saint,  asked,  "  What  am  I  to  do  with 
regard  to  an  oath  which  I  have  violated  ?  for  while  living  in  my 
own  country  I  murdered  a  certain  man,  and  afterwards,  as  guilty 
of  murdering  him,  I  was  confined  in  prison.  But  a  certain  very 
wealthy  blood-relation  came  to  my  aid,  and  promptly  loosing 
me  from  my  prison-chains,  rescued  me  from  the  death  to  which 
I  was  condemned.  When  I  was  released,  I  bound  myself  by 
oath  to  serve  that  friend  all  the  days  of  my  life ;  but  I  had 
remained  only  a  short  time  in  his  service,  when  I  felt  ashamed 
of.  serving  man,  and  very  much  preferred  to  devote  myself  to 
God.  I  therefore  left  that  earthly  master,  broke  the  oath,  and 
departing,  reached  thee  safely,  God  prospering  my  journey  thus 
far."  The  saint,  on  seeing  him  very  much  grieved  over  such 
things,  and  first  prophesying  with  respect  to  him,  thus  made 
answer,  saying,  "  At  the  end  of  seven  years,  as  I  said  to  thee, 
thou  shalt  come  to  me  here  during  the  forty  days  of  Lent,  and 
thou  shalt  approach  the  altar  and  partake  of  the  Eucharist  at 
the  great  Paschal  festival."  Why  hang  longer  over  words  ? 
The  penitent  stranger  in  every  respect  obeyed  the  saint's  com 
mands  ;  and  being  sent  at  that  time  to  the  monastery  of  the 
Plain  of  Lunge  (Magh  Lunge,  in  Tiree),  and  having  fully  com 
pleted  his  seven  years'  penance  there,  returned  to  him  during 
Lent,  according  to  the  previous  command  and  prophecy.  After 
celebrating  the  Paschal  solemnity,  and  coming  at  that  time  to 
the  altar  as  directed,  he  came  again  to  the  saint  to  consult  him 
on  the  above-mentioned  oath.  Then  the  saint  gave  this  prophetic 
answer  to  his  inquiry,  "  That  earthly  master  of  thine  of  whom 
thou  hast  formerly  spoken  is  still  living ;  so  are  thy  father,  thy 
mother,  and  thy  brethren.  Thou  must  now,  therefore,  prepare 
thyself  for  the  voyage."  And  while  speaking,  he  drew  forth  a 
sword  ornamented  with  carved  ivory,  and  said,  "  Take  this  gift 
to  carry  with  thee,  and  offer  it  to  thy  master  as  the  price  of 
thy  ransom  ;  but  when  thou  dost,  he  will  on  no  account  accept 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II.  C7 

it,  for  he  has  a  virtuous,  kindly-disposed  wife,  and  by  the 
influence  of  her  wholesome  counsel  he  shall  that  very  day, 
without  recompense  or  ransom,  set  thee  free,  unbinding  the 
girdle  round  thy  captive  loins.  But  though  thus  relieved  from 
this  anxiety,  thou  shalt  not  escape  a  source  of  disquietude 
arising  on  another  hand,  for  thy  brethren  will  come  round  and 
press  thee  to  make  good  the  support  due  to  thy  father  for  so 
long  a  time  which  thou  hast  neglected.  Comply  thou  at  once 
with  their  wish,  and  take  in  hand  dutifully  to  cherish  thine 
aged  father.  Though  the  duty  may,  indeed,  seem  weighty, 
thou  must  not  be  grieved  thereat,  because  thou  shalt  soon  be 
relieved  of  it ;  for  from  the  day  on  which  thou  shalt  take 
charge  of  thy  father,  the  end  of  that  same  week  shall  see  his 
death  and  burial.  But  after  thy  father's  burial  thy  brethren 
will  a  second  time  come  and  sharply  demand  of  thee  that  thou 
pay  the  expenses  due  for  thy  mother.  However,  thy  younger 
brother  will  assuredly  set  thee  free  from  this  necessity  by 
engaging  to  perform  in  thy  stead  every  duty  or  obligation 
which  thou  owest  to  thy  mother." 

Having  heard  these  words,  the  above-mentioned  brother, 
whose  name  was  Libran,  received  the  gift,  and  set  out  enriched 
with  the  saint's  blessing.  When  he  reached  his  native  country, 
he  found  everything  exactly  as  prophesied  by  the  saint.  For 
when  he  showed  and  made  offer  of  the  price  of  his  freedom  to 
his  master,  his  wife  opposed  his  wish  to  accept  it,  saying, 
"What  need  have  we  to  accept  this  ransom  sent  by  St. 
Columba  ?  We  are  not  even  worthy  of  such  a  favour.  Eelease 
this  dutiful  servant  without  payment.  The  prayers  of  the 
holy  man  will  profit  us  more  than  this  price  which  is  offered 
us."  The  husband,  therefore,  listening  to  his  wife's  wholesome 
counsel,  set  the  slave  free  at  once  without  ransom.  He  was 
afterwards,  according  to  the  saint's  prophecy,  compelled  by  his 
brethren  to  undertake  the  providing  for  his  father,  and  he 
buried  him  at  his  death  on  the  seventh  day.  After  his  burial 
they  required  him  to  discharge  the  same  duty  to  his  mother ; 
but  a  younger  brother,  as  the  saint  foretold,  engaged  to  supply 
his  place,  and  thus  released  him  from  the  obligation.  "We 
ought  not  on  any  account,"  said  he  to  his  brethren,  "  detain  this 
our  brother  at  home,  who,  for  the  salvation  of  his  soul,  has 
spent  seven  years  in  penitential  exercises  with  St.  Columba  in 
Britain." 

After  being  thus  released  from  the  matters  which  gave  him 
annoyance,  he  bade  farewell  to  his  mother  and  brothers,  and 
returned  a  free  man  to  a  place  called  in  the  Scotic  tongue  Daire 
Calgaich  (Derry).  There  he  found  a  ship  iinder  sail  just  leaving 


08  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II. 

the  harbour,  and  he  called  to  the  sailors  to  take  him  on  board 
and  convey  him  to  Britain.  But  they,  not  being  the  monks  of 
St.  Columba,  refused  to  receive  him.  He  then  prayed  to  the 
venerable  man,  who,  though  far  distant,  indeed,  in  body,  yet 
was  present  in  spirit,  as  the  event  soon  proved,  saying,  "  Is  it 
thy  will,  holy  Columba,  that  these  sailors,  who  do  not  receive 
me,  thy  companion,  proceed  upon  their  voyage  with  full  sails 
and  favourable  winds  ? " 

At  this  saying  the  wind,  which  till  then  was  favourable  for 
them,  veered  round  on  the  instant  to  the  opposite  point.  While 
this  was  taking  place,  the  sailors  saw  again  the  same  man 
running  in  a  line  with  them  along  the  bank  of  the  river,  and, 
hastily  taking  counsel  together,  they  cried  out  to  him  from  the 
ship,  saying,  "  Perhaps  the  wind  hath  suddenly  turned  against 
us,  for  this  reason,  that  we  refused  to  give  thee  a  passage ;  but 
if  even  now  we  were  to  invite  thee  to  be  with  us  on  board, 
couldst  thou  change  these  contrary  winds  to  be  in  our  favour  ? " 
When  the  pilgrim  heard  this,  he  said  to  them,  "  St.  Columba, 
to  whom  I  am  going,  and  whom  I  have  served  for  the  last  seven 
years,  is  able  by  prayer,  if  you  take  me  on  board,  to  obtain  a 
favourable  wind  for  you  from  his  Lord."  They  then,  on  hearing 
this,  approached  the  land  with  their  ship,  and  asked  him  to 
join  them  in  it.  As  soon  as  he  came  on  board,  he  said,  "  In  the 
name  of  the  Almighty  God,  whom  St.  Columba  blamelessly 
serveth,  spread  your  sails  on  the  extended  yards/'  And  when 
they  had  done  so,  the  gale  of  contrary  winds  immediately 
became  favourable,  and  the  vessel  made  a  prosperous  voyage 
under  full  sail  to  Britain.  After  reaching  the  shores  of  Britain, 
Libran  left  the  ship,  blessed  the  sailors,  and  went  directly  to  St. 
Columba,  who  was  staying  in  the  louan  island  (Hy,  now  lona). 
The  blessed  man  welcomed  him  with  joy,  and,  without  receiving 
the  information  from  any  one,  told  him  fully  of  everything  that 
happened  on  his  way — of  his  master  and  the  wife's  kindly 
suggestion,  and  of  his  being  set  free  by  her  advice ;  of  his 
brethren  also,  and  the  death  and  burial  of  his  father  within  the 
week ;  of  his  mother,  and  the  timely  assistance  of  the  younger 
brother ;  of  what  occurred  as  he  was  returning,  the  adverse  and 
favourable  winds ;  of  the  words  of  the  sailors  when  first  they 
refused  to  take  him  in;  of  the  promise  of  fair  wind,  and  of 
the  favourable  change  when  they  took  him  on  board  their 
vessel.  Why  need  I  add  more  ?  Every  particular  the  saint 
foretold  he  now  described  after  it  was  exactly  fulfilled. 

After  these  words,  the  traveller  gave  back  to  the  saint  the 
price  of  his  ransom  which  he  had  received  from  him ;  and  at 
the  same  time  the  saint  addressed  him  in  these  words  :  "  Inas- 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II.  69 

much  as  thou  art  free,  thou  shalt  be  called  Libran."  Libran 
took  at  the  same  period  the  monastic  vows  with  much  fervour. 
And  when  he  was  being  sent  back  again  by  the  holy  man  to  the 
monastery  where  he  had  formerly  served  the  Lord  during  the 
seven  years  of  penance,  he  received  in  farewell  the  following 
prophetic  announcement  regarding  himself : — "  Thou  shalt  live 
yet  a  long  time,  and  end  this  present  life  in  a  good  old  age ;  yet 
thou  shalt  not  arise  from  the  dead  in  Britain,  but  in  Scotia 
(Ireland)."  Hearing  these  words,  he  knelt  down  and  wept  bitterly. 
When  the  saint  saw  his  great  grief  he  tried  to  comfort  him, 
saying,  "  Arise,  and  be  not  sad.  Thou  shalt  die  in  one  of  my 
monasteries,  and  thy  lot  shall  be  among  my  chosen  monks  in 
the  kingdom ;  and  with  them  thou  shalt  awake  from  the  sleep 
of  death  unto  the  resurrection  of  life."  When  he  heard  this 
unusual  consolation  from  the  saint  he  rejoiced  exceedingly,  and, 
being  enriched  by  the  saint's  blessing,  went  away  in  peace. 
This  truthful  prophecy  of  the  saint  regarding  the  same  man 
was  afterwards  fulfilled ;  for  when  he  had  faithfully  served  the 
Lord  for  many  revolving  years  of  holy  obedience  in  the  monastery 
of  the  Plain  of  Lunge  (Magh  Lunge,  in  Tiree),  after  the  departure 
of  St.  Columba  from  the  world,  he  was  sent,  in  extreme  old  age, 
on  a  mission  to  Scotia  regarding  the  interests  of  the  monastery, 
and  proceeded  as  soon  as  he  landed  through  the  Plain  of  Breg 
(Maghbreg,  in  Meath),  till  he  reached  the  monastery  of  the  Oak- 
wood  Plain  (Derry).  Being  there  received  as  a  stranger  in  the 
guest-chamber,  and  suffering  from  a  certain  disease,  he  passed 
to  the  Lord  in  peace  on  the  seventh  day  of  his  illness,  and  was 
buried  with  the  chosen  monks  of  St.  Columba,  according  to  his 
prophecy,  to  await  the  resurrection  unto  eternal  life. 

Let  it  suffice  that  we  have  written  these  truthful  prophecies 
of  St.  Columba  regarding  Libran  of  the  Eush-ground.  He  was 
called  "  of  the  Rush-ground  "  from  his  having  been  engaged 
many  years  in  the  labour  of  collecting  rushes. 


CHAPTER    XLL 

Concerning  a  certain  little  Woman  who,  as  a  daughter  of  Eve, 
was  enduring  tJie  great  and  extremely  dangerous  pains  of 
Childbirth. 

ON  a  certain  day  during  the  saint's  stay  in  the  louan  island 
(Hy,  now  lona),  the  saint  arose  from  reading,  and  said  with  a 
smile,  "  I  must  now  hasten  to  the  oratory  to  pray  to  the  Lord 
on  behalf  of  a  poor  woman  in  Hibernia,  who  at  this  moment  is 


70  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II. 

suffering  the  pangs  of  a  most  difficult  childbirth,  and  is  calling 
upon  the  name  of  Columba.  She  trusteth  that  God  will  grant 
her  relief  from  her  sufferings  through  my  prayers,  because  she 
is  a  relation  of  mine,  being  lineally  descended  from  the  house  of 
my  mother's  parentage." 

Having  said  this,  the  saint,  being  touched  with  pity  for  the 
poor  woman,  hastened  to  the  church,  and,  on  his  bended  knees, 
earnestly  prayed  for  her  to  Christ,  who  was  Himself  by  birth 
a  partaker  of  humanity.  Eeturning  from  the  church  after  his 
prayer,  he  said  to  the  brethren  who  met  him,  "  The  Lord  Jesus, 
born  of  a  woman,  hath  given  seasonable  help  to  this  poor 
woman,  and  hath  mercifully  relieved  her  from  her  distress. 
She  hath  been  safely  delivered  of  a  child,  nor  shall  she  die 
upon  this  occasion/'  That  same  hour,  as  the  saint  had  pre 
dicted,  the  poor  woman,  by  invoking  his  name,  was  safely 
delivered,  and  restored  to  perfect  health,  as  we  afterwards 
learned  from  travellers  who  came  to  us  from  that  part  of  Scotia 
(Ireland)  where  the  woman  resided. 

CHAPTEE    XLII. 

Of  one  Imgne,  surnamed  Tuclida,  a  Pilot,  who  lived  on  the  Rech- 
rean  island  (either  Rathlin  or  Lamlay),  and  whom,  as  being 
deformed,  his  wife  hated. 

ANOTHER  time,  when  the  saint  was  living  on  the  Eechrean 
island,  a  certain  man  of  humble  birth  came  to  him  and  com 
plained  of  his  wife,  who,  as  he  said,  so  hated  him,  that  she 
would  on  no  account  allow  him  to  come  near  her  for  marriage 
rights.  The  saint  on  hearing  this,  sent  for  the  wife,  and,  so  far 
as  he  could,  began  to  reprove  her  on  that  account,  saying : 
"  Why,  0  woman,  dost  thou  endeavour  to  withdraw  thy  flesh 
from  thyself,  while  the  Lord  says,  '  They  shall  be  two  in  one 
flesh '  ?  Wherefore  the  flesh  of  thy  husband  is  thy  flesh."  She 
answered  and  said,  "  Whatever  thou  shalt  require  of  me  I  am 
ready  to  do,  however  hard  it  may  be,  with  this  single  exception, 
that  thou  dost  not  urge  me  in  any  way  to  sleep  in  one  bed  with 
Lugne.  I  do  not  refuse  to  perform  every  duty  at  home,  or,  if 
thou  dost  command  me,  even  to  pass  over  the  seas,  or  to  live  in 
some  monastery  for  women."  The  saint  then  said,  "  What  thou 
dost  propose  cannot  be  lawfully  done,  for  thou  art  bound  by  the 
law  of  the  husband  as  long  as  thy  husband  liveth,  for  it  would 
be  impious  to  separate  those  whom  God  has  lawfully  joined  to 
gether."  Immediately  after  these  words  he  added :  "  This  day 
let  us  three,  namely,  the  husband  and  his  wife  and  myself,  join 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II.  71 

in  prayer  to  the  Lord  and  in  fasting."  But  the  woman  replied : 
"  I  know  it  is  not  impossible  for  thee  to  obtain  from  God,  when 
thou  askest  them,  those  things  that  seem  to  us  either  difficult,  or 
even  impossible."  It  is  unnecessary  to  say  more.  The  husband 
and  wife  agreed  to  fast  with  the  saint  that  day,  and  the  follow 
ing  night  the  saint  spent  sleepless  in  prayer  for  them.  Next 
day  he  thus  addressed  the  wife  in  presence  of  her  husband,  and 
said  to  her :  "  0  woman,  art  thou  still  ready  to-day,  as  thou  saidst 
yesterday,  to  go  away  to  a  convent  of  women  ? "  "I  know 
now,"  she  answered,  "  that  thy  prayer  to  God  for  me  hath  been 
heard ;  for  that  man  whom  I  hated  yesterday,  I  love  to-day ;  for 
my  heart  hath  been  changed  last  night  in  some  unknown  way — 
from  hatred  to  love."  Why  need  we  linger  over  it  ?  From  that 
day  to  the  hour  of  death,  the  soul  of  the  wife  was  firmly 
cemented  in  affection  to  her  husband,  so  that  she  no  longer 
refused  those  mutual  matrimonial  rights  which  she  was  formerly 
unwilling  to  allow. 


CHAPTEK   XLIII. 

The  Prophecy  of  the  blessed  man  regarding  the  Voyage  of  Cormac 
the  grandson  of  Lethan. 

AT  another  time  a  soldier  of  Christ,  named  Cormac,  about 
whom  we  have  related  a  few  brief  particulars  in  the  first  part  of 
this  book,  made  even  a  second  attempt  to  discover  a  desert  in 
the  ocean.  After  he  had  gone  far  from  the  land  over  the 
boundless  ocean  at  full  sail,  St.  Columba,  who  was  then  staying 
beyond  the  Dorsal  Eidge  of  Britain  (Drumalban),  recommended 
him  in  the  following  terms  to  King  Brude,  in  the  presence  of  the 
ruler  of  the  Orcades  (Orkneys) :  "  Some  of  our  brethren  have 
lately  set  sail,  and  are  anxious  to  discover  a  desert  in  the  path 
less  sea ;  should  they  happen,  after  many  wanderings,  to  come 
to  the  Orcadian  islands,  do  thou  carefully  instruct  this  chief, 
whose  hostages  are  in  thy  hand,  that  no  evil  befall  them  within 
his  dominions."  The  saint  took  care  to  give  this  direction,  be 
cause  he  knew  that  after  a  few  months  Cormac  would  arrive  at 
the  Orcades.  So  it  afterwards  came  to  pass,  and  to  this  advice 
of  the  holy  man  Cormac  owed  his  escape  from  impending  death. 

After  the  lapse  of  a  few  months,  whilst  the  saint  was  remain 
ing  in  the  louan  island  (Hy,  now  lona),  Cormac's  name  was 
mentioned  one  day  unexpectedly  in  his  presence  by  some  per 
sons  in  conversation,  who  were  observing  that  it  was  not  yet 
known  whether  the  voyage  of  Cormac  had  been  successful  or 


72  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II. 

otherwise.  Upon  hearing  this,  the  saint  joined  the  conversa 
tion  and  said :  "  You  shall  see  Cormac,  about  whom  you  are 
now  speaking,  arrive  here  to-day." 

And  after  about  an  hour,  wonderful  to  relate,  lo  !  Cormac 
unexpectedly  arrived,  and  proceeded  to  the  oratory  whilst  all 
expressed  their  admiration  and  gave  thanks  to  God. 

Having  mentioned  thus  briefly  the  prediction  of  the  blessed 
man  regarding  Cormac's  second  voyage,  we  have  now  to  relate 
another  equally  remarkable  instance  of  the  holy  man's  prophetic 
knowledge  regarding  his  third  voyage. 

When  Cormac  was  laboriously  engaged  in  his  third  voyage 
over  the  ocean,  he  was  exposed  to  the  most  imminent  danger 
of  death.  For,  when  for  fourteen  days  in  summer,  and  as  many 
nights,  his  vessel  sailed  with  full  sails  before  a  south  wind,  in  a 
straight  course  from  land,  into  the  northern  regions,  his  voyage 
seemed  to  be  extended  beyond  the  limits  of  human  wanderings, 
and  return  to  be  impossible. 

Accordingly,  after  the  tenth  hour  of  the  fourteenth  day,  cer 
tain  dangers  of  a  most  formidable  and  almost  insurmountable 
kind  presented  themselves.  A  multitude  of  loathsome  and 
annoying  insects,  such  as  had  never  been  seen  before,  covered 
the  sea  in  swarms,  and  struck  the  keel  and  sides,  the  prow,  and 
stern  of  the  vessel,  so  very  violently,  that  it  seemed  as  if  they 
would  wholly  penetrate  the  leathern  covering  of  the  ship.  Ac 
cording  to  the  accounts  afterwards  given  by  those  who  were 
there,  they  were  about  the  size  of  frogs  ;  they  could  swim,  but 
were  not  able  to  fly ;  their  sting  was  extremely  painful,  and 
they  crowded  upon  the  handles  of  the  oars. 

When  Cormac  and  his  fellow-voyagers  had  seen  these  and 
other  monsters,  which  it  is  not  now  our  province  to  describe, 
they  were  filled  with  fear  and  alarm,  and,  shedding  copious 
tears,  they  prayed  to  God,  who  is  a  kind  and  ready  helper  of 
those  who  are  in  trouble.  At  that  same  hour  our  holy  Columba, 
although  far  away  in  body,  was  present  in  spirit  with  Cormac 
in  the  ship.  Accordingly  he  gave  the  signal,  and  calling  the 
brethren  to  the  oratory,  he  entered  the  church,  and  addressing 
those  who  were  present,  he  uttered  the  following  prophecy  in 
his  usual  manner  :  "  Brethren,  pray  with  all  your  usual  fervour 
for  Cormac,  who  by  sailing  too  far  hath  passed  the  bounds  of 
human  enterprise,  and  is  exposed  at  this  moment  to  dreadful 
alarm  and  fright,  in  the  presence  of  monsters  which  were  never 
before  seen,  and  are  almost  indescribable.  We  ought,  therefore, 
to  sympathize  with  our  brethren  and  associates  who  are  in  such 
imminent  danger,  and  to  pray  to  the  Lord  with  them  ;  behold 
at  this  moment  Cormac  and  his  sailors  are  shedding  copious 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II.  73 

tears,  and  praying  with  intense  fervency  to  Christ ;  let  us  assist 
them  by  our  prayers,  that  God  may  take  compassion  upon  us, 
and  cause  the  wind,  which  for  the  past  fourteen  days  has  blown 
from  the  south,  to  blow  from  the  north,  and  this  north  wind 
will,  of  course,  deliver  Cormac's  vessel  out  of  all  danger." 

Having  said  this  he  knelt  before  the  altar,  and  in  a  plaintive 
voice  poured  forth  his  prayers  to  the  almighty  power  of  God, 
who  governeth  the  winds  and  all  things.  After  having  prayed  he 
arose  quickly,  and  wiping  away  his  tears,  joyfully  gave  thanks 
to  God,  saying, "  Now,  brethren,  let  us  congratulate  our  dear 
friends  for  whom  we  have  been  praying,  for  God  will  now  change 
the  south  into  a  north  wind,  which  will  free  our  associates  from 
their  perils,  and  bring  them  to  us  here  again."  As  he  spoke 
the  south  wind  ceased,  and  a  north  wind  blew  for  many  days 
after,  so  that  Cormac's  ship  was  enabled  to  gain  the  land.  And 
Cormac  hastened  to  visit  Columba,  and  in  God's  bounty  they 
looked  on  each  other  again  face  to  face,  to  the  extreme  joy  and 
wonder  of  all.  Let  the  reader,  then,  carefully  consider  how  great 
and  of  what  a  character  the  blessed  man  must  have  been,  who 
possessed  such  prophetic  knowledge,  and  who,  by  invoking  the 
name  of  Christ,  could  rule  the  winds  and  the  waves. 


CHAPTEE    XLIV. 

How  the  venerable  man  made  a  Journey  in  a  Chariot  which  was 
not  secured  with  the  proper  linch-pins. 

AT  another  time,  while  the  saint  was  spending  a  few  days  in 
Scotia  (Ireland),  some  ecclesiastical  object  required  his  presence, 
and  accordingly  he  ascended  a  yoked  car  which  he  had  pre 
viously  blessed  ;  but  from  some  unaccountable  neglect  the 
requisite  linch-pins  were  not  inserted  in  the  holes  at  the  ex 
tremities  of  the  axles.  The  person  who  on  this  occasion  per 
formed  the  duty  of  driver  in  the  carriage  with  St.  Columba 
was  Columban,  a  holy  man,  the  son  of  Echud,  and  founder  of 
that  monastery  which  is  called  in  the  Scotic  language  Snam 
luthir  (now  Slanore,  in  Granard,  county  of  Longford).  The  dis 
tance  they  rode  that  day  was  very  long,  and  the  jolting  severe, 
yet  the  wheels  did  not  come  off  the  axles  nor  even  stir  from  their 
proper  places,  although,  as  was  mentioned  before,  there  were  no 
linch-pins  to  secure  them.  But  divine  grace  alone  so  favoured 
the  venerable  man  that  the  car  in  which  he  was  safely  seated 
proceeded  without  being  upset,  or  meeting  any  obstacle  to  retard 
its  progress. 


74  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II. 

Thus  far  we  may  have  written  enough  regarding  the  miracles 
which  the  divine  omnipotence  wrought  through  this  remarkable 
man  while  he  lived ;  we  shall  now  mention  also  a  few  out  of 
many  well- authenticated  miracles  which  the  Lord  was  pleased 
to  grant  to  him  after  his  death. 


CHAPTEE   XLV. 

Of  the  Eain  which,  after  some  months  of  drought,  the  Lord  boun 
tifully  poured  out  upon  the  earth  in  honour  of  the  blessed 
man. 

ABOUT  fourteen  years  before  the  date  at  which  we  write, 
there  occurred  during  the  spring  a  very  great  and  long-continued 
drought  in  these  marshy  regions,  insomuch  that  the  threat 
denounced  against  sinners  in  the  Book  of  Leviticus  seemed  to 
impend  over  the  people  :  "  I  will  give  to  you  the  heaven  above 
as  iron,  and  the  earth  as  brass.  Your  labour  shall  be  spent  in 
vain,  the  ground  shall  not  bring  forth  her  increase,  nor  the  trees 
their  fruit,"  etc. 

We  therefore,  reading  these  words,  and  fearing  the  impend 
ing  calamity,  took  counsel  together,  and  resolved  that  some  of 
the  senior  members  of  the  community  should  walk  round  a 
newly  ploughed  and  sowed  field,  taking  with  them  the  white 
tunic  of  St.  Columba,  and  some  books  written  in  his  own  hand, 
that  they  should  raise  in  the  air,  and  shake  three  times  the 
tunic  which  the  saint  wore  at  the  hour  of  his  death  ;  and  that 
they  then  should  open  the  books  and  read  them  on  the  little  hill 
of  the  angels  (now  called  Sithean  Mor),  where  the  citizens  of 
the  heavenly  country  were  occasionally  seen  to  descend  at  the 
bidding  of  the  blessed  man.  When  these  directions  had  been 
executed  in  the  manner  prescribed,  then,  strange  to  relate,  the 
sky,  which  during  the  preceding  months  of  March  and  April 
had  been  cloudless,  was  suddenly  covered  with  dense  vapours 
that  arose  from  the  sea  with  extraordinary  rapidity;  copious 
rain  fell  day  and  night,  and  the  parched  earth  being  sufficiently 
moistened,  produced  its  fruits  in  good  season,  and  yielded  the 
same  year  a  most  abundant  harvest.  And  thus  the  invocation 
of  the  very  name  of  the  blessed  man,  by  the  exhibition  of  his 
tunic  and  books,  obtained  seasonable  relief  at  the  same  time 
for  many  places  and  much  people. 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II. 


CHAPTER   XLVL 

Of  the  unfavourable  Winds  which,  through  the  intercession  of  our 
Saint,  were  changed  into  propitious  breezes. 

OUK  belief  in  the  miracles  which  we  have  recorded,  but  which 
we  did  not  ourselves  see,  is  confirmed  beyond  doubt  by  the 
miracles  of  which  we  were  eye-witnesses ;  for  on  three  different 
occasions  we  saw  unfavourable  gales  of  wind  changed  unto  pro 
pitious  breezes. 

On  the  first  occasion  we  had  to  draw  over  land  long  boats  of 
hewn  pine  and  oak,  and  to  bring  home  in  the  same  way  a  large 
quantity  of  materials  for  building  ships.  In  order  to  obtain  from 
the  Lord  a  favourable  wind  for  our  voyage,  we  took  counsel  and 
put  the  books  and  garments  of  the  blessed  man  upon  the  altar, 
and  at  the  same  time  fasted,  chanted  psalms,  and  invoked  his 
name.  And  this  was  granted  to  the  holy  man  by  God's  favour, 
for  on  the  day  that  our  sailors  had  made  all  their  preparations, 
and  were  ready  to  convey  the  wood  for  the  purposes  above 
mentioned  in  curachs  and  skiffs,  the  wind,  which  for  several 
days  before  had  been  contrary,  suddenly  changed  into  favourable 
breezes.  They  blew  steadily  the  entire  day,  by  God's  blessing, 
and  enabled  the  whole  fleet  of  boats  to  make  their  long  and 
dangerous  passage  to  the  louan  island  (Hy,  now  lona),  with 
safety  and  expedition. 

On  the  second  occasion,  which  was  a  few  years  after  the  one 
just  mentioned,  our  monastery  was  requiring  repairs,  and  some 
oak-trees  were  to  be  taken  from  near  the  mouth  of  the  river 
Sale  (the  Seil,  in  Lorn),  in  twelve  vessels  which  we  brought  for 
the  purpose.  Our  sailors  then  rowed  out  to  sea  with  their 
oars,  the  day  being  calm  and  the  sea  tranquil,  when  suddenly 
a  westerly  wind,  which  is  also  called  Zephyr,  sprang  up,  and 
we  betook  ourselves  to  the  nearest  island,  which  is  called  in 
Scotic  Airthrago  (probably  Kerrera),  to  seek  for  shelter  in  a 
harbour  in  it. 

But  in  the  meantime  we  began  to  complain  of  this  unfavour 
able  change  in  the  wind,  and  in  some  measure  even  to  blame 
our  Columba,  saying,  "  Doth  our  unfortunate  detention  in  this 
place  please  thee,  0  saint  ?  Hitherto  we  had  hoped  that  we 
might  receive  from  thee  some  aid  and  comfort  in  our  labours 
through  the  divine  favour,  seeing  we  thought  that  thou  wert 
honoured  and  powerful  in  the  sight  of  God." 

No  sooner  had  we  thus  spoken,  than,  wonderful  to  relate, 


76  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II. 

the  unfavourable  west  wind  ceased,  and  immediately,  in  the 
course  as  it  were  of  one  minute,  behold  a  most  favourable 
south-eastern  breeze  sprang  up.  The  sailors  were  then  directed 
to  raise  the  sail  yards  in  the  form  of  a  cross,  and  spread  the 
sails  upon  them ;  thus  putting  to  sea  with  a  steady  and  favour 
able  breeze,  we  were  enabled,  without  the  slightest  fatigue,  to 
reach  our  island  that  same  day,  rejoicing  in  our  cargo  of  wood, 
and  in  the  company  of  all  who  were  engaged  in  assisting  us  in 
the  ships.  Thus  the  chiding  with  the  holy  man,  slight  though 
it  was,  in  that  complaint  assisted  us  not  a  little  ;  and  in  what 
and  how  great  esteem  the  saint  is  held  by  the  Lord  is  evident 
from  His  hearing  him  so  quickly  and  changing  the  winds. 

Then  the  third  instance  was  in  the  summer,  after  the  cele 
bration  of  a  synod  in  Hibernia,  when  we  were  detained  by 
contrary  winds  for  a  few  days  among  the  people  of  the  tribe  of 
Loern  (Lorn),  and  had  reached  the  Sainean  island  (Shuna). 
There  the  vigil  and  the  feast  of  St.  Columba  found  us  extremely 
sad  and  disconsolate,  because  we  wished  to  celebrate  that  joyous 
day  in  the  louan  island  (Hy,  now  lona).  Accordingly,  as  on  a 
former  occasion,  we  began  to  complain  and  to  say,  "  Is  it  agree 
able  to  thee,  O  saint,  that  we  should  spend  to-morrow,  thy 
festival-day,  among  strangers,  and  not  celebrate  it  in  thine  own 
church  ?  It  is  easy  for  thee  in  the  morning  of  such  a  day  to 
obtain  from  the  Lord  that  the  contrary  winds  may  become 
favourable,  and  that  we  may  be  able  to  celebrate  the  solemn 
mass  of  thy  birth  in  thine  own  church.  On  the  following 
morning  we  arose  at  daybreak,  and  seeing  that  the  adverse 
winds  had  ceased,  we  went  on  board  our  vessels  and  put  to  sea 
in  a  profound  calm,  when,  lo  !  there  suddenly  sprung  up  a 
south  wind,  which  was  most  favourable  for  the  voyage.  The 
sailors  then  joyously  raised  the  sails,  and  on  this  occasion  also 
without  any  exertion  on  our  part,  so  quick  and  so  favourable 
was  our  passage,  owing  to  the  mercy  of  God  to  the  blessed 
man,  that  we  reached  the  landing-place  of  the  louan  island 
(Hy,  now  lona),  after  the  third  hour,  according  to  our  previous 
anxious  desire.  After  washing  our  hands  and  feet  we  entered 
the  church  at  the  sixth  hour  in  company  with  our  brethren, 
and  celebrated  at  once  the  holy  services  of  the  mass  of  St. 
Columba  and  St.  Baithene,  whose  festivals  occurred  on  that 
day,  at  the  daybreak  of  which,  as  we  said  above,  we  started 
from  the  distant  Sainean  island  (Shuna). 

And  as  to  the  truth  of  this  story  I  have  now  related,  there 
are  yet  living,  not  merely  one  or  two  witnesses  as  the  law 
requires,  but  hundreds  and  more  who  can  bear  testimony. 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  II.  77 

CHAPTEE   XLVII. 

Concerning  the  Plague. 

WHAT  we  are  about  to  relate  concerning  the  plague,  which 
in  our  own  time  twice  visited  the  greater  part  of  the  world, 
deserves,  I  think,  to  be  reckoned  among  not  the  least  of  the 
miracles  of  St.  Columba.  For,  not  to  mention  the  other  and 
greater  countries  of  Europe,  including  Italy,  the  Eoman  States, 
and  the  Cisalpine  provinces  of  Gaul,  with  the  States  of  Spain 
also,  which  lie  beyond  the  Pyrenees,  these  islands  of  the  sea, 
Scotia  (Ireland)  and  Britain,  have  twice  been  ravaged  by  a 
dreadful  pestilence  throughout  their  whole  extent,  except  among 
the  two  tribes,  the  Picts  and  Scots  of  Britain,  who  are  separated 
from  each  other  by  the  Dorsal  mountains  of  Britain.  And 
although  neither  of  these  nations  was  free  from  those  grievous 
crimes  which  generally  provoke  the  anger  of  the  eternal  Judge, 
yet  both  have  been  hitherto  patiently  borne  with  and  mercifully 
spared.  Now,  to  what  other  person  can  this  favour  granted 
them  by  God  be  attributed  unless  to  St.  Columba,  whose 
monasteries  lie  within  the  territories  of  both  these  people,  and 
have  been  regarded  by  both  with  the  greatest  respect  up  to  the 
present  time  ?  But  what  I  am  now  to  say  cannot,  I  think,  be 
heard  without  a  sigh,  that  there  are  many  very  stupid  people 
in  both  countries  who,  in  their  ignorance  that  they  owe  their 
exemption  from  the  plague  to  the  prayers  of  the  saint,  ungrate 
fully  and  wickedly  abuse  the  patience  and  the  goodness  of 
God.  But  I  often  return  my  most  grateful  thanks  to  God 
for  having,  through  the  intercession  of  our  holy  patron,  pre 
served  me  and  those  in  our  islands  from  the  ravages  of  the 
pestilence ;  and  that  in  Saxonia  also,  when  I  went  to  visit  my 
friend  King  Aldfrid,  where  the  plague  was  raging  and  laying 
waste  many  of  his  villages,  yet  both  in  its  first  attack,  imme 
diately  after  the  war  of  Ecfridus,  and  in  its  second,  two  years 
subsequently,  the  Lord  mercifully  saved  me  from  danger, 
though  I  was  living  and  moving  about  in  the  very  midst  of 
the  plague.  The  Divine  mercy  was  also  extended  to  my  com 
panions,  not  one  of  whom  died  of  the  plague,  or  was  attacked 
with  any  other  disease. 

Here  must  end  the  second  Book  recording  the  miracles,  and 
it  is  right  for  me  to  draw  attention  to  the  fact,  that  many  well- 
authenticated  miracles  have  been  omitted  in  order  not  to  fatigue 
the  reader. 

Here  endeth  the  Second  Book. 


BOOK  III. 

HERE  BEGINNETH  THE  THIRD  BOOK. 

OF   THE   VISIONS    OF   ANGELS. 


CHAPTEE   I. 

IN  the  first  of  these  three  little  Books  we  have,  under  the 
guidance  of  God,  shortly  and  concisely  related,  as  was  observed 
before,  some  of  the  prophetic  revelations.  In  the  second  we  have 
recorded  the  powerful  miracles  the  blessed  man  wrought,  which, 
as  we  have  often  observed,  were  generally  accompanied  with 
the  gift  of  prophecy.  But  in  this  third  Book,  which  treateth 
of  the  Apparitions  of  Angels,  we  shall  relate  those  which  either 
our  saint  received  regarding  others,  or  others  saw  regarding 
him ;  we  shall  also  describe  some  which  were  manifested  to 
both  parties,  though  in  different  measure,  that  is,  to  the  saint 
himself,  specially  and  clearly,  but  to  the  others  improperly  and 
partially,  or,  in  other  words,  externally  and  tentatively,  yet  in 
the  same  visions  either  of  angels,  or  of  heavenly  light.  What 
ever  discrepancies  however  in  any  case  may  at  first  sight  seem 
to  occur  in  those  visions,  will  be  completely  removed  as  we 
proceed  to  relate  them  in  their  proper  places.  But  now  we 
must  begin  at  the  very  birth  of  the  blessed  man,  and  relate 
these  angelic  manifestations. 


CHAPTER   II. 

ON  a  certain  night  between  the  conception  and  birth  of  the 
venerable  man,  an  angel  of  the  Lord  appeared  to  his  mother  in 
dreams,  bringing  to  her,  as  he  stood  by  her,  a  certain  robe  of 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  III. 

extraordinary  beauty,  in  which  the  most  beautiful  colours,  as  it 
were,  of  all  the  flowers  seemed  to  be  portrayed.  After  a  short 
time  he  asked  it  back,  and  took  it  out  of  her  hands,  and  having 
raised  it  and  spread  it  out,  he  let  it  fly  through  the  air.  But 
she  being  sad  at  the  loss  of  it,  said  to  that  man  of  venerable 
aspect,  "  Why  dost  thou  take  this  lovely  cloak  away  from  me 
so  soon  ?"  He  immediately  replied,  " Because  thisjjiantleisjp 
exceedingly  honourable  that  thou  canst  not  retain  it  longer  with 
thee."  When  this  was  said,  the  woman  saw  that  the  fore-men 
tioned  robe  was  gradually  receding  from  her  in  its  flight ;  and 
that  then  it  expanded  until  its  width  exceeded  the  plains,  and  in 
all  its  measurements  was  larger  than  the  mountains  and  forests. 
Then  she  heard  the  following  words  :  "  Woman,  do  not  grieve, 
for  to  the  man  to  whom  thou  hast  been  joined  by  the  marriage 
bond,  thou  shalt  bring  forth  a  son,  of  so  beautiful  a  character,  that 
he  shall  be  reckoned  among  his  own  people  as  one  of  the  pro 
phets  of  God,  and  hath  been  predestined  by  God  to  be  the  leader 
of  innumerable  souls  to  the  heavenly  country."  At  these  words 
the  woman  awoke  from  her  sleep. 


CHAPTER   III. 

Of  the  Ray  of  Light  which  was  seen  upon  the  loy'sface  as 
he  lay  asleep. 

ON  another  night,  Cruithnecan,  a  priest  of  blameless  life,  to 
whose  care  the  blessed  youth  was  confided,  upon  returning  home 
from  the  clmrch  after  mass,  found  his  house  illuminated  with  a 
brighJLiight^ancL  saw  in  fact  a  ball  of  fire  standing  over  the 
face  of_theJlittle  boy  as  he  lay  asleep.  At  the  sight  he  at  once 
shook  with  fear,  and  fell  down  with  his  face  to  the  ground  in 
great  amazement,  well  knowing  that  it  indicated  the  grace  of 
the  Holy  Spirit  poured  out  from  heaven  upon  his  young 
charge. 


CHAPTER    IV. 

Of  the  Apparition  of  Holy  Angels  whom  St.  Brenden  saw 
accompanying  the  blessed  man  through  the  plain. 


FOR  indeed    after    the   lapse    of    many  years,  when   St. 

some 
as  it 


»»w»  VAAV^         .lUiLJOVs          wi.          JlldXJ.  V  Y  V./Cvi.O«         Wilv/i- 

Columba  was  excommunicated  by  a  certain  synod  for  some 
pardonable  and  very  trifling  reasons,  and  indeed  unjustly, 


80  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  III. 

afterwards  appeared  at  the  end,  he  came  to  the  same  meeting 
convened  against  himself.  When  St.  Brenden,  the  founder  of 
the  monastery  which  in  the  Scotic  language  is  called  Birra  (Birr, 
in  King's  County),  saw  him  approaching  in  the  distance,  he 
quickly  arose,  and  with  head  bowed  down  reverently  kissed  him. 
When  some  of  the  seniors  in  that  assembly,  going  apart  from  the 
rest,  were  finding  fault  with  him,  and  saying  :  "  Why  didst  thou 
not  decline  to  rise  in  presence  of  an  excommunicated  person,  and 
to  kiss  him  ?"  he  replied  to  them  in  this  wise  :  "  If,"  said  he, 
"  you  had  seen  what  the  Lord  has  this  day  thought  fit  to  show 
to  me  regarding  this  his  chosen  one,  whom  you  dishonour,  you 
would  never  have  excommunicated  a  person  whom  God  not  only 
doth  not  excommunicate,  according  to  your  unjust  sentence,  but 
even  more  and  more  highly  esteemeth."  "  How,  we  would  wish  to 
know,"  said  they  in  reply,  "  doth  God  exalt,  as  thou  sayest,  on-} 
whom  we  have  excommunicated,  not  without  reason  ? "  "I 
have  seen,"  said  Brenden,  "  a  most  brilliant  pillar  wreathed  with 
fiery  tresses  preceding  this  same  man  of  God  whom  you  treat 
with  contempt ;  I  have  also  seen  holy  angels  accompanying  him 
on  his  journey  through  the  plain.  Therefore  I  do  not  dare  to 
slight  him  whom  I  see  foreordained  by  God  to  be  the  leader  of 
his  people  to  life."  When  he  said  this,  they  desisted,  and  so  far 
from  daring  to  hold  the  saint  any  longer  excommunicated,  they 
even  treated  him  with  the  greatest  respect  and  reverence.  This 
took  place  in  Teilte  (Taillte,  now  Teltown,  in  Meath). 


CHAPTER   V. 

Of  the  Angel  of  the  Lord  which  St.  Finnio  saw  accompanying 
the  blessed  man  in  his  journey. 

ON  another  occasion  the  holy  man  went  to  the  venerable 
Bishop  Finnio,  who  had  formerly  been  his  preceptor, — the  youth 
to  visit  the  man  far  advanced  in  years.  When  St.  Finnio  saw 
him  coming  to  him,  he  observed  also  an  angel  of  the  Lord 
accompanying  him,  as  he  proceeded,  and  as  it  is  handed  down 
to  us  by  well-informed  persons,  he  made  it  known  to  certain 
brethren  who  were  standing  by,  saying  to  them  :  "  Behold,  look 
now  to  Columba  as  he  draweth  near;  he  hath  been  deemed 
worthy  of  having  an  angelic  inhabitant  of  heaven  to  be  his 
companion  in  his  wanderings."  About  that  same  time  the 
holy  man,  with  his  twelve  disciples  and  fellow-soldiers,  sailed 
across  to  Britain. 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMUA.      BOOK  III.  83 


CHAPTER   VIII. 

Concerning  the  Vision  of  Any  els  vouchsafed  the  same  holy  man 
when  they  were  "bearing  to  heaven  the  soul  of  one  named 
Diormit. 

AT  another  time  a  stranger  from  Hibernia  came  to  the  saint 
and  remained  with  him  for  some  months  in  the  louan  island 
(Hy,  now  lona).  The  blessed  man  one  day  said  to  him :  "  One 
of  the  clerics  of  thy  province,  whose  name  I  do  not  yet  know, 
is  being  carried  to  heaven  by  the  angels  at  this  moment." 
Then  the  brother,  upon  hearing  this,  began  to  search  within 
himself  regarding  the  province  of  the  Anterii  (Airthir),  which 
is  called  in  Scotic  Indairthir  (East  Oriel,  in  Ulster),  and  also 
about  the  name  of  that  blessed  man,  and  in  due  course  thus 
expressed  himself,  saying :  "  I  know  a  soldier  of  Jesus  Christ, 
named  Diormit,  who  built  a  small  monastery  in  the  same 
district  where  I  dwelt."  The  saint  said  to  him,  "  He  of  whom 
thou  speakest  is  the  very  person  who  hath  been  carried  into 
Paradise  by  the  angels  of  God." 

But  this  fact  must  be  very  carefully  noted,  that  our  venerable 
man  was  most  careful  to  conceal  from  the  knowledge  of  men 
many  mysterious  secrets  which  were  concealed  from  others,  but 
revealed  to  him  by  God,  and  this  he  did  for  two  reasons,  as  he 
one  day  hinted  to  a  few  of  the  brethren ;  first,  that  he  might 
avoid  vain-glory,  and  secondly  that  he  might  not,  by  the  fame 
of  his  revelations  being  spread  abroad,  attract,  to  make  inquiries 
at  him,  innumerable  crowds  who  were  anxious  to  ask  some 
questions  regarding  themselves. 


CHAPTER  IX. 

Of  the  brave  fight  of  the  Angels  against  the  Demons,  and  how  they 
opportunely  assisted  the  Saint  in  the  same  conflict. 

ON  another  day  while  the  holy  man  was  living  in  the  louan 
island  (Hy,  now  lona),  he  went  to  seek  in  the  woods  for  a 
place  more  remote  from  men  and  fitting  for  prayer.  And  there 
when  he  began  to  pray,  he  suddenly  beheld,  as  he  afterwards 
told  a  few  of  the  brethren,  a  very  black  host  of  demons  fighting 
against  him  with  iron  darts.  These  wicked  demons  wished,  as 
the  Holy  Spirit  revealed  to  the  saint,  to  attack  his  monastery 
and  kill  with  the  same  spears  many  of  the  brethren.  But  he, 


82  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  III. 

Hibernia,  the  scourge  which  I  suffered  on  thy  account  from 
the  angel  shall  bring  great  disgrace  upon  them  by  the  hand  of 
God,  and  the  hearts  of  men  shall  be  turned  away  from  them, 
and  their  foes  shall  be  greatly  strengthened  against  them." 
Now  this  prophecy  hath  been  fulfilled  in  our  own  times  in  the 
battle  of  Roth  (Magh  Rath,  fought  637),  in  which  Domnall 
Brecc,  the  grandson  of  Aidan,  ravaged  without  the  slightest 
provocation  the  territory  of  Domnall,  the  grandson  of  Ain- 
muireg.  And  from  that  day  to  this  they  have  been  trodden 
down  by  strangers — a  fate  which  pierces  the  heart  with  sighs 
and  grief. 


CHAPTER   VII. 

Of  the  Apparition  of  Angels  carrying  to  heaven  the  soul  of 
the  blessed  Brito. 

AT  another  time  while  the  holy  man  was  tarrying  in  the 
louan  island  (Hy,  now  lona),  one  of  his  monks  called  Brito, 
a  person  given  to  all  good  works,  being  seized  with  bodily  ill 
ness,  was  reduced  to  the  last  extremity.  When  the  venerable 
man  went  to  visit  him  at  the  hour  of  his  departure,  he  stood 
for  a  few  moments  at  his  bedside,  and  after  giving  him  his 
blessing,  retired  quickly  from  the  house,  not  wishing  to  see 
him  die,  and  the  very  moment  after  the  holy  man  left  the 
house  the  monk  closed  this  present  life. 

Then  the  eminent  man  walking  in  the  little  court  of  his 
monastery,  with  his  eyes  upraised  to  heaven,  was  for  a  long 
time  lost  in  wonder  and  admiration.  But  a  certain  brother 
named  Aidan,  the  son  of  Libir,  a  truly  virtuous  and  religious 
man,  who  was  the  only  one  of  the  brethren  present  at  the  time, 
fell  upon  his  knees  and  asked  the  saint  to  tell  him  the  reason 
of  so  great  astonishment.  The  saint  said  to  him  in  reply  :  "  I 
have  this  moment  seen  the  holy  angels  contending  in  the  air 
against  the  hostile  powers ;  and  I  return  thanks  to  Christ,  the 
Judge,  because  the  victorious  angels  have  carried  off  to  the  joys 
of  our  heavenly  country  the  soul  of  this  stranger,  who  is  the 
first  person  that  hath  died  among  us  in  this  island.  But  I 
beseech  thee  not  to  reveal  this  secret  to  any  one  during  my 
life." 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  III.  83 


CHAPTER   VIII. 

Concerning  the  Vision  of  Angels  vouchsafed  the  same  holy  man 
when  they  were  bearing  to  heaven  the  soul  of  one  named 
Diormit. 

AT  another  time  a  stranger  from  Hibernia  came  to  the  saint 
and  remained  with  him  for  some  months  in  the  louan  island 
(Hy,  now  lona).  The  blessed  man  one  day  said  to  him :  "  One 
of  the  clerics  of  thy  province,  whose  name  I  do  not  yet  know, 
is  being  carried  to  heaven  by  the  angels  at  this  moment." 
Then  the  brother,  upon  hearing  this,  began  to  search  within 
himself  regarding  the  province  of  the  Anterii  (Airthir),  which 
is  called  in  Scotic  Indairthir  (East  Oriel,  in  Ulster),  and  also 
about  the  name  of  that  blessed  man,  and  in  due  course  thus 
expressed  himself,  saying :  "  I  know  a  soldier  of  Jesus  Christ, 
named  Diormit,  who  built  a  small  monastery  in  the  same 
district  where  I  dwelt."  The  saint  said  to  him,  "  He  of  whom 
thou  speakest  is  the  very  person  who  hath  been  carried  into 
Paradise  by  the  angels  of  God." 

But  this  fact  must  be  very  carefully  noted,  that  our  venerable 
man  was  most  careful  to  conceal  from  the  knowledge  of  men 
many  mysterious  secrets  which  were  concealed  from  others,  but 
revealed  to  him  by  God,  and  this  he  did  for  two  reasons,  as  he 
one  day  hinted  to  a  few  of  the  brethren ;  first,  that  he  might 
avoid  vain-glory,  and  secondly  that  he  might  not,  by  the  fame 
of  his  revelations  being  spread  abroad,  attract,  to  make  inquiries 
at  him,  innumerable  crowds  who  were  anxious  to  ask  some 
questions  regarding  themselves. 


CHAPTER  IX. 

Of  the  brave  fight  of  the  Angels  against  the  Demons,  and  how  they 
opportunely  assisted  the  Saint  in  the  same  conflict. 

ON  another  day  while  the  holy  man  was  living  in  the  louan 
island  (Hy,  now  lona),  he  went  to  seek  in  the  woods  for  a 
place  more  remote  from  men  and  fitting  for  prayer.  And  there 
when  he  began  to  pray,  he  suddenly  beheld,  as  he  afterwards 
told  a  few  of  the  brethren,  a  very  black  host  of  demons  fighting 
against  him  with  iron  darts.  These  wicked  demons  wished,  as 
the  Holy  Spirit  revealed  to  the  saint,  to  attack  his  monastery 
and  kill  with  the  same  spears  many  of  the  brethren.  But  he, 


84  THE  LIFE  OF  SAIXT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  III. 

single-handed,  against  innumerable  foes  of  such  a  nature,  fought 
with  the  utmost  bravery,  having  received  the  armour  of  the 
apostle  Paul.  And  thus  the  contest  was  maintained  on  both 
sides  during  the  greater  part  of  the  day,  nor  could  the  demons, 
countless  though  they  were,  vanquish  him,  nor  was  he  able,  by 
himself,  to  drive  them  from  his  island,  until  the  angels  of  God, 
as  the  saint  afterwards  told  certain  persons,  and  they  few  in 
number,  came  to  his  aid,  when  the  demons  in  terror  gave  way. 
On  the  same  day,  when  the  saint  was  returning  to  his  mon 
astery,  after  he  had  driven  the  devils  from  his  island,  he  spoke 
these  words  concerning  the  same  hostile  legions,  saying,  "  Those 
deadly  foes,  who  this  day,  through  the  mercy  of  God  and  the 
assistance  of  his  angels,  have  been  put  to  flight  from  this 
small  track  of  land,  have  fled  to  the  Ethican  land  (Tiree),  and 
there  as  savage  invaders  they  will  attack  the  monasteries  of 
the  brethren,  and  cause  pestilential  diseases,  of  which  many 
will  be  grievously  ill  and  die."  All  this  came  to  pass  in  those 
days,  as  the  blessed  man  had  foreseen.  And  two  days  after  he 
thus  spake  from  the  revelation  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  "  Baithen 
hath  managed  wisely,  with  God's  help,  that  the  congregation  of 
the  church  over  which  he  hath  been  appointed  by  God  to  pre 
side,  in  the  plain  of  Lunge  (Magh  Lunge,  in  Tiree),  should  be 
defended  by  fasts  and  prayers  against  the  attacks  of  the  demons, 
and  but  one  person  shall  die  on  this  occasion."  The  whole  took 
place  as  was  foretold ;  for  whilst  many  in  the  other  monasteries 
of  the  same  island  fell  victims  to  that  disease,  none  except  the 
one  of  whom  the  saint  spoke  died  in  the  congregation  which 
was  under  the  charge  of  Baithen.  * 


CHAPTEE   X. 

Of  the  Apparition  of  Angels  whom  the  man  of  God  saw  carrying 
to  heaven  the  soul  of  a  blacksmith,  named  Columb,  and  sur- 
named  Coilrigin. 

A  CERTAIN  blacksmith,  greatly  devoted  to  works  of  charity, 
and  full  of  other  good  works,  dwelt  in  the  midland  districts  of 
Scotia  (Ireland).  When  the  forementioned  Columb,  surnamed 
Coilrigin,  was  dying  in  a  good  old  age,  even  at  that  very  mo 
ment  when  he  departed  from  the  body,  St.  Columba,  who  was 
then  in  the  louan  island  (Hy,  now  lona),  thus  addressed  a  few 
of  the  senior  brethren  who  were  standing  around  him,  "  Columb 
Coilrigin,  the  blacksmith,  hath  not  laboured  in  vain,  seeing  that 
he  hath  had  the  happiness,  as  he  desired,  to  purchase  the 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  III.  85 

eternal  rewards  by  the  labour  of  his  hands.  For,  behold,  at 
this  moment,  his  soul  is  carried  by  the  holy  angels  to  the  joys 
of  the  heavenly  country,  because  he  laid  out  all  that  he  could 
earn  by  his  trade  in  alms  to  the  poor." 


CHAPTER  XL 

Of  a  similar  Vision  of  Angels  whom  the  blessed  man  beheld  carry 
ing  to  heaven  the  soul  of  a  certain  virtuous  woman. 

IN  like  manner,  on  another  occasion,  whilst  the  holy  man 
was  living  in  the  louan  island  (Hy,  now  lona),7  he  one  day 
suddenly  raised  his  eyes  to  heaven  and  uttered  the  words,  "  0 
happy  woman — happy  because  of  thy  virtues ;  the  angels  of 
God  are  now  carrying  thy  soul  to  paradise."  Now  these  words 
from  the  mouth  of  the  saint  wrere  heard  by  a  certain  religious 
brother,  a  Saxon,  by  name  Genere,  who  was  at  the  moment 
working  at  his  trade,  which  was  that  of  a  baker.  And  on  the 
same  day  of  the  month,  at  the  end  of  the  same  year,  the  saint 
addressed  the  same  Genere  the  Saxon,  and  said,  "  I  see  a  won 
derful  thing ;  behold,  the  woman  of  whom  I  spake  in  thy  pre 
sence  last  year,  now  meeteth  in  the  air  the  soul  of  her  husband, 
a  poor  and  holy  man,  and  together  with  the  holy  angels  en- 
gageth  in  a  contest  for  it  against  the  adverse  powers ;  by  their 
united  assistance,  and  by  the  aid  of  the  virtuous  character  of 
the  man  himself,  his  soul  is  rescued  from  the  assaults  of  the 
demons,  and  brought  to  the  place  of  eternal  refreshment. 


CHAPTER   XII. 

Of  the  Apparition  of  Holy  Angels  whom  St.  Columba  beheld 
meeting  in  its  passage  the  soul  of  St.  Brenden,  the  founder 
of  the  monastery  which  in  Scotic  is  called  Birra  (Birr,  in 
King's  County). 

ON  another  day  also,  while  the  venerable  man  was  residing 
in  the  louan  island  (Hy,  now  lona),  he  called  very  early  in  the 
morning  for  his  attendant,  Diormit,  so  frequently  mentioned 
before,  and  commanded  him,  saying,  "  Make  ready  in  haste  for 
the  celebration  of  the  Holy  Eucharist,  for  to-day  is  the  birthday 
of  blessed  Brenden."  "  Wherefore,"  said  his  attendant,  "  dost 
thou  order  such  solemnities  of  the  Mass  to  be  prepared  to-day  ? 
For  no  messenger  hath  come  to  us  from  Scotia  (Ireland)  to  tell 


86  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  III. 

us  of  the  death  of  that  holy  man."  "  Go,"  said  the  saint,  "  it  is 
thy  duty  to  obey  my  commands.  For  this  last  night  I  saw  the 
heavens  suddenly  open,  and  choirs  of  angels  descend  to  meet 
the  soul  of  the  holy  Brenden  ;  and  so  great  and  incomparable 
was  the  brightness,  that  in  that  same  hour  it  illuminated  the 
whole  world." 


CHAPTER   XIII. 

Of  ike  Vision  of  Holy  Angels  who  carried  off  to  heaven  the  soul  of 
the  Bishop,  St.  Columban  Mocu  Loigse. 

ON  another  day  also,  while  the  brethren  were  putting  on  their 
sandals  in  the  morning,  and  were  making  ready  to  go  to  their 
different  duties  in  the  monastery,  the  saint,  on  the  contrary, 
bade  them  rest  that  day  and  prepare  for  the  holy  sacrifice, 
ordering  also  some  addition  to  be  made  to  their  dinner,  as  on 
the  Lord's  day.  "  I  must,"  said  he,  "  though  unworthy,  cele 
brate  to-day  the  holy  mysteries  of  the  Eucharist,  out  of  venera 
tion  to  that  soul  which  this  last  night  went  up  to  paradise, 
beyond  the  region  of  the  stars  in  the  heavens,  borne  thither 
amid  the  holy  choirs  of  the  angels." 

At  these  words  the  brethren  obeyed,  and,  according  to  his 
directions,  rested  that  day;  then,  after  preparing  for  the  due 
celebration  of  the  sacred  rite,  they  accompanied  the  saint  to  the 
church  in  their  white  robes  as  on  a  festival.  Bat  it  came  to 
pass  that  when  in  the  course  of  chanting  the  offices,  the  prayer 
was  being  sung  as  usual  in  which  St.  Martin's  name  is  com 
memorated,  the  saint,  suddenly  turning  to  the  chanters,  when 
they  had  come  to  make  mention  of  that  name,  said,  "  You  must 
pray  to-day  for  St.  Columban,  bishop."  Then  all  the  brethren 
present  understood  that  Columban,  a  bishop  in  Leinster,  the 
dear  friend  of  Columba,  had  passed  to  the  Lord.  A  short  time 
after,  some  persons,  who  came  from  the  province  of  Leinster, 
told  how  the  bishop  died  in  the  very  night  in  which  it  was  thus 
made  known  to  the  saint.- 


CHAPTER  XIV. 

Of  the  Apparition  of  Angels  who  had  come  down  to  meet  the 
souls  of  the  monks  of  St.  Comgell. 

AT  another  time,  when  the  venerable  man  was  living  in  the 
louan  island  (Hy,  now  lona),  he  became  suddenly  excited,  and 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  III.  87 

summoned  the  brethren  together  by  the  sound  of  the  bell. 
" Now"  said  he,  " let  us  help  by  our  prayers  the  monks  of  the 
Abbot  Comgell,  who  are  just  now  in  danger  of  being  drowned 
in  the  Lake  of  the  Calf  (Loch  Laodh,  now  Belfast  Lough) ;  for, 
lo  !  at  this  moment  they  are  fighting  against  the  hostile  powers 
in  the  air,  and  are  striving  to  rescue  the  soul  of  some  stranger 
who  is  also  drowning  along  with  them."  Then  after  having 
wept  and  prayed  fervently,  he  hastily  stood  erect  before  the 
altar  with  a  joyful  countenance,  whilst  the  brethren  continued 
to  lie  prostrate  in  prayer.  "  Give  thanks,"  he  said,  "  to  Christ, 
for  now  the  holy  angels,  coming  to  the  aid  of  holy  souls,  have 
rescued  this  stranger  from  the  attacks  of  the  demons,  and  borne 
him  off  in  triumph  like  victorious  warriors." 


CHAPTEE  XV. 

Of  the  Manifestation  of  the  Angels  who  came  to  meet  the  soul 
of  one  Emchafh. 

AT  another  time,  when  the  saint  was  travelling  beyond  the 
Dorsal  Eidge  of  Britain  (Drumalban),  near  the  lake  of  the 
river  Nesa  (Loch  Ness),  he  was  suddenly  inspired  by  the  Holy 
Ghost,  and  said  to  the  brethren  that  accompanied  him,  "  Let  us 
go  quickly  to  meet  the  holy  angels,  who  have  been  sent  from 
the  realms  of  the  highest  heaven  to  carry  away  with  them  the 
soul  of  a  heathen,  and  now  wait  our  arrival  there,  that  we 
may  baptize  in  due  time  before  his  death  this  man,  who  hath 
preserved  his  natural  goodness  through  all  his  life,  even  to 
extreme  old  age."  And  having  said  this  much,  the  holy  old 
man  hurried  his  companions  as  much  as  he  could,  and  walked 
before  them  until  he  came  to  a  district  called  Airchart-dan 
(Arochdan,  now  Glen  Urquhart) ;  and  there  he  found  an  aged 
man  whose  name  was  Emchat,  who,  on  hearing  the  word  of  God 
preached  by  the  saint,  believed  and  was  baptized,  and  imme 
diately  after,  full  of  joy,  and  safe  from  evil,  and  accompanied 
by  the  angels,  who  came  to  meet  him,  passed  to  the  Lord. 
His  son  Virolec  also  believed,  and  was  baptized  with  all 
his  house. 


88  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  III. 


CHAPTEK  XVI. 

Of  the  Angel  of  the  Lord  that  came  so  quickly  and  opportunely 
to  the  relief  of  the  brother  who  fell  from  the  top  of  the  round 
monastery  in  the  OaTcwood  Plain  (Berry). 

AT  another  time,  while  the  holy  man  sat  in  his  little  cell 
engaged  in  writing,  on  a  sudden  his  countenance  changed,  and 
he  poured  forth  this  cry  from  his  pure  breast,  saying,  "  Help  ! 
help ! "  Two  of  the  brothers  who  stood  at  the  door,  namely, 
Colga,  son  of  Cellach,  and  Lugne  Mocublai,  asked  the  cause  of 
such  a  sudden  cry.  The  venerable  man  answered,  saying,  "  I 
ordered  the  angel  of  the  Lord  who  was  just  now  standing  among 
you  to  go  quickly  to  the  relief  of  one  of  the  brothers  who  is 
falling  from  the  highest  point  of  a  large  house  which  is  now 
being  built  in  the  Oakwood  Plain  (Deny)."  And  the  saint 
added  afterwards  these  words,  saying,  "  How  wonderful  and 
almost  unspeakable  is  the  swiftness  of  angelic  motion,  like,  as 
I  imagine,  to  the  rapidity  of  lightning.  For  the  heavenly 
spirit  who  just  now  flew  away  from  us  when  that  man  began 
to  fall,  arrived  there  to  support  him,  as  it  were,  in  the  twink 
ling  of  an  eye,  before  his  body  reached  the  ground ;  nor  was 
the  man  who  fell  able  to  feel  any  fracture  or  bruise.  How 
wonderful,  I  say,  is  that  most  swift  and  timely  help  which 
could  be  given  so  very  quickly,  even  though  such  an  extent  of 
land  and  sea  lay  between  3" 


CHAPTER  XVII. 

Of  the  multitude  of  Holy  Angels  that  were  seen  to  come  down  from 
heaven  at  the  bidding  of  the  blessed  man. 

ANOTHER  time  also,  while  the  blessed  man  was  living  in  the 
louan  island  (Hy,  now  lona),  he  made  this  known  to  the  as 
sembled  brethren  with  very  great  earnestness,  saying,  "  To-day 
I  wish  to  go  alone  to  the  western  plain  of  this  island ;  let  none 
of  you  therefore  follow  me."  They  obeyed,  and  he  went  alone, 
as  he  desired.  But  a  brother,  who  was  cunning,  and  of  a  prying 
disposition,  proceeded  by  another  road,  and  secretly  placed  him 
self  on  the  summit  of  a  certain  little  hill  which  overlooked  the 
plain,  because  lie  was  very  anxious  to  learn  the  blessed  man's 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  III.  89 

motive  for  going  out  alone.  While  the  spy  on  the  top  of  the 
hill  was  looking  upon  him  as  he  stood  on  a  mound  in  the  plain, 
with  arms  extended  upwards,  and  eyes  raised  to  heaven  in 
prayer,  then,  strange  to  tell,  behold  a  wonderful  scene  presented 
itself,  which  that  brother,  as  I  think  not  without  the  leave  of 
God,  witnessed  with  his  own  eyes  from  his  place  on  the  neigh 
bouring  hill,  that  the  saint's  name  and  the  reverence  due  to 
him  might  afterwards,  even  against  his  wishes,  be  more  widely 
diffused  among  the  people,  through  the  vision  thus  vouchsafed. 
For  holy  angels,  the  citizens  of  the  heavenly  country,  clad  in 
white  robes  and  flying  with  wonderful  speed,  began  to  stand 
around  the  saint  whilst  he  prayed  ;  and  after  a  short  converse 
with  the  blessed  man,  that  heavenly  host,  as  if  feeling  itself 
detected,  flew  speedily  back  again  to  the  highest  heavens.  The 
blessed  man  himself  also,  after  his  meeting  with  the  angels, 
returned  to  the  monastery,  and  calling  the  brethren  together  a 
second  time,  asked,  with  no  little  chiding  and  reproof,  which  of 
them  was  guilty  of  violating  his  command.  When  all  were 
declaring  they  did  not  know  at  all  of  the  matter,  the  brother, 
conscious  of  his  inexcusable  transgression,  and  no  longer  able 
to  conceal  his  guilt,  fell  on  his  knees  before  the  saint  in  the 
midst  of  the  assembled  brethren,  and  humbly  craved  forgiveness. 
The  saint,  taking  him  aside,  commanded  him  under  heavy 
threats,  as  he  knelt,  never,  during  the  life  of  the  blessed  man,  to 
disclose  to  any  person  even  the  least  part  of  the  secret  regard 
ing  the  angels'  visit.  It  was,  therefore,  after  the  saint's  departure 
from  the  body  that  the  brother  related  that  manifestation  of 
the  heavenly  host,  and  solemnly  attested  its  truth.  Whence, 
even  to  this  day,  the  place  where  the  angels  assembled  is  called 
by  a  name  that  beareth  witness  to  the  event  that  took  place  in 
it ;  this  may  be  said  to  be  in  Latin  "  Colliculus  Angelorum  " 
and  is  in  Scotic  Cnoc  Angel  (now  called  Sithean  Mor). 
Hence,  therefore,  we  must  notice,  and  even  carefully  inquire, 
into  the  fact  how  great  and  of  what  kind  these  sweet  visits  of 
angels  to  this  blessed  man  were,  which  took  place  mostly  during 
the  winter  nights,  when  he  was  in  watching  and  prayer  in  lonely 
places  while  others  slept.  These  were  no  doubt  very  numerous, 
and  could  in  no  way  come  to  the  knowledge  of  other  men. 
Though  some  of  these  which  happened  by  night  or  by  day 
might  perhaps  be  discovered  by  one  means  or  another,  these 
must  have  been  very  few  compared  with  the  angelic  visions, 
which,  of  course,  could  be  known  by  nobody.  The  same  obser 
vation  applies  in  the  same  way  to  other  bright  apparitions 
hitherto  investigated  by  few,  which  shall  be  afterwards 
described. 


90  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  III. 

CHAPTEE  XVIII. 

Of  the  bright  Pillar  seen  to  glow  upon  the  Saint's  head. 

ANOTHER  time  four  holy  founders  of  monasteries  came  from 
Scotia  (Ireland),  to  visit  St.  Columba,  and  found  him  in  the 
Hinba  island  (Eilean-na-Naoimh).  The  names  of  these  dis 
tinguished  men  were  Comgell  Mocu  Aridi,  Cainnech  Mocu 
Dalon,  Brenden  Mocu  Alti,  and  Cormac,  grandson  of  Leathain. 
They  all  with  one  consent  agreed  that  St.  Columba  should 
consecrate,  in  their  presence  in  the  church,  the  holy  mysteries 
of  the  Eucharist.  The  saint  complied  with  their  express 
desire,  and  entered  the  church  with  them  on  Sunday  as  usual, 
after  the  reading  of  the  Gospel;  and  there,  during  the  cele 
bration  of  the  solemn  offices  of  the  Mass,  St.  Brenden  Mocu 
Alti  saw,  as  he  told  Comgell  and  Cainnech  afterwards,  a  ball  of 
fire  like  a  comet  burning  very  brightly  on  the  head  of  Columba, 
while  he  was  standing  before  the  altar,  and  consecrating  the 
holy  oblation,  and  thus  it  continued  burning  and  rising  upwards 
like  a  column,  so  long  as  he  continued  to  be  engaged  in  the 
same  most  sacred  mysteries. 

CHAPTEE   XIX. 

Of  the  Descent  or  Visit  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  which  in  the  same  island 
continued  for  three  whole  days  and  nights  with  the  venerable 
man. 

AT  another  time,  when  the  saint  was  living  in  the  Hinba 
island  (Eilean-na-Naoimh),  the  grace  of  the  Holy  Ghost  was 
communicated  to  him  abundantly  and  unspeakably,  and  dwelt 
with  him  in  a  wonderful  manner,  so  that  for  three  whole  days, 
and  as  many  nights,  without  either  eating  or  drinking,  he 
allowed  no  one  to  approach  him,  and  remained  confined  in  a 
house  which  was  filled  with  heavenly  brightness.  Yet  out  of 
that  house,  through  the  chinks  of  the  doors  and  keyholes,  rays 
of  surpassing  brilliancy  were  seen  to  issue  during  the  night. 
Certain  spiritual  songs  also,  which  had  never  been  heard  before, 
he  was  heard  to  sing.  He  came  to  see,  as  he  allowed  in  the 
presence  of  a  very  few  afterwards,  many  secrets  hidden  from 
men  since  the  beginning  of  the  world  fully  revealed ;  certain 
very  obscure  and  difficult  parts  of  sacred  Scripture  also  were 
made  quite  plain,  and  clearer  than  the  light  to  the  eye  of  his 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  III.  91 

pure  heart.  He  grieved  that  his  beloved  disciple,  Baithen, 
was  not  with  him,  because  if  he  had  chanced  to  be  beside  him 
during  those  three  days,  he  would  have  been  able  to  explain 
from  the  lips  of  the  blessed  man  mysteries  regarding  past  or 
future  ages,  unknown  to  the  rest  of  mankind,  and  to  interpret 
also  some  passages  of  the  Sacred  Volumes.  However,  Baithen 
was  then  detained  by  contrary  winds  in  the  Egean  island  (Egg), 
and  he  was  not,  therefore,  able  to  be  present  until  those  three 
days  and  as  many  nights  of  that  glorious  and  unspeakable  visi 
tation  came  to  a  close. 


CHAPTEE   XX. 

Of  the  angelic  splendour  of  the  light  which  Virgnous — a  youth  of 
good  disposition,  and  afterwards  made  by  God  superior  of 
this  Church  in  which  /,  though  unworthy ',  now  serve — saw 
coming  down  upon  St.  Columba  in  the  Church,  on  a  winter's 
night,  when  the  brethren  were  at  rest  in  their  chambers. 

ONE  winter's  night  the  forementioned  Virgnous,  burning  with 
the  love  of  God,  entered  the  church  alone  to  pray,  while  the 
others  were  asleep ;  and  he  prayed  fervently  in  a  little  side- 
chamber  attached  to  the  walls  of  the  oratory.  After  a  consider 
able  interval,  as  it  were  of  an  hour,  the  venerable  Columba 
entered  the  same  sacred  house,  and  along  with  him,  at  the  same 
time,  a  golden  light,  that  came  down  from  the  highest  heavens 
and  filled  that  part  of  the  church.  Even  the  separate  recess  of 
the  side-chamber,  where  Virgnous  was  striving  to  hide  himself 
as  much  as  he  could,  was  also  filled,  to  his  great  alarm,  with  some 
of  the  brilliance  of  that  heavenly  light  which  burst  through  the 
inner-door  of  the  chamber,  that  was  a  little  open.  And  as  no 
one  can  look  directly  at,  or  gaze  with  steady  eye  on,  the  summer 
sun  in  his  mid-day  splendour,  so  Virgnous  could  not  at  all  bear 
this  heavenly  brightness  which  he  saw,  because  of  the  brilliant 
and  unspeakable  radiance  which  overpowered  his  sight.  The 
brother  spoken  of  was  so  much  terrified  by  the  splendour, 
almost  as  dreadful  as  lightning,  that  no  strength  remained  in 
him.  But,  after  a  short  prayer,  St.  Columba  left  the  church. 
And  the  next  day  he  sent  for  Virgnous,  who  was  very  much 
alarmed,  and  spoke  to  him  these  few  consoling  words  :  "  Thou 
art  crying  to  good  purpose,  my  child,  for  last  night  thou  wert 
very  pleasing  in  the  sight  of  God  by  keeping  thine  eyes  fixed 
on  the  ground  when  thou  wert  overwhelmed  with  fear  at  the 


92  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  III. 

brightness,  for  hadst  thou  not  done  so,  that  priceless  light 
would  have  blinded  thine  eyes.  This,  however,  thou  must  care 
fully  observe — never  to  disclose  this  great  manifestation  of 
light  while  I  live." 

This  circumstance,  therefore,  which  is  so  wonderful  and  so 
worthy  of  record,  became  known  to  many  after  the  saint's  death 
through  this  same  Virgnous's  relating  it.  Comman,  sister's  son 
to  Virgnous,  a  respected  priest,  solemnly  assured  me,  Adanman, 
of  the  truth  of  the  vision  I  have  just  described,  and  he  added, 
moreover,  that  he  heard  the  story  from  the  lips  of  the  abbot 
Virgnous,  his  own  uncle,  who,  as  far  as  he  could,  had  seen  that 
vision. 


CHAPTEE  XXL 

Of  another  very  similar  Vision  of  great  brilliancy. 

ANOTHER  night  also,  one  of  the  brothers,  whose  name  was 
Colga,  the  son  of  Aid  Draigniche,  of  the  grandsons  of  Fechrech 
mentioned  in  the  first  Book,  came  by  chance,  while  the  other 
brothers  were  asleep,  to  the  gate  of  the  church,  and  stood  .there 
for  some  time  praying.  Then  suddenly  he  saw  the  whole  church 
filled  with  a  heavenly  light,  which  more  quickly  than  he  could 
tell,  flashed  like  lightning  from  his  gaze.  He  did  not  know 
that  St.  Columba  was  praying  at  that  time  in  the  church,  and 
after  this  sudden  appearance  of  light,  he  returned  home  in 
great  alarm.  On  the  following  day  the  saint  called  him  aside 
and  rebuked  him  severely,  saying  :  "  Take  care  of  one  thing,  my 
child,  that  you  do  not  attempt  to  spy  out  and  pry  too  closely 
into  the  nature  of  that  heavenly  light  which  was  not  granted 
thee,  but  rather  fled  from  thee,  and  that  thou  do  not  tell  any 
one  during  my  lifetime  what  thou  hast  seen." 


CHAPTER    XXII. 

Of  another  like  Apparition  of  Divine  light. 

AT  another  time  also,  the  blessed  man  gave  strict  orders  one 
day  to  Berchan,  surnamed  Mesloen,  a  pupil  learning  wisdom 
with  them,  saying :  "  Take  care,  my  son,  that  thou  come  not 
near  my  little  hut  this  evening,  as  thou  art  always  accustomed 
to  do."  Berchan  however,  though  hearing  this,  went,  contrary 
to  this  command,  to  the  blessed  man's  house  in  the  dead  of  night 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  III.  93 

while  others  were  at  rest,  and  cunningly  put  down  his  eyes  on 
a  line  with  the  keyholes,  in  the  hope  that,  just  as  the  thing 
happened,  some  heavenly  vision  would  be  shown  to  the  saint 
within.  And  at  that  very  time  the  little  hut  was  filled  with  a 
light  of  heavenly  brightness,  which  the  disobedient  young  man 
was  not  able  to  look  upon,  and  therefore  he  fled  at  once  from 
the  spot.  On  the  morrow  the  saint  took  him  apart,  and  chiding 
him  severely,  addressed  him  in  these  words  :  "  Last  night,  my 
son,  thou  hast  sinned  before  God,  and  thou  didst  vainly  imagine 
that  the  prying  of  thy  secret  inquisitiveness  could  be  hidden  or 
concealed  from  the  Holy  Ghost.  Did  I  not  see  thee  at  that 
hour  as  thou  didst  draw  near  to  the  door  of  my  hut,  and  as  thou 
didst  go  away  from  it  ?  Had  I  not  prayed  for  thee  at  that 
moment,  thou  wouldst  have  fallen  dead  there  before  the  door, 
or  thine  eyes  would  have  been  torn  out  of  their  sockets ;  but  on 
my  account,  the  Lord  hath  spared  thee  at  this  time.  And  be 
thou  assured  of  this  also,  that,  whilst  thou  art  living  in  luxury 
in  thine  own  country  of  Hibernia,  thy  face  shall  burn  with 
shame  all  the  days  of  thy  life.  Yet  by  my  prayers,  I  have 
obtained  this  favour  of  God,  that,  as  thou  art  my  disciple,  thou 
shalt  do  heartfelt  penance  before  death,  and  thus  obtain  the 
mercy  of  God."  All  these  things,  according  to  the  saying  of  the 
blessed  man,  occurred  afterwards  to  him  as  had  been  foretold 
regarding  him. 


CHAPTER    XXIII. 

Of  another  Vision  of  Angels  whom  the  Saint  saw  coming  to  meet 
his  soul,  as  if  to  show  that  it  was  about  to  leave  the  lody. 

AT  another  time,  while  the  blessed  man  was  living  in  the 
louan  island  (Hy,  now  lona),  his  holy  countenance  one  day 
was  lighted  up  suddenly  with  strange  transports  of  joy ;  and 
raising  his  eyes  to  heaven  he  was  filled  with  delight,  and  re 
joiced  beyond  measure.  After  an  interval  of  a  few  seconds,  that 
sweet  and  enchanting  delight  was  changed  into  a  mournful 
sadness. 

Now,  the  two  men,  who  at  the  same  hour  were  standing  at 
the  door  of  his  hut,  which  was  built  on  the  higher  ground,  and 
were  themselves  also  much  afflicted  with  him — of  whom  the 
one  was  Lugne  Mocublai,  and  the  other  a  Saxon  named  Pilu,— 
asked  the  cause  of  this  sudden  joy,  and  of  the  sorrow  which 
followed.  The  saint  said  to  them,  "  Go  in  peace,  and  do  not 
ask  me  now  to  explain  the  cause  of  either  that  joy  or  that  sad- 


94  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  III. 

ness."  On  hearing  this  they  humbly  asked  him,  kneeling 
before  him  in  tears,  and  with  faces  sunk  to  the  ground,  to 
grant  their  desire  of  knowing  something  concerning  that 
matter  which  at  that  same  hour  had  been  revealed  to  the  saint. 
Seeing  them  so  much  afflicted,  he  said,  "On  account  of  my 
love  to  you,  I  do  not  wish  you  to  be  in  sadness ;  but  you  must 
first  promise  me  never  to  disclose  to  any  one  during  my  life 
the  secret  you  seek  to  know."  They  made  of  course  the  pro 
mise  at  once  according  to  his  request,  and  then,  when  the  pro 
mise  was  made,  the  venerable  man  spake  to  them  thus :  "  On 
this  very  day,  thirty  years  of  my  sojourn  in  Britain  have  been 
completed,  and  meanwhile  for  many  days  past  I  have  been 
devoutly  asking  of  my  Lord  to  release  me  from  my  dwelling 
here  at  the  end  of  this  thirtieth  year,  and  to  call  me  thither  to 
my  heavenly  fatherland.  And  this  was  the  cause  of  that  joy 
of  mine,  of  which  in  sorrowful  mood  you  ask  me.  For  I  saw 
the  holy  angels  sent  down  from  the  lofty  throne  to  meet  my 
soul  when  it  is  taken  from  the  flesh.  But,  behold  now  how 
they  are  stopped  suddenly,  and  stand  on  a  rock  at  the  other 
side  of  the  Sound  of  our  island,  evidently  being  anxious  to  come 
near  me  and  deliver  me  from  the  body.  But  they  are  not 
allowed  to  come  nearer,  because,  that  thing  which  God  granted 
me  after  praying  with  my  whole  strength — namely,  that  I 
might  pass  from  the  world  to  Him  on  this  day, — He  hath 
changed  in  a  moment  in  His  listening  to  the  prayers  of  so 
many  churches  for  me.  These  churches  have  no  doubt  prayed 
as  the  Lord  hath  granted,  so  that,  though  it  is  against  my  ardent 
wish,  four  years  from  this  day  are  added  for  me  to  abide  in 
the  flesh.  Such  a  sad  delay  as  this  was  fitly  the  cause  of  the 
grief  to-day.  At  the  end  of  these  four  years,  then,  which  by 
God's  favour  my  life  is  yet  to  see,  I  shall  pass  away  suddenly, 
without  any  previous  bodily  sickness,  and  depart  with  joy  to 
the  Lord,  accompanied  by  His  holy  angels,  who  shall  come 
to  meet  me  at  that  hour." 

According  to  these  words,  which  the  venerable  man  uttered, 
it  is  said,  with  much  sorrow  and  grief,  and  even  many  tears,  he 
afterwards  abode  in  the  flesh  for  four  years. 


CHAPTEE   XXIV. 

How  our  Patron,  St.  Columba,  passed  to  the  Lord. 

TOWARDS  the  end  of  the  above-mentioned  four  years,  and  as 
a  true  prophet,  he  knew   long  before  that  his  death  would 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  III.  95 

follow  the  close  of  that  period,  the  old  man,  worn  out  with  age, 
went  in  a  cart  one  day  in  the  month  of  May,  as  we  mentioned 
in  the  preceding  second  Book,  to  visit  some  of  the  brethren 
who  were  at  work.  And  having  found  them  at  work  on  the 
western  side  of  the  louan  island  (Hy,  now  lona),  he  began  to 
speak  to  them  that  day,  saying,  "  During  the  paschal  solemnities 
in  the  month  of  April  now  past,  with  desire  have  I  desired  to 
depart  to  Christ  the  Lord,  as  He  had  allowed  me,  if  I  preferred 
it.  But  lest  a  joyous  festival  should  be  turned  for  you  into 
mourning,  I  thought  it  better  to  put  off  for  a  little  longer  the 
time  of  my  departure  from  the  world."  The  beloved  monks  all 
the  while  they  were  hearing  this  sad  news  were  greatly  afflicted, 
and  he  endeavoured  as  well  as  he  could  to  cheer  them  with 
words  of  consolation.  Then,  having  done  this,  he  turned  his 
face  to  the  east,  still  seated  as  he  was  in  his  chariot,  and  blessed 
the  island  with  its  inhabitants;  and  from  that  day  to  the  present, 
as  we  have  stated  in  the  Book  above  mentioned,  the  venomous 
reptiles  with  the  three  forked  tongues  could  do  no  manner  of 
harm  to  man  or  beast.  After  uttering  these  words  of  blessing, 
the  saint  was  carried  back  to  his  monastery. 

Then,  again,  a  few  days  afterwards,  while  he  was  celebrating 
the  solemn  offices  of  the  Mass  as  usual  on  the  Lord's  day,  the 
face  of  the  venerable  man,  as  his  eyes  were  raised  to  heaven, 
suddenly  appeared  as  if  suffused  with  a  ruddy  glow,  for,  as  it 
is  written,  "A  glad  heart  maketh  a  cheerful  countenance."  For 
at  that  same  hour  he  alone  saw  an  angel  of  the  Lord  hovering 
above  within  the  walls  of  his  oratory ;  and  as  the  lovely  and 
tranquil  aspect  of  the  holy  angels  infuses  joy  and  exultation 
into  the  hearts  of  the  elect,  this  was  the  cause  of  that 
sudden  joy  infused  into  the  blessed  man.  When  those  who 
were  present  on  the  occasion  inquired  as  to  the  cause  of  that 
joy  with  which  he  was  evidently  inspired,  the  saint  looking 
upwards  gave  them  this  reply,  "  Wonderful  and  unspeakable  is 
the  subtiHty  of  the  angelic  nature !  For  lo,  an  angel  of  the 
Lord,  who  was  sent  to  demand  a  certain  deposit  dear  to  God, 
hath,  after  looking  down  upon  us  within  the  church,  and  bless 
ing  us,  returned  again  through  the  roof  of  the  church,  without 
leaving  any  trace  of  his  passage  out."  Thus  spoke  the  saint. 
But  none  of  the  bystanders  could  understand  what  kind  of  a 
deposit  the  angel  was  sent  to  demand.  Our  patron,  however, 
gave  the  name  of  a  holy  deposit  to  his  own  soul  that  had  been 
intrusted  to  him  by  God;  and  after  an  interval  of  six  days 
from  that  time,  as  shall  be  related  further  on,  he  departed  to  the 
Lord  on  the  night  of  the  Lord's  day.  In  the  end,  then,  of  this 
same  week,  that  is  on  the  day  of  the  Sabbath,  the  venerable 


96  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  III. 

man,  and  his  pious  attendant  Diormit,  went  to  bless  the  barn 
which  was  near  at  hand.  When  the  saint  had  entered  in  and 
blessed  it,  and  two  heaps  of  winnowed  corn  that  were  in  it,  he 
gave  expression  to  his  thanks  in  these  words,  saying,  "  I  heartily 
congratulate  my  beloved  monks,  that  this  year  also,  if  I  am 
obliged  to  depart  from  you,  you  will  have  a  sufficient  supply 
for  the  year."  On  hearing  this,  Diormit  his  attendant  began 
to  feel  sad,  and  said,  "  This  year,  at  this  time,  father,  thou  very 
often  vexest  us,  by  so  frequently  making  mention  of  thy  leaving 
us."  But  the  saint  replied  to  him,  "  I  have  a  little  secret 
address  to  make  to  thee,  and  if  thou  wilt  promise  me  faithfully 
not  to  reveal  it  to  any  one  before  iny  death,  I  shall  be  able  to 
speak  to  thee  with  more  freedom  about  my  departure."  When 
his  attendant  had  on  bended  knees  made  the  promise  as  the 
saint  desired,  the  venerable  man  thus  resumed  his  address: 
"  This  day  in  the  Holy  Scriptures  is  called  the  Sabbath,  which 
means  rest.  And  this  day  is  indeed  a  Sabbath  to  me,  for  it  is 
the  last  day  of  my  present  laborious  life,  and  on  it  I  rest  after 
the  fatigues  of  my  labours ;  and  this  night  at  midnight,  which 
commenceth  the  solemn  Lord's  Day,  I  shall,  according  to  the 
sayings  of  Scripture,  go  the  way  of  our  fathers.  For  already 
my  Lord  Jesus  Christ  deigneth  to  invite  me;  and  to  Him,  I  say, 
in  the  middle  of  this  night  shall  I  depart,  at  His  invitation.  For 
so  it  hath  been  revealed  to  me  by  the  Lord  himself."  The 
attendant  hearing  these  sad  words  began  to  weep  bitterly,  and 
the  saint  endeavoured  to  console  him  as  well  as  he  could. 

After  this  the  saint  left  the  barn,  and  in  going  back  to  the 
monastery,  rested  half  way  at  a  place  where  a  cross,  which  was 
afterwards  erected,  and  is  standing  to  this  day,  fixed  into  a  mill 
stone,  may  be  observed  on  the  roadside.  While  the  saint,  as  I 
have  said,  bowed  down  with  old  age,  sat  there  to  rest  a  little, 
behold,  there  came  up  to  him  a  white  pack-horse,  the  same  that 
used,  as  a  willing  servant,  to  carry  the  milk-vessels  from  the  cow 
shed  to  the  monastery.  It  came  up  to  the  saint  and,  strange  to 
say,  laid  its  head  on  his  bosom — inspired,  I  believe,  by  God  to 
do  so,  as  each  animal  is  gifted  with  the  knowledge  of  things 
according  to  the  will  of  the  Creator;  and  knowing  that  its 
master  was  soon  about  to  leave  it,  and  that  it  would  see  him 
no  more — began  to  utter  plaintive  cries,  and  like  a  human 
being,  to  shed  copious  tears  on  the  saint's  bosom,  foaming  and 
greatly  wailing.  The  attendant  seeing  this,  began  to  drive  the 
weeping  mourner  away,  but  the  saint  forbade  him,  saying: 
"  Let  it  alone,  as  it  is  so  fond  of  me, — let  it  pour  out  its  bitter 
grief  into  my  bosom.  Lo  !  thou,  as  thou  art  a  man,  and  hast  a 
rational  soul,  canst  know  nothing  of  my  departure  hence,  ex- 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  III.  97 

cept  what  I  myself  have  just  told  you  ;  but  to  this  brute  beast, 
devoid  of  reason,  the  Creator  Himself  hath  evidently  in  some 
way  made  it  known  that  its  master  is  going  to  leave  it."  And 
saying  this,  the  saint  blessed  the  work-horse,  which  turned 
away  from  him  in  sadness. 

Then  leaving  this  spot,  he  ascended  the  hill  that  overlooketh 
the  monastery,  and  stood  for  some  little  time  on  its  summit ; 
and  as  he  stood  there  with  both  hands  uplifted,  he  blessed  his 
monastery,  saying : 

"  Small  and  mean  though  this  place  is,  yet  it  shall  be  held 
in  great  and  unusual  honour,  not  only  by  Scotic  kings  and 
people,  but  also  by  the  rulers  of  foreign  and  barbarous  nations, 
and  by  their  subjects ;  the  saints  also  even  of  other  churches 
shall  regard  it  with  no  common  reverence." 

After  these  words  he  descended  the  hill,  and  having  returned 
to  the  monastery  sat  in  his  hut  transcribing  the  Psalter,  and 
coming  to  that  verse  of  the  33d  Psalm  (Eng.  Vers.  Ps.  34),  where 
it  is  written,  "  They  that  seek  the  Lord  shall  want  no  manner  of 
thing  that  is  good," — "  Here,"  said  he,  "  at  the  end  of  the  page, 
I  must  stop ;  and  what  follows  let  Baithene  write."  The  last 
verse  he  had  written  was  very  applicable  to  the  saint,  who  was 
about  to  depart,  and  to  whom  eternal  goods  shall  never  be 
wanting ;  while  the  one  that  followeth  is  equally  applicable  to 
the  father  who  succeeded  him,  the  instructor  of  his  spiritual 
children :  "  Come,  ye  children,  and  hearken  unto  me :  I  will 
teach  you  the  fear  of  the  Lord;" — and  indeed  he  succeeded 
him,  as  recommended  by  him,  not  only  in  teaching,  but  also  in 
writing. 

Having  written  the  aforementioned  verse  at  the  end  of  the 
page,  the  saint  went  to  the  church  to  the  nocturnal  vigils  of 
the  Lord's  Day ;  and  so  soon  as  this  was  over,  he  returned  to 
his  chamber,  and  spent  the  remainder  of  the  night  on  his  bed, 
where  he  had  a  bare  flag  for  his  couch,  and  for  his  pillow  a 
stone,  which  stands  to  this  day  as  a  kind  of  monument  beside 
his  grave.  While  then  he  was  reclining  there,  he  gave  his  last 
instructions  to  the  brethren,  in  the  hearing  of  his  attendant 
alone,  saying:  "These,  0  my  children,  are  the  last  words  I 
address  to  you — that  ye  be  at  peace,  and  have  unfeigned  charity 
among  yourselves ;  and  if  you  thus  follow  the  example  of  the 
holy  fathers,  God,  the  Comforter  of  the  good,  will  be  your 
Helper,  and  I,  abiding  with  Him,  will  intercede  for  you ;  and 
He  will  not  only  give  you  sufficient  to  supply  the  wants  of  this 
present  life,  but  will  also  bestow  on  you  the  good  and  eternal 
rewards  which  are  laid  up  for  those  that  keep  His  command 
ments."  Thus  far  have  the  last  words  of  our  venerable  patron, 

G 


98  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  TIL 

as  he  was  about  to  leave  this  weary  pilgrimage  for  his  heavenly 
country,  been  preserved  for  recital  in  our  brief  narrative.  After 
these  words,  as  the  happy  hour  of  his  departure  gradually 
approached,  the  saint  became  silent.  Then  as  soon  as  the  bell 
tolled  at  midnight,  he  rose  hastily,  and  went  to  the  church ; 
and  running  more  quickly  than  the  rest,  he  entered  it  alone, 
and  knelt  down  in  prayer  beside  the  altar.  At  the  same 
moment  his  attendant  Diormit,  who  more  slowly  followed  him, 
saw  from  a  distance  that  the  whole  interior  of  the  church  was 
filled  with  a  heavenly  light  in  the  direction  of  the  saint.  And 
as  he  drew  near  to  the  door,  the  same  light  he  had  seen,  and 
which  was  also  seen  by  a  few  more  of  the  brethren  standing  at 
a  distance,  quickly  disappeared.  Diormit  therefore  entering 
the  church,  cried  out  in  a  mournful  voice,  "  Where  art  thou, 
father  ? "  And  feeling  his  way  in  the  darkness,  as  the  brethren 
had  not  yet  brought  in  the  lights,  he  found  the  saint  lying  be 
fore  the  altar ;  and  raising  him  up  a  little,  he  sat  down  beside 
him,  and  laid  his  holy  head  on  his  bosom.  Meanwhile  the 
rest  of  the  monks  ran  in  hastily  in  a  body  with  their  lights, 
and  beholding  their  dying  father,  burst  into  lamentations. 
And  the  saint,  as  we  have  been  told  by  some  who  were  present, 
even  before  his  soul  departed,  opened  wide  his  eyes  and  looked 
round  him  from  side  to  side,  with  a  countenance  full  of  wonder 
ful  joy  and  gladness,  no  doubt  seeing  the  holy  angels  coming 
to  meet  him.  Diormit  then  raised  the  holy  right  hand  of  the 
saint,  that  he  might  bless  his  assembled  monks.  And  the 
venerable  father  himself  moved  his  hand  at  the  same  time,  as 
well  as  he  was  able — that  as  he  could  not  in  words,  while  his 
soul  was  departing,  he  might  at  least,  by  the  motion  of  his 
hand,  be  seen  to  bless  his  brethren.  And  having  given  them 
his  holy  benediction  in  this  way,  he  immediately  breathed  his 
last.  After  his  soul  had  left  the  tabernacle  of  the  body,  his 
face  still  continued  ruddy,  and  brightened  in  a  wonderful  way 
by  his  vision  of  the  angels,  and  that  to  such  a  degree  that  he 
had  the  appearance,  not  so  much  of  one  dead,  as  of  one  alive 
and  sleeping.  Meanwhile  the  whole  church  resounded  with 
loud  lamentations  of  grief. 

I  must  not  omit  to  mention  the  revelation  made  to  a  certain 
saint  of  Ireland,  at  the  very  time  the  blessed  soul  departed. 
For  in  that  monastery  which  in  the  Scotic  language  is  called 
Clonifinchoil  (now'Eosnarea,  in  parish  of  Knockcommon,  Meath), 
there  was  a  holy  man  named  Lugud,  son  of  Tailchan,  one  who 
had  grown  old  in  the  service  of  Christ,  and  was  noted  for  his 
sanctity  and  wisdom.  Now  this  man  had  a  vision  which  at 
early  dawn  he  told  in  great  affliction  to  one  called  Fergnous, 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  III.  99 

who  was  like  himself  a  servant  of  Christ.  "  In  the  middle  of 
this  last  night,"  said  he,  "  Columba,  the  pillar  of  many  churches, 
passed  to  the  Lord ;  and  at  the  moment  of  his  blessed  departure, 
I  saw  in  the  spirit  the  whole  louan  island,  where  I  never  was 
in  the  body,  resplendent  with  the  brightness  of  angels  ;  and  the 
whole  heavens  above  it,  up  to  the  very  zenith,  were  illumined 
with  the  brilliant  light  of  the  same  heavenly  messengers,  who 
descended  in  countless  numbers  to  bear  away  his  holy  soul. 
At  the  same  moment,  also,  I  heard  the  loud  hymns  and  en- 
trancingly. sweet  canticles  of  the  angelic  host,  as  his  holy  soul 
was  borne  aloft  amidst  the  ascending  choirs  of  angels."  Virgnous, 
who  about  this  time  came  over  from  Scotia  (Ireland),  and  spent 
the  rest  of  his  life  in  the  Hinba  island  (Eilean-na-Naoimh), 
very  often  related  to  the  monks  of  St.  Columba  this  vision  of 
angels,  which,  as  has  been  said,  he  undoubtedly  heard  from  the 
lips  of  the  old  man  himself,  to  whom  it  had  been  granted.  This 
same  Virgnous,  having  for  many  years  lived  without  reproach  in 
obedience  amongst  the  brethren,  led  the  life  of  an  anchorite,  as  a 
victorious  soldier  of  Christ,  for  twelve  years  more,  in  the  her 
mitage  of  Muirbulcmar.  This  vision  above  mentioned  we  have 
not  only  found  in  writing,  but  have  heard  related  with  the 
utmost  freedom  by  several  well-informed  old  men  to  whom 
Virgnous  himself  had  told  it. 

Another  vision  also  given  at  the  same  hour  under  a  different 
form  was  related  to  me — Adamnan — who  was  a  young  man  at 
the  time,  by  one  of  those  who  had  seen  it ;  and  who  solemnly 
assured  me  of  its  truth.  He  was  a  very  old  man,  a  servant  of 
Christ,  whose  name  may  be  called  Ferreol,  but  in  the  Scotic 
tongue  Ernene,  of  the  race  of  Mocufirroide,  who,  as  being  him 
self  a  holy  monk,  is  buried  in  the  Eidge  of  Tomma  (now  Drum- 
home,  county  Donegal),  amidst  the  remains  of  other  monks  of 
St.  Columba,  and  awaits  the  resurrection  with  the  saints ;  he 
said :  "  On  that  night  when  St.  Columba,  by  a  happy  and 
blessed  death,  passed  from  earth  to  heaven,  while  I  and  others 
with  me  were  engaged  in  fishing  in  the  valley  of  the  river 
Fend  (the  Finn,  in  Donegal) — which  abounds  in  fish — we  saw 
the  whole  vault  of  heaven  become  suddenly  illuminated: 
Struck  by  the  suddenness  of  the  miracle,  we  raised  our  eyes  and 
looked  towards  the  east,  when,  lo !  there  appeared  something 
like  an  immense  pillar  of  fire,  which  seemed  to  us,  as  it  ascended 
upwards  at  that  midnight,  to  illuminate  the  whole  earth  like 
the  summer  sun  at  noon ;  and  after  that  column  penetrated  the 
heavens  darkness  followed,  as  if  the  sun  had  just  set.  And  not 
only  did  we,  who  were  together  in  the  same  place,  observe  with 
intense  surprise  the  brightness  of  this  remarkable  luminous 


100  THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  III. 

pillar,  but  many  other  fishermen  also,  who  were  engaged  in  fish 
ing  here  and  there  in  different  deep  pools  along  the  same  river, 
were  greatly  terrified,  as  they  afterwards  related  to  us,  by  an 
appearance  of  the  same  kind."  These  three  miraculous  visions, 
then,  which  were  seen  at  the  very  hour  of  our  venerable  patron's 
departure,  show  clearly  that  the  Lord  hath  conferred  on  him 
eternal  honours.  But  let  us  now  return  to  our  narrative. 

After  his  holy  soul  had  departed,  and  the  matin  hymns 
were  finished,  his  sacred  body  was  carried  by  the  brethren, 
chanting  psalms,  from  the  church  back  to  his  chamber,  from 
which  a  little  before  he  had  come  alive;  and  his  obsequies 
were  celebrated  with  all  due  honour  and  reverence  for  three 
days  and  as  many  nights.  And  when  these  sweet  praises  of 
God  were  ended,  the  venerable  body  of  our  holy  and  blessed 
patron  was  wrapped  in  a  clean  shroud  of  fine  linen,  and,  being 
placed  in  the  coffin  prepared  for  it,  was  buried  with  all  due 
veneration,  to  rise  again  with  lustrous  and  eternal  bright 
ness. 

And  now,  near  the  close  of  this  book,  we  shall  relate  what 
hath  been  told  us  by  persons  cognisant  of  the  facts,  regarding 
the  above-mentioned  three  days  during  which  his  obsequies 
were  celebrated  in  due  ecclesiastical  form.  It  happened  on 
one  occasion  that  a  certain  brother  speaking  with  great  sim 
plicity  in  the  presence  of  the  holy  and  venerable  man,  said  to 
him,  "  After  thy  death  all  the  people  of  these  provinces  will 
row  across  to  the  louan  island  (Hy,  now  lona),  to  celebrate 
thine  obsequies,  and  will  entirely  fill  it."  Hearing  this  said 
the  saint  immediately  replied  :  "  JSTo,  my  child,  the  event  will 
not  turn  out  as  thou  sayest ;  for  a  promiscuous  throng  of  people 
shall  not  by  any  means  be  able  to  come  to  my  obsequies :  none 
but  the  monks  of  my  monastery  will  perform  my  funeral  rites, 
and  grace  the  last  offices  bestowed  upon  me."  And  the  fulfil 
ment  of  this  prophecy  was  brought  about  immediately  after  his 
death  by  God's  almighty  power;  for  there  arose  a  storm  of 
wind  without  rain,  which  blew  so  violently  during  those  three 
days  and  nights  of  his  obsequies,  that  it  entirely  prevented 
every  one  from  crossing  the  Sound  in  his  little  boat.  And  im 
mediately  after  the  interment  of  the  blessed  man,  the  storm 
was  quelled  at  once,  the  wind  ceased,  and  the  whole  sea  became 
calm. 

Let  the  reader  therefore  think  in  what  and  how  great  honour 
our  illustrious  patron  was  held  by  God,  seeing  that,  while  he 
was  yet  in  this  mortal  flesh,  God  was  pleased  at  his  prayer  to 
quell  the  storms  and  to  calm  the  seas;  and  again,  when  he 
found  it  necessary,  as  on  the  occasion  just  mentioned,  the  gales 


THE  LIFE  OF  SAINT  COLUMBA.      BOOK  III.  101 

of  wind  arose  as  he  wished,  and  the  sea  was  lashed  into  fury  ; 
and  this  storm,  as  hath  been  said,  was  immediately,  so  soon  as 
his  funeral  rites  were  performed,  changed  into  a  great  calm. 
Such,  then,  was  the  end  of  our  illustrious  patron's  life,  and 
such  is  an  earnest  of  all  his  merits. 

And  now,  according  to  the  sentence  of  the  Holy  Scrip 
tures,  sharing  in  eternal  triumphs,  added  to  the  patriarchs, 
associated  with  the  prophets  and  apostles,  numbered  amongst 
the  thousands  of  white-robed  saints,  who  have  washed  their 
robes  in  the  blood  of  the  Lamb,  he  followeth  the  Lamb  whither 
soever  He  goeth ;  a  virgin  immaculate,  free  from  all  stain, 
through  the  grace  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ :  to  whom,  with 
the  Father,  be  honour,  and  power,  and  praise,  and  glory,  and 
eternal  dominion,  in  the  unity  of  the  Holy  Ghost  for  ever  and 
ever. 

After  reading  these  three  books,  let  the  diligent  reader  ob 
serve  of  what  and  how  great  merit,  of  what  and  how  high 
honour  in  the  sight  of  God  our  holy  and  venerable  abbot  must 
have  been  deemed  worthy,  how  great  and  many  were  the  bright 
visits  of  the  angels  made  to  him,  how  full  of  the  prophetic 
spirit,  how  great  his  power  of  miracles  wrought  in  God,  how 
often  and  to  what  great  extent,  while  yet  he  was  abiding  in 
this  mortal  flesh,  he  was  surrounded  by  a  halo  of  heavenly 
light ;  and  how,  even  after  the  departure  of  his  most  kindly 
soul  from  the  tabernacle  of  the  body,  until  the  present  day  the 
place  where  his  sacred  bones  repose,  as  has  been  clearly  shown 
to  certain  chosen  persons,  doth  not  cease  to  be  frequently 
visited  by  the  holy  angels,  and  illumined  by  the  same  heavenly 
brightness.  And  this  unusual  favour  hath  been  conferred  by 
God  on  this  same  man  of  blessed  memory;  that  though  he 
lived  in  this  small  and  remote  island  of  the  British  sea,  his 
name  hath  not  only  become  illustrious  throughout  the  whole  of 
our  own  Scotia  (Ireland),  and  Britain,  the  largest  island  of  the 
whole  world,  but  hath  reached  even  unto  triangular  Spain,  and 
into  Gaul,  and  to  Italy,  which  lieth  beyond  the  Penine  Alps ; 
and  also  to  the  city  of  Eome  itself,  the  head  of  all  cities.  This 
great  and  honourable  celebrity,  amongst  other  marks  of  divine 
favour,  is  known  to  have  been  conferred  on  this  same  saint  by 
God,  Who  loveth  those  that  love  Him,  and  raiseth  them  to 
immense  honour  by  glorifying  more  and  more  those  that 
magnify  and  truly  praise  Him,  Who  is  blessed  for  evermore. 
Amen. 

I  beseech  those  who  wish  to  transcribe  these  books,  yea, 
rather  I  adjure  them  by  Christ,  the  Judge  of  the  world,  after 


102  THE  LIFE  OF  ST.  COLUMBA.      BOOK  III. 

they  have  diligently  transcribed,  carefully  to  compare  and 
correct  their  copies  with  that  from  which  they  have  copied 
them,  and  also  to  subjoin  here  this  adjuration  : — 

Whoever  readeth  these  books  on  the  virtues  of  St.  Columba,  let 
him  pray  to  the  Lord  for  me  Dorbbene,  that  after  death  I  may 
possess  eternal  life. 


VITA   SANCTI  COLUMB^l 

AUCTOBE   ADAMNANO. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^. 


lln  jjamiiie  Jtestt  Christi 

nostri  Patroni,  Christo  2suffragante,  vitam  3descrip- 
turus,  fratrum  flagitationibus  obsecundare  volens,  in  primia 
eandem  lectures  quosque  4admonere  procurabo  ut  fidem  dictis 
adhibeant  5compertis,  et  res  inagis  quam  verba  perpendant, 
quae,  ut  aestimo,  inculta  et  villa  esse  videntur ;  meininerintque 
regnum  Dei  non  in  eloquentiae  exuberantia,  sed  in  fidei  floru- 
lentia  constare ;  et  nee  ob  aliqua  Scoticse,  vilis  videlicet  6linguse, 
aut  7humana  onomata,  aut  gentium,  8obscura  locorumve  voca- 
bula,  quse,  ut  puto,  inter  alias  9exterarum  gentium  10diversas 
11vilescunt  linguas,  utilium,  et  non  sine  divina  opitulatione  ges- 
tarum,  12despiciant  rerum  pronuntiationem.  Sed  et  hoc  lectorem 
13admonendum  putavimus,  quod  de  beatas  memoriaa  viro  plura, 
studio  brevitatis,  etiam  14memoria  digna,  a  nobis  15sint  16pr83- 
termissa,  et  quasi  pauca  de  plurimis  17ob  evitandum  fastidium 
18lecturorum  sint  19caraxata.  Et  hoc,  ut  arbitror,  quisque  haec 
lecturus  forte  annotabit,  quod  minima  de  maximis  per  populos 

I  Incipit  prim  a  praefatio  apologiaque  Adomnani  abbatis  sancti  scriptoris  in 
vitam  S.   Columbre  confessoris  et  abbatis  C. — vite  sancti  Coltimbae  S.     In- 
ci])it  prologus  Adamnani  abbatis  in  vita   sancti   Columbas  abbatis  et   con 
fessoris  D.     om.  F.     Codex  B  acephalus  eat,  hodleque  ad  -ro  pectore  verbo 
in  cap.  3  incipit.  2  Sufragante  A.  3  discripturus  A.  F.  S. 

4  ammonere  A.  F.  S.          5  conpertis  A.  6  lingse  A.      lingue  D. 

7  iiomina  anomala  inepte  Boll.  8  ad  exterarum  om.  C. 

9  A.  D.  F.  S.  externarum.  Colg.  Boll.  10  om.  D. 

II  vilescant  C.  in  marg.  sive  vilefaciant  Mess.  12  dispiciant  A. 

13  ammonendum  A.  F.     ammonendi  D.  14  memorise  D.  F. 

^  sunt  C.  16  prastermisa.  ^  ad  D.  18  lectorum  C.  D.  F.  S. 

C.  D.  F.  S.  craxata  A.  octies  in  hac  vita,  quinquies  prceterea  in  tractatu 
De  Locis  Sanctis,  hcec  forma,  verislmiliter  Adamnani  propria,  adh'ibetur. 
Stephanus  Vitus,  cujas  apographo  Codicis  A.  usl  sunt  Colyanus  et  Bollandlstce, 
exarare  hie  et  alibi  substitute;  volens,  ut  ait  Baertius,  plus  quam  oportebat 
sapere. 


106  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMBA. 

fama,  de  eodem  beato  viro  20divulgata,  disperserit,  ad  horum 
21etiam  paucorum  22comparationem,  quse  mine  breviter  23caraxare 
disponimus.  24Hinc,  post  hanc  primam  prsefatiunculam,  de 
nostri  vocamine  praesulis  in  exordio  secundse,  Deo  auxiliante, 
intimare  exordiar. 


1In  U-omitue  Jfasu  (Ehiisti  <§*nntba; 

"^ii  IE  erat  vitse  venerabilis  et  beatse  memoriEe,  monasteriorum 
pater  et  fundator,  cum  lona  2propheta  3homonymum  4sortitus 
nomen;  nam  licet  diverso  trium  diversarum  6sono  linguarum, 
6unam  tamen  eandemque  rem  significat  hoc,  quod  7Hebraice 
dicitur  ION  A,  8Grcecitas  vero  9I1EPI2TEPA  10vocitat,  et  Latina 
lingua  COLUMBA  nuncupatur.  Tale  tantumque  vocabulum 
homini  Dei  non  nsine  divina  12inditum  providentia  creditur. 
Nam  et  juxta  Evangeliorum  fidem  Spiritus  Sanctus  super  Uni- 
genitum  seterni  Patris  13descendisse  monstratur  in  forma  illius 
aviculse  quae  columba  dicitur  :  unde  plerumque  in  sacrosanctis 
libris  u  columba  mystice  Spiritum  Sanctum  significare  15dignos- 
citur.  Proinde  et  Salvator  in  evangelio  suo  prsecepit  discipulis 
ut  columbarum  in  cordepuro  insertam  16simplicitatem  17contin- 
erent ;  columba  etenim  18  simplex  et  innocens  est  avis.  Hoc 
itaque  vocamine  et  homo  simplex  innocensque  nuncupari  de- 
buit  qui  in  se  columbinis  moribus  Spiritui  Sancto  hospitium 
prsbbuit :  cui  nomini  non  inconvenienter  congruit  illud  quod  in 
Proverbiis  scriptum  est,  Melius  est  nomen  bonum  quam  divitise 
multse.  Hie  igitur  noster  prsesul  non  19immerito,  non  solum  20a 
diebus  infantise  hoc  vocabulo,  Deo  donante,  adornatus,  proprio 
ditatus  est,  sed  etiam  21prsemissis  multorum  22cyclis  annorum 
ante  23su8e  nativitatis  diem  cuidam  Christi  iniliti,  Spiritu  reve- 
lante  Sancto,  quasi  films  repromissionis  mirabili  prophetatione 

-°  devulgata  A.  D.  21  om.  C.  22  conparationera  A. 

-3  C.  D.  F.  S.    craxare  A.    exarare  Colg.  Boll.  24  ad  exordiar  om.  D. 

1  Incipit  praefatio  seounda  C.  F.  S.     Incipit  secundus  prologus  D. 

2  profeta  A.  3  ornonimon  A.  D.  F.  S.    homonymum  C. 
4  sortitus  est  C.                            5  om.  D.  G  nomine  add.  D. 

1  Ebraice  A.  8  Grecitas  A. 

9  IIHPICTHPA  A.  F.  S.     NHIIIOTHTA  peristera  C. 

10  vocitatur  D.  n  esse  add.  F. 

12  providentia  inditum  esse  credimus  C.  D.  S.  13  filium  add.  C.  D. 

14  om.  C.  15  dinoscitur  A.  S.      1G  semplicitatem  A. 

17  contenerent  A. 

18  semplex  A.  S.,  et  simplex  innocensque  nuncupari  debuit  C. 

19  inmerito  A.  F.  S. 

20  adiebus  A.  duo  vcrba  atepe  In  cod.  A.  more  Hibernico  cohcercnt. 

21  prasmisis  A.  22  circulis  D.  23  om.  D. 


SECUNDA  PlUiFATIO.  107 

nominate  est.  Nam  quidam  proselytus  24Brito,  homo  sanctus, 
sancti  Patricii  25episcopi  discipulus,  26Maucteus  nomine,  ita  de 
nostro  27prophetizavit  Patrono,  sicuti  nobis  ab  antiquis  traditum 
expertis  compertum  habetur.  In  novissimis,  28ait,  2yseculi  29tem- 
poribus  n'lius  nasciturus  est,  cujus  nomen  Columba  per  omnes 
insularum  30oceani  31provincias  32divulgabitur  notum ;  novissi- 
maque  orbis  tempora  33clare  34illustrabit.  Mei  et  ipsius  duorum 
35monasteriolorum  agelluli  unius  sepisculaa  intervallo  distermina- 
buntur :  homo  valde  Deo  carus,  et  grandis  coram  ipso  meriti. 
Hujus  igitur  nostri  Columbse  vitam  et  mores  describens,  in 
primis  36brevi  sermonis  textu,  in  quantum  valuero,  strictim  com- 
prehendam,  et  ante  lectoris  oculos  sanctam  ejus  conversatio- 
nem  pariter  exponam.  Sed  et  de  miraculis  ejus  succincte 
quasdam,  quasi  legentibus  avide  preegustanda,  ponam ;  quse 
tarn  en  inferius,  per  37tres  divisa  libros,  plenius  explicabuntur. 
Quorum  Primus  3Spropheticas  revelationes ;  Secundusverodivinas 
per  ipsum  virtutes  effectas  ;  Tertius  angelicas  apparitiones,  39con- 
tinebit,  et  quasdam  super  hominem  Dei  cselestis  claritudinis 
40manifestationes.  Nemo  itaque  me  de  hoc  tarn  preedicabili  viro 
aut  mentitum  sestimet,  aut  quasi,  qu&dam  dubia  vel  incerta 
scripturum :  sed  ea  qua3  majorum  fideliumque  virorum  tradita 
expertorum  41congrua  relatione  42narraturum,  et  sine  ulla  ambi- 
guitate  43caraxaturum  sciat,  et  vel  ex  his  quas  ante  nos  inserta 
paginis  44reperire  potuimus,  45vel  ex  his  quae  46auditu  ab  expertis 
quibusdam  fidelibus  antiquis,  sine  ulla  dubitatione  narrantibus, 
diligentius  sciscitantes,  didicimus. 

1  SANCTUS  igitur  Columba  2nobilibus  3fuerat  oriundus  genit- 
alibus,  patrem  4habens  5Fedilmithum  filium  6Eerguso  ;  matrem 
7Aethneam  nomine, 8  cujus  pater  Latine  Filius  Navis  dici  potest, 

24   Britto  T>.  25  archiepiscopi  D. 

26  Maucteus  A.   F.    S.       Moctheus  D.       Maueteus  C.  in  cujus  errorem, 
MAVETEUS  tradena,  ineptius  discedit  Pink.     Mauctaneus  Colg.  Boll. 

27  profetizavit  A.  28  inquit  C.  D.  29  transp.  C.  D. 

30  ociani  A.  31  provintias  F.  32  devulgabitur  A. 

J3  om.  D.  3i  inlustrabit  A.  S.  35  monasteriorum  C. 

30  brevis  C.  37  tris  A.  38  profeticas  A. 

30  contenebit  A.  3°-40  manifestationes  continebit  C. 

40  manifestationis  A.       4l  legi  neqult  in  A.     cognovi  C.  F.  S.    congruo  D. 

12  narrantiumC.  narratur  D.          4;J  craxaturum  A.  exaratunim  Colg.  Boll. 

44  repperire  A.  45  ut  C.  46  audivi  C. 

1  Incipit  liber  primus  de  propheticis  revelationibus  C.  S.    Explicit  secnndus 
prologus  in  vita  sancti  Columbe  abbatis  et  confessoris  Incipit  primus  liber  in 
vita  sanctissimi  Columbe  abbatis  et  confessoris  D. 

2  ex  add.  D.  3  faft  D  4  owl>  p. 

5  Fedelmitum  C.  Fedilmithum  A.  F.  S.  Feidlimyd  D.  Fedhlimidium 
Mess.  °  A.  F.  Ferguis  D.  Fergusii  C. 

7  A.  S.     Aetheam  F.     Ethneam  D. 

8  usque  ad  Nave  vio/.enter  deletus  in  S.     om.  D. 


108  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^E. 

Scotica  vero  lingua  9Mac  Nave.  Hie  anno  secundo  post  10Cule- 
drebinae  bellum,  setatis  vero  suse  xlii.  de  n  Scotia  ad  Britanniam 
pro  Christo  12peregrinari  volens,  enavigavit.  Qui  13et  a  puero 
14Christiano  deditus  tirocinio,  et  sapientise  studiis  integritatem 
corporis  et  animee  puritatem,  Deo  donante,  custodiens,  quamvis 
in  terra  positus,  coelestibus  se  aptum  moribus  ostendebat.  Erat 
enim  aspectu  angelicus,  sermone  nitidus,  opere  sanctus,  ingenio 
optimus,  consilio  magnus,  per  annos  xxxiv.  insulamis  miles 
15conversatus.  Nullum  etiam  unius  horse  intervallum  transire 
poterat,  quo  non  aut  oration i  aut  lectioni,  vel  scrip  tioni,  vel 
etiam  alicui  operationi,  incumberet.  Jejunationum  quoque  et 
vigiliarum  16indefessis  17laboribus  sine  ulla  18intermissione  19die 
noctuque  20ita  occupatus,  21ut  supra  humanam  possibilitatem 
uniuscujusque  pondus  specialis  22  videretur  operis.  Et  inter  hsec 
omnibus  carus,  hilarem  23  semper  faciem  ostendens  24sanctam, 
Spiritus  Sancti  gaudio  25intimis  laetificabatur  prsecordiis. 

9  A.  F.     Macanaua  C. 

10  A.  Culedreibhne  C.  D.     Culae  drebinae  S.     Cule-drehtinae  male  Colg. 

Boll.  n  Scothea  S.    Hybernia  D.  12  perigrinare  A. 

!3  etiam  C.  D.  14  deditus  Christiano  C. 

15  est  versatus  C.     conversatus  est  F.  D.  conservatus  S. 

16  indefesis  A.     indefessus  C.  17  laborationibus  C.  D.  F.  S. 
18  intermisione  A.               19  diu  C.  20  occupatus  ita  C. 

21  erat  add.  F.          22  operis  videretur  C.       23  om..  F.    semper  hilarem  D. 
24  sanctorum  specie  Sancti  Spiritus  C.     sancto  Boll.  25  in  add.  D. 


lflmt  fl  ritra  ICibri  2Capitulaticme£  arbhmtttr. 


]H)E  virtutum  miraculis  brevis  narratio. 

De  sancto  Finteno  abbate,  Tailchani   filio,  quomodo  de  ipso 
sanctus  Columba  3prophetavit. 

De  Erneneo,  filio  Craseni,  3prophetia  ejus. 
De  adventu  Cainnichi  quomodo  praenuntiavit. 

De  periculo  sancti  Colmani  gente  Mocusailni  sancto  Columbaa 
revelato. 

De  Cormaco  nepote  I^etha  3prophetationes  ejus. 
De  bellis. 
De  regibus. 

De  duobus  pueris  secundum  verbum  ejus  in  fine  septimanse 
mortuis. 

De  Colcio  filio  Aido  Draigniche,  et  de  quodain  occulto  matris 
ipsius  peccato. 

De  signo  mortis  ejusdem  viri  3prophetia  sancti  Columbae. 

De  Laisrano  hortulano. 

De  Ceto  magno  quomodo  3prophetavit. 

De  quodam  Baitano,  qui  cum  cseteris  ad  maritimum  remigavit 
deserturn. 

De  quodam   Nemano   ficto  4pcenitente,  qui  postea   secundum 
verbum  sancti  carnem  equae  furtiva?  comedit. 

De  illo  infelici  viro  qui  cum  sua  genitrice  peccavit. 
De  I  vocali  littera  quaB  una  in  5Psalterio  defuit. 
De  libro  in  6hydriarn  cadente. 
De  corniculo  atramenti  inclinato. 


1  Omnia  usque  ad  cap.  2  desunt  in  C.  I).  F.  S.     Elenchus  in  Colg.  Boll. 
ad  numerum  capitulorum  expletus  est.  2  Kapitulationes  A. 

3  profet.  A.  4  penetente  A.  5  salterio  A.  6  ytlriam  A. 


1  10  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB.E. 

De  adventu  alicujus  Aidani  qui  jejunium  solvit. 

De  aliquo  misero  viro,  qui  ad  fretum  clamitabat,  mox  mori- 
turo. 

De  civitate  Eomance  partis,  super  quam  ignis  de  ccelo  7cecidit. 

De   Laisrano   filio   Feradaig,  quomodo  8monachos  probavit  in 
labore. 

De  Fechno  9Binc. 

De  Cailtano  mouacho. 

De  duobus  peregrinis. 

De  Artbranano  sene,  quern  in  Scia  insula  10baptizavit. 

De  naviculae  transmotatione  juxta  stagnum  Loch-dire. 

De  Gallano  filio  Faehtni  quern  dsemones  rapuere. 

De  Lugidio  Claudo. 

De  Enaiio  filio  uGruth. 

De  12presbitero  qui  erat  in  Triota. 

De  Erco  furunculo. 

De  Cronano  poeta. 

De  Eonano  filio  Aido  filii  Colcen,  et  Colmano  Cane  filio  Aileni, 
13proplietia  Sancti. 


7  cicidit  A.  8  manacos  A.  y  obscure  A. 

10  babtizavit  A.  ll  sic  A.  12  prespitero  A. 

13  profetia  A. 


INCIPIT  PEIMI  LTBEI  TEXTUS,  DE  ^EOPHETICIS 
EEVELATIONIBUS. 


birttttum  JEiramli0  butoi*  narrati*. 

venerandus  qualia  virtutum  documenta  dederit,  CAP.  I. 
in  hujus  libelli  primordiis,  secundum  nostram  2pr8emissam  supe- 
rius  3promissiunculam,  breviter  sunt  demonstranda.  Diver- 
sorum  namque  infestationes  4morborum  homines,  in  nomine 
Domini  Jesu  Christi,  virtute  orationum,  perpessos  sanavit : 
dsemonumque  infestas  ipse  unus  homo,  et  innumeras  contra  se 
belligerantes  catervas,  5oculis  corporalibus  visas,  et  incipientes 
mortiferos  super  ejus  6coenobialem  coetum  inferre  morbos,  hac 
nostra  de  insula  retrotrusas  primaria,  Deo  auxiliante,  repulit. 
Bestiarum  furiosam  rabiem,  partim  mortificatione,  partini  forti 
repulsione,  Christo  adjuvante  7compescuit.  Tumores  quoque 
fluctuum,  instar  montium  aliquando  in  magna  tempestate  con- 
surgentium,  ipso  ocius  orante,  sedati  humiliatique  sunt ;  navis- 
que  ipsius,  in  qua  et  ipse  casu  navigabat,  tune  temporis,  facta 
8tranquillitate,  porturn  appulsa  est  optatum.  In  regione 
Pictorum  aliquantis  diebus  manens,  inde  reversus  ut  magos 
confunderet,  contra  flatus  contraries  9venti  erexit  velum,  et  ita 
veloci  cursu  ejus  navicula  enatans  festinabat,  ac  si  secundum 
habuisset  ventum.  Aliis  quoque  temporibus,  venti  naviganti- 
bus  contrarii  in  secundos,  ipso  orante,  conversi  sunt.  In  eadem 
supra  memorata  regione  lapidem  de  fluinine  candidum  detulit, 
quern  ad  aliquas  profuturum  benedixit  sanitates :  qui  lapis, 
contra  naturam,  in  aqua  intinctus,  quasi  pomum  supernatavit. 
Hoc  divinum  miraculum  coram  Brudeo  rege,  et  familiaribus 
ejus,  factum  est.  In  eadem  itidem  provincia,  10cujusdam  plebei 

1  profetia  A.  2  prsemisam  A.  3  promisiunculam  A. 

4  membrorum  Colg,  Boll.  r>  occulis  A.  c  cenubialeni  A. 

7  eonpiscuit  A.  8  tranquilitate  A.  y  ponti  Colg.  Boll. 

10  om.  Colg.  Boll. 


112  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^.      LIBER  I. 

credentis  mortuum  puerum  suscitavit,  quod  est  rnajoris  mira- 
culi,  vivumque  et  incolumem  patri  et  matri  assignavit.  Alio 
in  tempore  idem  vir  beatus  juvenis  diaconus,  in  nHiberma 
apud  Eindbarrum  sanctum  episcopum  commanens,  cum  ad 
sacrosancta  mysteria  necessarium  defuisset  vinum,  virtute 
orationis,  aquam  puram  in  verum  vertit  vinum.  Sed  et  ccelestis 
ingens  claritudinis  lumen,  et  in  noctis  tenebris,  et  in  luce  diei, 
super  eum,  aliquando  quibusdam  ex  fratribus,  diversis  et 
separatis  vicibus,  apparuit  effusum.  Sanctorum  quoque  angel- 
orum  dulces  et  suavissimas  frequentationes  luminosas  habere 
meruit.  Quorumdam  justorum  animas  crebro  ab  angelis  ad 
summa  coelorum  vehi,  Sancto  revelante  Spiritu,  videbat.  Sed 
et  reproborum  alias  ad  inferna  a  daemonibus  12ferri  saepenumero 
aspiciebat.  Plurimorum  in  carne  mortali  adhuc  conversantium 
futura  plerumque  prsenuntiabat  merita,  aliorum  laeta,  aliorum 
tristia.  In  bellorumque  terrificis  fragoribus  hoc  a  Deo  virtute 
orationum  13impetravit,  ut  alii  reges  victi,  et  alii  regnatores 
efficerentur  victores.  Hoc  tale  14privilegium  non  tantum  in  hac 
prsesenti  vita  conversanti,  sed  etiam  post  ejus  de  carne  tran- 
situm,  quasi  cuidam  victoriali  15et  fortissimo  propugnatori,  a 
Deo  omnium  sanctorum  condonatum  est  honorificatore.  Hujus 
talis  honorificentiae  viro  honorabili  ab  Omnipotente  ccelitus 
collatse  etiam  unum  proferemus  exemplum,  quod  160ssualdo 
regnatori  Saxonico,  pridie  quam  contra  17Catlonem  Britonum 
regem  fortissimum  praeliaretur,  ostensum  erat.  Nam  cum  idem 
Ossualdus  rex  esset  in  procinctu  belli  castra  metatus,  quadarn 
die  in  18suo  papilione  supra  pulvillum  dormiens,  sanctum 
Columbam  in  visu  videt  forma  coruscantem  angelica ;  cujus  alta 
proceritas  vertice  nubes  tangere  videbatur.  Qui  scilicet  19vir 
beatus,  suum  regi  proprium  revelans  nomen,  in  medio  castrorum 
stans,  eadem  castra,  excepta  quadam  parva  extremitate,  20sui 
protegebat  fulgida  veste ;  et  haec  confirmatoria  contulit  verba, 
eadem  scilicet  quae  Dominus  ad  Jesue  21Ben  Nun  ante  tran- 
situm  Jordanis,  mortuo  Moyse,  22prolocutus  est,  dicens  :  Confor- 
tare  et  age  viriliter;  ecce  ero  tecuin  etc.  Sanctus  itaque 
Columba,  haec  ad  regem  in  visu  loquens,  addit :  Hac  sequenti 
nocte  de  castris  ad  bellum  precede;  hac  enim  vice  mihi 
Dominus  donavit  ut  hostes  in  fugam  vertantur  tui,  et  tuus 
^Cation  inimicus  in  manus  tradatur  tuas,  et  post  bellum  victor 

11  Ebernia  A.  12  om.  Colg.  rapi  Boll.  13  inpetravit  A. 

14  i>raevilegium  A.          15  om.  Colg.  Boll.  1C  Oswaldo  Colg.  Boll. 

17  Cathlonem  Fordun,  iii.  42.    Cathotiem  Boll.  18  sua  A. 

19  om.  Colg.  Boll.  20  suos  Colg.     sua  Boll,  sui  Fordun. 

21  A.  Fordun.     annum  Colg.     om.  Boll.  22  proloqutus  A. 

23  Cathlon  Fordun.      Catlion  Boll. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^E.      LIBER  T.  113 

revertaris,  et  feliciter  regnes.  Post  haec  verba  24experrectus 
rex  senatui  congregate  hanc  25enarrat  visionem ;  qua  confortati 
omnes,  totus  populus  promittit  se  post  reversionem  de  bello 
crediturum  et  26baptismum  suscepturum:  nam  usque  in  id 
temporis  tota  ilia  Saxonia  gentilitatis  et  ignorantise  tenebris 
obscurata  erat,  excepto  ipso  rege  Ossualdo,  cum  duodecim  viris, 
qui  cum  eo  Scotos  inter  27exulante  28baptizati  sunt.  Quid 
plura  ?  eadem  subsecuta  nocte  Ossualdus  rex,  sicuti  in  visu 
edoctus  fuerat,  de  castris  ad  bellum,  cum  admodum  pauciore 
exercitu,  contra  29millia  numerosa  progreditur ;  cui  a  Domino, 
sicut  ei  promissum  est,  felix  et  facilis  est  concessa  victoria,  et 
rege  trucidato  30Catlone,  victor  post  31bellum  re  versus,  postea 
totius  Britannise  imperator  a  Deo  ordinatus  est.  Hanc  mini 
32Adamnano  narrationem  meus  decessor,  noster  abbas  Failbeus, 
indubitanter  enarravit,  qui  se  ab  ore  ipsius  Ossualdi  regis, 
Segineo  abbati  eamdem  enuntiantis  visionem,  audisse  protes- 
tatus  est. 

Sed  et  hoc  etiam  non  prsetereundum  videtur,  quod  ejusdem 
beati  viri  per  quaedam  Scoticse  33 linguae  34laudum  ipsius  carmina, 
et  nominis  35commemorationem,  quidam,  quamlibet  scelerati 
laicae  conversationis  homines  et  sanguinarii,  ea  nocte  qua  eadem 
decantaverant  cantica,  de  manibus  36inimicorum  qui  eamdem 
eorumdem  cantorum  domum  circumsteterant  sint  liberati ;  qui 
flammas  inter  et  gladios  et  lanceas  incolumes  evasere,  mirumque 
in  modum  pauci  ex  ipsis,  qui  easdem  sancti  viri  37commemora- 
tiones,  quasi  parvi  pendentes,  canere  38noluerant  decantationes,  in 
illo  aemulorum  impetu  soli  disperierant.  Hujus  miraculi  testes 
non  duo  aut  tres,  juxta  legem,  sed  etiam  centeni,  et  eo  amplius, 
adhiberi  potuere.  Non  tantum  in  uno,  aut  loco,  aut  tempore, 
hoc  idem  39contigisse  comprobatur,  sed  etiam  diversis  locis  et 
temporibus  in  Scotia  et  in  Britannia,  simili  tamen  et  modo  et 
causa  liberationis,  factum  fuisse,  sine  ulla  ambiguitate  explora- 
tum  est.  Hsec  ab  expertis  uniuscujusque  regionis,  ubicumque 
res  eadem  simili  40contigit  miraculo  indubitanter  didicimus. 

Sed,  ut  ad  41propositum  redeamus,  inter  ea  miracula  quae 
idem  vir  Domini,  in  carne  mortali  conversans,  Deo  donante, 


24  prius  expergitus  in  A.  25  enarravit  Colg.  Boll. 

26  babtismum  A.     baptisma  Ford.         27  exsolante  A._    exulantes  Ford. 
28  babtizati  A.          *9  milia  A.  30  Cathone  Boll.     Cadwallone  Ford. 

11  bella  Ford.  32  Ford.  Adomnano  A.  33  ling®  A. 

34  laudem  Colg.     carmina  laudera  ipsius  Boll. 

35  commendationem  Colg.  Boll.  3ti  om.  Colg.  eorum  Boll. 
37  commemorationis  A.                          38  noluerunt  Colg.  Bolg. 

39  contegisse  conprobatur  A.  40  contegit.  41  propossitum  A. 

H 


114  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMILE.      LIBER  I. 

42perfecerat,  ab  annis  juvenilibus  coepit  etiam  prophetise  spiritu 
pollere,  ventura  prsedicere,  prsesentibus  absentia  nuntiare  ;  quia 
quamvis  absens  corpore,  prsesens  tamen  spiritu,  longe  acta  43per- 
videre  poterat.  Nam,  juxta  Pauli  vocem,  Qui  adhaeret  Domino 
unus  spiritus  est.  Unde  et  idem  vir  Domini  sanctus  Columba, 
sicut  et  ipse  quibusdam  paucis  fratribus,  de  re  eadem  aliquando 
percunctantibus,  non  negavit,  in  aliquantis  dialis  gratise  specu- 
lationibus  totum  etiam  mundum,  veluti  uno  solis  radio  collec- 
tum,  sinu  mentis  mirabiliter  laxato,  manifestatum  perspiciens 
speculabatur. 

Haec  de  sancti  viri  hie  ideo  enarrata  sunt  virtutibus,  ut  avidior 
lector  breviter  perscripta,  quasi  dulciores  quasdam  praegustet 
dapes:  quae  tamen  plenius  in  tribus  inferius  libris,  Domino 
auxiliante,  enarrabuntur.  Nunc  mihi  non  indecenter  videtur, 
beati  viri,  licet  prsepostero  ordine,  prophetationes  effari,  quas  de 
sanctis  quibusdam  et  illustribus  viris,  diversis  prolocutus  est 
temporibus. 


J5^  gander  Jfintemr,  abbate,  filio 

CAP.  ii.  J^fANCTUS  2Fintenus,  qui  postea  per  universas  Scotorum 
ecclesias  valde  3  noscibilis  habitus  est,  a  puerili  aetate  integri- 
tatem  carnis  et  animae,  Deo  adjuvante,  custodiens,  studiis  4  dialis 
5sophias  deditus,  hoc  propositum,in  annis  6juventutisconversatus, 
in  corde  habuit,  ut  nostrum  sanctum  Columbam,  7  Hiberniam 
deserens,  peregrinaturus  adiret.  Eodem  aestuans  desiderio,  ad 
quemdam  vadit  seniorem  sibi  amicum,  in  sua  gente  prudentis- 
simum  venerandumque  clericum,  qui  Scotice  8vocitabatur 
9Columb  Crag,  ut  ab  eo,  quasi  prudente,  aliquod  audiret  con- 
silium.  Cui  cum  10suos  tales  denudaret  ncogitatus,  hoc  ab  eo 
responsum  12accepit :  Tuum,  ut  sestimo,  13a  Deo  inspiratum  de- 
votumque  desiderium  quis  prohibere  potest,  ne  ad  sanctum 
Columbam  14transnavigare  I14  debeas?  15  Eadem  hora  casu  duo 
adveniunt  monachi  sancti  Columbse,  qui  de  sua  interrogati 
ambulatione,  Nuper,  aiunt,  de  Britannia  remigantes,  hodie  a 

4'2  perficerat  A.  43  praevidere  Colg.  Boll. 

1  titulus  desideratur  in  C.  D.  S.  F.  Boll.  2  finntanus  D. 

3  nocibHis  D.  4  A.  D.  F.  S.  dialecticalis  C. 

6  sotias  A.  F.  S.      sophie  D.  c  juventatis  A. 

7  C.  D.  F.  S.  heverniam  A.  8  dicitur  D. 

9  colum  crag  A.     Columba  Cragius  ODonnellus  in  Vit.  S.  Columbce,  iii.  65, 
vcrtente  Colg.  columbus  (crag.  om).  C.  D.  F.  S. 

10  suas  D.  ll  cogitationes  D.  12  accipit  A. 

13  adeo  C.  14  adeas  D. 

15  omnia  desunt  usque  ad  idem  sanctus,  cap.  3  D. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^).      LIBER  I.  115 

Roboreto  16Calgachi  venimus.     Sospes  17anne  est,  ait  18Columb 
19  Crag,  vester  Columba  sanctus]  pater  ?     Qui  valde  illacrymati, 
cum  magno  dixerunt  mserore,  Vere  salvus  est  noster  ille  patronus, 
qui  his   diebus  nuper  ad   Christum  20commigravit.     Quibus 
auditis,  21Fintenus  et  22Columb  et  omnes  qui  ibidem  inerant, 
prostratis  in  terrain  vultibus,  amare  23flevere.    Fintenus  conse- 
qu  enter  percunctatur  dicens :  Quern  post  se  successoremreliquit? 
24Baitheneum,  aiunt,  suum  alumnum.    Omnibusque  clamitanti- 
bus,  Dignum  et  debitum ;  25Columb  ad  Fintenum  26inquit :  Quid 
ad  hsec,  Fintene,  facies  ?     Qui  respondens  ait :  Si  Dominus  per- 
miserit,  ad  Baitheneum  virum  sanctum  et  sapientem  enavigabo 
et  si  me  susceperit,  ipsum  abbatem  habebo.     Turn  deinde  supra 
memoratum  27Columb  osculatus,  et  ^ei  valedicens,  navigationem 
prseparat,  et  sine  morula  ulla  transnavigans,  ^louam  devenit 
insulam.     Et  necdum,  in  id  temporis  usque,  nomen  ejus  in  his 
locis  erat  notum.      Unde  et  imprimis  quasi  quidam  ignotus 
hospes  hospitaliter  30susceptus,  alia  die  31nuncium  ad  ^Baithe 
neum  mittit,  ejus  allocutionem  facie  ad  faciem  habere  volens. 
Qui,  ut  erat  affabilis,   et  peregrinis  appetibilis,  jubet  ad  se 
adduci.     Qui  statim  adductus,  primo,  ut  33conveniebat,  flexis 
genibus  in  34 terra  se  prostravit ;  ^jussusque  a  sancto  seniore, 
surgit,  et  residens  interrogatur  a  36Baitheneo,  adhuc  inscio,  de 
gente  et  provincia,  nomineque  et  conversatione,  et  pro  qua  causa 
inierit  navigationis  labor  em.     Qui,  ita  interrogatus,  omnia  per 
ordinem  enarrans,  ut  susciperetur  humiliter  expostulat.     Cui 
sanctus  senior,  his  ab  hospite  auditis,  simulque  hunc  esse  virum 
cognoscens  de  quo  pridem  aliquando  sanctus  Columba  pro- 
phetice  vaticinatus  est,  Gratias,  ait,  Deo  meo  agere  debeo  quidem 
in  tuo  adventu,  fili;  sed  37hoc  indubitanter  scito  quod  noster 
monachus  non  eris.     Hoc  audiens  ^hospes,  valde  contristatus, 
infit :  Forsitan  ego  indignus  tuus  non  mereor  fieri  monachus. 
Senior  consequenter  inquit :  Non  quod,  ut  dicis,  indignus  esses 
hoc  dixi ;  sed  quamvis  maluissem  te  apud  me  retinere,  man- 
datum  tamen  sancti  Columbse  mei  39decessoris  profanare  non 
possum ;  per  quern  Spiritus  Sanctus  de  te  prophetavit.     40 Ah'a 
41  namque  die  mihi  soli  seorsim,  sic  prophetico  profatus  ore,  inter 

16  om.  C.  F.  S.  17  ne  C.  is  Columbus  C.  F.  S. 

19  om.  C.  F.  S.  20  migravit  ad  Christum  C. 

21  Finten  A.  22  Columbus  C.  F.  S.        23  fleverunt  F.  S. 

24  Battheneum  C.  F.  25  Columbus  C.  F.  S.        2C  ait  C. 

a7  columbum  A.  C.  S.         2s  om<  c.  20  ^  C.  F.  S. 

30  susceptus  est  Colg.  Boll.     31  intermmcium  C.  F.  S. 

32  battheneum  C.  F.     baithenum  S.  33  veniebat  C. 

34  terram  C.  F.  S.  **  visus  C.  36  battheneo  C. 

37  et  hoc  C.  38  om.  C.  39  defensoris  C. 

40  aliqua  F.     aliaque  C.  41  om.  C. 


116  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMBJS.      LIBER  I. 

csetera,  dixit:  Haec  mea,  0  42Baithenee,  intentius  debes  audire 
verba ;  statim  namque  post  meum  de  hoc  ad  Christum  sseculo 
expectatum  et  valde  desideratum  transitum,  quidam  de  Scotia 
frater,  qui  nunc,  bene  juvenilem  bonis  moribus  43regens  aetatem, 
sacrse  lectionis  studiis  satis  44imbuitur,  nomine  Fintenus,  45gente 
Mocumoie,  cujus  pater  Tailchanus  vocitatur,  ad  te,  inquam,  per- 
veniens,  humiliter  expostulabit  ut  ipsum  suscipiens  inter 
cseteros  adnumeres  monachos.  Sed  hoc  ei  in  Dei  prsescientia 
prsedestinatum  non  est  ut  ipse  46alicujus  47abbatis  monachus 
48fieret ;  sed  ut  monachorum  abbas,  et  animarum  dux  ad  coeleste 
regnum,  olim  electus  a  Deo  est.  49Noles  itaque  hunc  memora- 
tum  virum  in  his  nostris  apud  te  retinere  insulis,  ne  et  Dei 
voluntati  contraire  videaris :  sed,  hsec  ei  intimans  verba,  ad 
Scotiam  in  pace  remittas,  ut  in  Laginensium  vicinis  mari  finibus 
monasterium  construat,  et  ibidem  Christi  50ovinum  pascens 
gregem,  innumeras  ad  patriam  animas  coelestem  perducat.  Hsec 
audiens  sanctus  junior,  Christo,  lacrymas  fun  dens,  51agit  gratias, 
inquiens  :  Secundum  sancti  Columbse  propheticam  fiat  mihi  et 
mirabilem  praescientiam.  52Iisdemque  53diebus  verbis  sanc 
torum  obtemperans,  et  a  54Baitheneo  accipiens  benedictionem,  in 
pace  ad  Scotiam  55transnavigat. 

56  Hsec  mihi  quodam  narrante  religioso  sene  presbytero, 
Christi  milite,  Oisseneo  nomine,  Ernani  filio,  gente  Mocu  Neth 
Corb,  indubitanter  didici :  qui  se  eadem  supra  memorata  verba 
ejusdem  ab  ore  sancti  Finteni,  filii  Tailchani,  audisse  57testatus 
est,  ipsius  monachus. 


CAP.  in.  JPtLIO  in  tempore  vir  beatus,  in  mediterranea  2Hibernia3 
parte  3monasterium,  quod  Scotice  dicitur  4Dair-mag,  divino 
fundans  nutu,  per  aliquot  5demoratus  menses,  libuit  animo 
visitare  fratres  qui  in  6Clonoensi  sancti  7Cerani  coenobio  com- 
manebant.  8Auditoque  ejus  accessu,  universi  undique  ab  agel- 
lulis  monasterio  vicinis  cum  his  qui  ibidem  inventi  sunt 
congregati,  cum  omni  alacritate  suum  consequentes  abbatem 

42  batthenee  C.  43  agens  C.  44  imbutus  C. 

45  ad  vocitatur  om.  C.  F.  S.  *  sit.  add.  S.      47  om.  C.  F.  S. 

48  om.  S.  49  nolis  F.    nobis  C.       50  ovium  C.  Colg.  Boll. 

51  ait  F.  S.  52  hisdemqne  A.  F.  S.     his  denique  C.  Colg.  Boll. 

63  om.  C.  54  battheneo  C.  M  A.  transnavigavit  Colg.  Boll. 

56  cetera  desiderantur  in  C.  F.  S.  57  testatur,  Colg. 

1  titulum  om.    C.  F.  S.  Boll.  2  eberniae  A. 

3  monasteriorum  A.  4  dairmagh  C.  F.  S.        5  demoratur  C. 

6  cloensi  C.  F.  S.  7  cherani  S.  8  audito  itaque  C. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB.E.      LIBER  I.  117 

Alitherum,  sancto  9Columb8e,  quasi  angelo  Domini,  obviam, 
egressi  vallum  monasterii,  10unanimes  pergunt ;  humiliatisque 
in  terram  vultibus  eo  viso,  cum  omni  reverentia  exosculatus  ab 
eis  est ;  hymnisque  et  laudibus  resonantes,  honorifice  ad  eccle- 
siam  11perducunt ;  quamdamque  de  lignis  pyramidem  erga 
sanctum  deambulantem  constringentes,  a  quatuor  viris  seque 
ambulantibus  supportari  fecerunt :  ne  videlicet  sanctus  senior 
Columba  ejusdem  fratrum  multitudinis  constipatione  molestare- 
tur.  Eadem  hora  quidam  valde  despectus  vultu  et  habitu,  puer 
familiaris,  et  necdum  senioribus  placens,  retro,  in  quantum 
valuit  se  occultans,  accessit,  ut  videlicet  vel  illius  12amphibali 
fimbriam,  quo  vir  beatus  induebatur,  occulte,  et  si  fieri  possit 
ipso  nesciente  et  non  sentiente,  tangeret.  Sed  hoc  tamen  Sanc 
tum  non  latuit,  nam  quod  corporalibus  oculis  retro  se  actum  in- 
tueri  non  potuit,  13spiritalibus  14perspexit.  Unde  subito  restitit, 
et  post  se  extendens  manum,  cervicem  pueri  tenet,  ipsumque 
trahens  ante  faciem  suam  statuit.  Omnibusque  qui  ibidem 
15circumstabant  dicentibus,  16Dimitte,  dimitte,  quare  hunc  infe- 
licem  et  17injuriosum  retines  puerum  ?  18  Sanctus  e  contra  hsec 
lspuro  pectore  verba  depromit  prophetica,  Sinite,  fratres,  sinite 
modo.  Ad  puerum  vero  valde  tremefactum  dicit,  0  fili  aperi 
os,  et  porrige  linguam.  Jussus  turn  puer,  cum  ingenti  tremore 
aperiens  os,  20 linguam  porrexit ;  21quam  Sanctus,  sanctam  ex 
tendens  manum,  22diligenter  benedicens,  ita  prophetice  profatur, 
dicens,  Hie  puer  quamvis  vobis  nunc  23despicabilis  et  valde  vilis 
videatur,  nemo  tamen  ipsum  ob  id  despiciat.  Ab  hac  enim  hora 
non  solum  vobis  non  displicebit,  sed  valde  placebit ;  bonisque 
moribus,  et  animae  virtutibus  paulatim  de  die  in  diem  crescet : 
sapientia  quoque  et  prudentia  magis  ac  magis  in  eo  ab  hac  die 
adaugebitur,  et  in  hac  2*vestracongregatione  grandis  est  futurus 
25profectus;  lingua  quoque  ejus  salubri  26et  doctrina  et  27elo- 
quentia  28a  Deo  ^donabitur.  Hie  erat  30Erneneus,  31  filius 
32Craseni,  postea  per  omnes  33Scotise  ecclesias  famosus.et  valde 


9  om.  C.  F.  S.  10  unanimiter  Colg.  Boll.     ll  perducebant  C. 

12  anfibali  A.  F.  more  Hibernico :  sic  anfibalo  Lib.  Armacanfol.  209  a  b. 

13  A.  F.  S.  spiritualibus  C.  u  A.  C.  F.  S.  respexit  Colg.  Boll. 
15  circum  astabant  F.  S.     circiter  astabant  C.  16  dimittite  bis  C. 
17  A.  C.  F.  S.  Colg.  juniorem  Boll. 

18.19  ^em  sanctus  ad  fratres  suos  conversus  duro  D.  priorem  partem  cap.  ii. 
ad  verbum  adeas  excipiens.  19  ad  sylldbam  ro  infit  B. 

20  suum  add.  C.  D.  S.  a  ad  add.  D.  22  et  add.  C.  D.  S. 

23  despectibilis  D.  24  nostra  C.  25  provectus  C. 

26-2T  doctrinal!  eloquentia  B.  28-29  fulgebit  D. 

30  A.  B.  F.  S.    ereneus  C.     hylerianus  D.  31  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 

32  A.  B.   cresceni  Colg.  Boll.   om.  C.  D.  F.  S.      33  hybernie  D. 


118  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^].      LIBEK  I. 

uotissimus ;  qui  haec  omnia  suprascripta  verba  34Segineo  abbati 
de  se  prophetata  enarraverat,  meo  35decessore  Failbeo  intentius 
audiente,  qui  et  ipse  cum  34Segineo  prsesens  36inerat ;  cujus  37re- 
velatione  et  ego  ipse  cognovi  hsec  38eadem  quse  39enarravi.  Sed 
et  multa  alia  40iisdem  diebus  quibus  in  41Clonoensi  coenobio 
42Sanctus  hospitabatur,  revelante  prophetavit  Sancto  Spiritu ; 
hoc  est,  de  ilia,  43qu8e  post  dies  multos  ob  diversitatem  Paschalis 
festi  orta  est  inter  ^Scotise  ecclesias,  45discordia:  et  de  quibusdam 
^angelicis  frequentationibus  sibi  manifestatis,  quibus  quaedam 
intra  ejusdem  ccenobii  septa  ab  angelis  tune  temporis  frequenta- 
bantur  loca. 


<San.cti  Cainntcht,  abbati*,  to  qua  <Sanrttt# 
Cxrltimba  prrrph.etaUt.er  2pt^nttntiabit. 

CAP.  iv.  3jp|J_uo  3^  tempore  4cum  in  5Ioua  insula,  die  fragosse  tem- 
pestatis  et  intolerabilis  undarum  magnitudinis,  sedens  in  domo 
6Sanctus  6et  fratribus  prsecipiens  Miceret,  Praeparate  ocius 
hospitium,  aquamque  ad  lavandos  hospitum  pedes  8  exhaurite  ; 
quidam  ex  ipsis  9frater  consequenter,  Quis,  ait,  hac  die  valde 
ventosa  et  nimis  periculosa,  licet  breve,  fretum  prospere  trans- 
navigare  potest  ?  Quo  audito  Sanctus  sic  profatur :  10  Cuidam 
sancto  et  electo  homini,  qui  nad  nos  ante  vesperam  12per- 
veniet,  Omnipotens  tranquillitatem,  13quamlibet  14in  tempes- 
tate,  15donavit.  Et  ecce,  eadem  die  aliquamdiu  a  fratribus 
expectata  navis  in  qua  16sanctus  inerat  17Cainnechus  juxta 
18Sancti  prophetationem  pervenit.  Cui  Sanctus  cum  fratribus 
obviam  venit,  et  ab  eo  honorifice  19et  hospitaliter  20susceptus 
est.  Illi  vero  nautse  qui  cum  21Cainnecho  22inerant,  interrogati 
a  fratribus  de  qualitate  navigationis,  sic  retulerunt  sicuti 

34  B.  segeneo  A.  C.  F.  S.     segeno  D.  35  successore  D. 

36  erat  D.  37  A.  relatione  B.  C.  D.  F.  S.     ™  om.  D. 

39  narravi  D.  40  hisdem  A.  B.     isdem  F. 

41  A.  B.     cloensi  C.     om.  D.  42  sancti  kierani  add.  D. 

43  discordia  D.  44  scothicse  C.  «  om.  D.  46  anglicis  B. 

1  titulum  om.  C.  F.  S.     hie  sequitur  in  D.  iii.     10  hujus  edit. 

2  pronunciavit  B. 

3  quodam  D.  in  quo  hcec  narratio  post  iii.  16  hujus  edit,  sequitur. 

4  om.  D.  5  A.  C.     iona  B.  6  om.  D. 

7  dixit  D.  8  haurite  D.  9  A.  B.  C.     fratribus  D.  Colg.  Bolg, 

lo.ii  qui(jam  sanctus  et  electus  homo  ad  D.  12  veniat  D. 

13  om.  D.  14  ei  add.  D.  15  donabit  C.  D.          16  erat  add.  D. 

17  cannechus  B.     chainnechus  C.  S.     kainnichus  D.    cainnechus  F. 

18  om.  D.  19  om.  D.  20  que  add.  D. 
21  canneclio  B.     chainnecho  C.  S.     kainnicho  D.        22  erant  D. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB.E.      LIBER  I.  119 

sanctus  Columba  prius  de  tempestate  et  tranquillitate  pariter, 
Deo  donante,  in  eodem  mari,  et  23iisdem  horis,  mirabili 
24divisione  prsedixerat;  et  tempestatem  eminus  visam  non 
sensisse  profess!  sunt. 


ymtnlo  §anrti  2Coimani  tywcoyi,  Jftoxujsailni,  in  mart 
juxta  insulam  qu«  bxyritattxr 


itidem  die  sanctus  Columba,  in  sua  commanens  CAP-  v- 
matrice  ecclesia,  repente  3in  3hanc  subridens  4erupit  4vocem, 
dicens:  Columbanus,  5filius  5Beognai,  ad  nos  transnavigare 
incipiens,  nunc  in  undosis  6Charybdis  7Brecani  sestibus  valde 
periclitatur  ;  8ambasque  9ad  coelum,  in  prora  sedens,  palmas 
elevat;  turbatum  quoque  et  10tam  formidabile  11pelagus  bene- 
dicit  :  quern  tamen  Dominus  sic  tercet,  non  ut  navis  naufragio, 
in  qua  ipse  12residet,  undis  obruatur;  sed  potius  ad  13orandum 
intentius  suscitetur,  ut  ad  nos,  Deo  14propitio,  post  transvadatum 
perveniat  periculum. 


l^z  Cxrrmarxr. 

JSL.LIO  quoque  2  in  tempore  3de  Cormaco,  4nepote  4Lethani,  CAP- 
viro  utique  sancto,  5qui  tribus  non  minus  vicibus  eremum  in 
oceano  laboriose  quaesivit,  nee  tamen  invenit,  6sanctus  Columba 
ita  7prophetizans  ait:  Hodie  iterum  8Cormacus,  desertum 
reperire  cupiens,  enavigare  incipit  ab  ilia  regione  quse,  ultra 
9Modam  fluvium  10sita,  1:lEirros  Domno  dicitur;  nee  tamen 
etiam  hac  vice  quod  quserit  inveniet;  et  non  ob  aliam  ejus 
culpam  nisi  quod  alicujus  religiosi  abbatis  monachum,  ipso  non 
permittente,  12discessorem  secum  non  recte  comitari,  navigio 
13  susceperit. 


23  hisdem  A.  B.  ^  A.  B.  C.  F.  S.  visione  syllaha  prlma  erasa  D. 

1  tttul  om.  C.  D.  P.  S.  Boll.        2  colurnbani  B.  3  om.  B. 
4  in  hac  voce  erupit  D.                 5  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 

6  earubdis  A.     caribdis  B.  D.  F.  7  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 

8  abbasque  C.                                 9  in  F.  S.  10  om.  D. 

11  pilagus  A.     pelagum  D.          la  resedit  C.     sedit  D.     13  adorandiim  D. 
14  propitiante  D. 

1  tltul  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.  2  om.  D. 

3-°  s.  columba  prophetizans  de  viro  utique  sancto  cormaco  qui  D. 

4  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  6-7  om.  D.  8  cormac  A.     coriuaccus  B. 

9  modan  B.    modum  D.  10  sita  est  C.  D.  ll  et  cirros  C.  sirros  S. 

12  discessurum  S.  13  suscepit  D. 


120  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMILE.      LIBER  I. 


fragoribus  ion^t  £0mmi000rum 
toiri. 


CAP.  vil.  OST   bellum   Cule    Drebene,   sicut  nobis    traditum    est, 

duobus  transactis  annis,  quo  tempore  vir  beatus  de  2  Scotia 
peregrinaturus  primitus  enavigavit,  quadam  die,  hoc  est,  eadem 
hora  qua  in  2Scotia  commissum  est  bellum  quod  Scotice  dicitur 
30ndemone,  idem  homo  Dei  coram  Conallo  rege,  filio  Comgill, 
in  4  Brittannia  conversatus,  per  omnia  enarravit,  tarn  de  bello 
commisso,  quam  etiam  de  illis  regibus  quibus  Dominus  de 
inimicis  victoriam  condonavit  :  quorum  propria  vocabula  5Ain- 
morius  filius  6Setni,  et  duo  filii  Maic  Erce,  Domnallus  et 
Torcus.  Sed  et  de  rege  Cruithniorum,  qui  8Echodius  Laib 
vocitabatur,  quemadmodum  victus,  currui  insidens  evaserit, 
similiter  Sanctus  prophetizavit. 


2Jttiathxn:um. 

J/9LLIO  in  tempore,  4hoc  4est  5post  multos  6a  supra  memorata 
7 bello  annorum  transcursus,  cum  esset  vir  sanctus  8in  9Ioua 
insula,  subito  ad  suum  dicit  ministratorem  10  Diormitium, 
11Cloccam  pulsa.  Cujus  sonitu  fratres  incitati  ad  ecclesiam, 
ipso  sancto  prsesule  prseeunte,  ocius  12currunt.  Ad  quos  ibidem 
flexis  genibus  infit:  Nunc  intente  pro  13hoc  populo  uet  15Aidano 
rege  16Dominum  oremus;  hac  enim  hora  ineunt  bellum.  Et 
post  modicum  intervallum  egressus  oratorium,  respiciens  in 
coelum  inquit,  Nunc  barbari  in  fugam  vertuntur  ;  17Aidanoque, 
quamlibet  18infelix,  19tamen  concessa  victoria  est.  Sed  et  de 
numero  de  exercitu  20Aidani  interfectorum,  trecentorum  et 
trium  virorum,  vir  beatus  prophetice  21  enarravit. 


1  capitulum  totum  desideratur  in  C.  D.  F.  S.  2  scocia  B. 

3  A.  B.  Ussher  (Opp.  vi.  236).     ondemon  Fordun  (ill  26).     monamoire 

Colg.  Boll.  4  bryttannia  B.  5  amnorius  B. 

6  scetni  B.  7  A.  B.  fergus  Colg.  Boll.  8  echuiuslaid  B. 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  2  maychorum.     Fordun  iii.  38. 

3  hanc  narrat.  capiti  v.  subnectunt  C.  D.  F.  S.  4  om.  D. 

5  idem  add.  D.  6-7  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  8  columba  add.  D. 

9  iona  B.  D.  10  dermitium  A.    uermicium  B.    om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 

11  clocam  A.    cloccum  D.  12  cucurrerunt  D.  13-14  om.  B.  D. 

15  aedano  D.     aldano  C.  16  populoque  suo  add.  D. 

17  aedano  D.    aldano  C.  18  infelici  C.  D.     regi  add.  D.         19  om.  D. 

20  aedani  D.    aldani  C.  ai  narravit  B.  C.  D.  F.  S. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB.E.      LIBEK  I.  121 


iis  Jltb&nt  8^3**  §&\\di  C0ltimb&  proplutia. 

2in  tempore  ante  supra  dictum  bellum  Sanctus  3Aid-  CAP.  vm. 
anum  regem  4interrogat  de  regni  successore.  Illo  se  respon- 
dente  nescire  quis  esset  de  tribus  filiis  suis  regnaturus,  5Arturius, 
an  6Echodius  Find,  an  'Domingartus,  Sanctus  consequenter  hoc 
profatur  modo  :  Nullus  ex  his  tribus  erit  8regnator;  nam  in 
bellis  cadent  ab  inimicis  trucidandi  :  sed  nunc  si  alios  juniores 
habes  ad  me  veniant,  et  quern  ex  eis  elegerit  Dominus  regem, 
subito  super  meum  irruet  gremium.  Quibus  9accitis,  secundum 
verbum  Sancti  10Echodius  11Buide  adveniens  in  sinu  ejus 
recubuit.  Statimque  Sanctus  eum  12osculatus  benedixit,  et  ad 
patrem  ait  :  Hie  est  superstes,  et  rex  post  te  regnaturus,  et  filii 
ejus  post  eum  regnabunt.  13Sic  omnia  14post,  suis  temporibus, 
plene  adimpleta  sunt.  Nam  15Arturius  et  Echodius  16Find, 
non  longo  post  temporis  intervallo,  17Miatorum  superius  memo- 
rato  in  bello,  trucidati  sunt.  Domingartus  vero  in  Saxonia 
bellica  in  strage  interfectus  est  :  18Echodius  19auteni  19Buide 
post  patrem  in  regnurn  successit. 


filter  Jttbxr. 

2J1^0MNALLUS  filius  3Aido,  adhuc  puer,  ad  sanctum  Col- 
umbam  4in  Dorso  6Cete  per  nutritores  adductus  est:  quem 
intuens  percunctatur  inquiens,  Cujus  est  filius  hie  quem  addux- 
istis  ?  Illis  respondentibus,  Hie  est  2Domnallus  6  filius  7Aido, 
qui  ad  te  ideo  perductus  est,  ut  tua  8redeat  benedictione  9ditatus. 
Quem  cum  Sanctus  benedixisset,  continue  ait,  Hie  10post  super 
omnes  suos  fratres  superstes  erit,  net  rex  valde  famosus;  nee 
unquam  in  manus  inimicorum  tradetur,  sed  morte  placida,  in 
senectute,  et  intra  domum  suam,  corarn  amicorum  familiarium 

1  lituL  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll,  in  quibus  tenor  cap.  v.  continuatur. 

2  quoque  C.  D.     om.  F.  3  aedanum  D.    aldanum  C. 

4  interrogavit  D.  &  arctirius  B.     ad  7  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 

6  A.  B.  eochodius  Colg.  Boll.        »  A.  B.  domangarthus  Colg.  Boll. 
8  rex  D.     regnaturus  C.  F.  S.       9  accersitis  D. 

10  A.  B.  euchodius  C.  D.  F.  S.     eochodius  Colg.  Boll. 

11  A.  B.  buidhe  Colg.  Boll.     om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  12  osculans  B. 
13  hec  D.                       i*  postea  D.                15  ad  sunt  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 
16  fint  A.                                                          17  micitorum  B. 

18  et  euchodius  C.  F.  S.    euchodius  D.        19  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 

1  titul.  om.  ;  capit.  numerator  vi.  in  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll. 

2  donaldus  D.  3  aeda  D<  4.5  om>  c>  D<  p,  g. 
6-7  om.  C.     in  marg.  D.                 7  aeda  D.                     8  om.  D. 

8  ditatis  A.     ditatur  D.  10  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.      u  om.  D. 


122  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^E.      LIBER  I. 

turba,  super  12suum  morietur  13lectum.     QUSQ  omnia  secundum 
beati  vaticinium  viri  de  eo  vere  adimpleta  sunt. 


#  iio  OMmani. 

JH..ODEM  tempore  Sanctus,  et  in  eodem  loco,  ad  2Scandlanum, 
filium  Colmani,  apud  3Aidum  regem  in  vinculis  retentum, 
visitare  eum  cupiens,  pergit  ;  ipsumque  cum  benedixisset,  con- 
fortans  ait  :  Fili,  4nolis  contristari,  sed  potius  Isetare  et  confor- 
tare  :  5Aidus  enim  rex,  apud  quern  vinculatus  es,  de  hoc  mundo 
te  prsecedet  ;  et,  post  aKqua  exilii  tempora,  triginta  annis  in 
gente  tua  rex  regnaturus  6es.  Iterumque  de  regno  effugaberis, 
et  per  7  aliquot  8exulabis  dies;  post  quos,  a  populo  reinvitatus, 
per  tria  regnabis  brevia  tempora.  Quse  cuncta  juxta  vaticina- 
tionem  Sancti  plene  expleta  sunt.  Nam  post  triginta  arinos 
de  regno  expulsus,  per  aliquod  9exulavit  spatium  temporis  :  sed 
post  a  populo  reinvitatus,  non,  ut  putabat,  tribus  annis,  sed 
ternis  regnavit  mensibus  ;  post  quos  continue  obiit. 


tupxrto 

@ra  ti 
Jxrmnail,  tott  5pt0phetatt^  biri. 

,J9LLIO  in  tempore,  per  asperam  et  saxosam  regionem  iter 
faciens,  quse  dicitur  6Artdamuirchol,  et  suos  audiens  comites 
Laisranum  utique,  filium  Feradachi,  et,  7Diormitium  ministra- 
torem,  de  duobus  supra  memoratis  regibus  in  via  sermocinari, 
hsec  ad  eos  verba  depromit  :  0  filioli  quare  inaniter  de  his  sic 
confabulamini  ?  nam  illi  ambo  reges,  de  quibus  nunc  sermo- 
cinamini,  nuper  ab  inimicis  decapitati  disperierunt.  In  hac 
quoque  die  aliqui  de  Scotia  adventantes  nautae  hsec  eadem 
vobis  de  illis  indicabunt  regibus.  Quod  venerabilis  viri  vati 
cinium  eadem  die  de  8Hibernia  navigatores,  ad  locum  qui 
dicitur  Muirbolc  Paradisi  pervenientes,  supra  scriptis  ejus  binis 
comitibus,  et  in  eadem  navi  cum  Sancto  navigantibus,  de 
9iisdem  interfectis  regibus  expletum  retulerunt. 

12  stratum  add.  D.  1S  ad  Jin.  cap.  om.  D. 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll,  in  quibus  tenor  cap.  vi.  continuatur. 

2  scandalanum  C.  3  aedum  D.  4  noles  A.    noli  C.  D.  F.  S. 
5  aedus  D.                          6  eris  C.  D.  7  aliquos  C.  D.  F.  S. 

8  exsolabis  A.     eiulabis  C.  9  exsolavit  A. 

1  omnia  ad  cap.  16  om.     C.  D.  F.  S.  2  muirethachi  B. 

3  maicerce  B.  4  euchudius  B.  5  proj)hetia  B. 

0  ardamuircol  B.  7  dermitium  A.      8  evernia  A.  9  hisdem  A^ 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB.E.       LIBER  I.  123 


10  Jl.e  <S)irajtt0tu  ftlio  Jlibtf  &xmtm&ni  <Sanrti  prxrphetia  biri. 


namque  de  patria  cum  aliis  duobus  fratribus  effugatus, 
ad  Sanctum  in  Britannia  peregrinantem  exul  venit;  cuique 
benedicens,  haec  de  eo  prophetizans  sancto  promit  de  pectore 
verba  :  Hie  juvenis,  defunctis  ejus  ceteris  fratribus  superstes 
remanens,  multo  est  regnaturus  in  patria  tempore  ;  et  inimici 
ejus  coram  ipso  cadent  ;  nee  tainen  ipse  unquam  in  manus  tra- 
detur  inimicorum  ;  sed  morte  placida,  senex,  inter  amicos  mori- 
etur.  Quse  omnia  juxta  Sancti  verbum  plene  sunt  adimpleta. 
Hie  est  u  Oingusius  cujus  cognomentum  Bronbachal. 


bzzii  2biri  fa  ftlio  l^rmiti  lU^i*  xjm  Jltbu*  <Slan£ 
lingua  nxrminato  zst  3<Sr0tira. 

.JH-LIO  in  tempore,  cum  vir  beatus  in  4  Scotia  per  aliquot  de- 
moraretur  dies,  ad  supradictum  Aidum,  ad  se  venientem,  sic 
prophetice  locutus  ait,  Prsecavere  debes,  5fili,  ne  tibi  a  Deo  totius 
6  Hibernise  regni  prserogativam  monarchic  prsedestinatam,  parri- 
cidali  faciente  peccato,  amittas  :  nam  si  quandoque  illud  com- 
miseris,  non  toto  patris  regno,  sed  ejus  aliqua  parte  in  gente 
tua,  brevi  "*  frueris  tempore.  Quse  verba  Sancti  sic  sunt  expleta 
secundum  ejus  vaticinationem.  Nam  post  Suibneum  filium 
Columbani  dolo  ab  eo  interfectum,  non  plus,  ut  fertur,  quam 
quatuor  annis  et  tribus  mensibus  regni  concessa  8potitus  est 
9  parte. 

ttlio  2c10thaU,  xjut  3in  fttra  Cioithe  rejjnabit, 
beatt  totri 


idem  in  tempore  4hic,  ut  erat  sancti  viri  amicus,  ali- 
quam  ad  eum  occultam  per  Lugbeum  Mocumin  legationem 
misit,  scire  volens  si  ab  inimicis  esset  trucidandus,  an  non.  At 
vero  Lugbeus,  a  Sancto  5  interrogate  de  eodem  rege,  et  regno, 
et  populo,  6et  respondens,  quasi  misertus,  dicit,  Quid  de  illo 
inquiris  misero,  qui  qua  hora  ab  inimicis  occidatur,  nullo  modo 
7  scire  potest  ?  Sanctus  turn  deinde  profatur,  Nunquam  in 

10  capitul.  totum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.     titulum  om.  Boll.    1!  oingussius  A. 
1  capit.  totum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.     tltul.  om.  Boll. 
!-2  voci  scotica  inferius  subsequuntur  B.  3  scottica  B. 

4  scocia  B.  5  filii  A.  6  B.  everniae  A. 

7  finieris  B.  8-9  pocius  est  parce  B. 

1  capit.  totum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.     tltul.  om.  Boll.  2  totail  B. 

3  om.  B.  .4  om.  B.  5  intergatus  B. 

6  ejus  B.  7  sciri  B. 


124  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB.E.      LIBER  I. 

maims  tradetur  inimicorum,  sed  in  sua,  super  plumatiunculam, 
morietur  domo.  Quod  Sancti  de  rege  Koderco  vaticinium  plene 
adimpletum  est  :  nam  juxta  verbum  ejus  8in  domo  sua  morte 
placida  obiit. 


pttm0,  q&ontm  nnn#,  jtweta  berbttm  <Sancti,  in 
hebbfltnabis  obiit,  prxrplutia  sancti. 

CAP.  IX.  2^H_LIO  in  tempore  duo  8quidam  4plebei  ad  Sanctum  5in 
6Ioua  commorantem  insula  7deveniunt;  quorum  unus,  8Meldanus 
9nomine,  de  filio  suo  qui  preesens  erat  Sanctum  interrogat,  quid 
ei  esset  futurum.  Cui  Sanctus  sic  profatur  :  Nonne  sabbati  dies 
hodierna  est  ?  filius  tuus  sexta  feria,  in  fine  morietur  septimanse, 
octavaque  die,  hoc  est,  sabbato,  hie  sepelietur.  Alter  proinde 
plebeus,  10  nomine  11Glasdercus,  et  ipse  de  filio  quern  ibidem 
secum  habuit  nihilominus  interrogans,  talem  Sancti  audit  re- 
sponsionem  :  Filius  tuus  12Ernanus  suos  videbit  nepotes  et  in 
hac  insula  senex  sepelietur.  Quse  omnia,  secundum  verbum 
Sancti,  de  pueris  ambobus,  suis  plene  temporibus  sunt  expleta. 


1  Je  2CoLd0,  Jlibtf  JBraijjntrhx  fflirr,  a  nspxrttbius  3Jftchur.eg 
(Drier;  ti  be  jqnobam  occnito  JEatri^  tjw  peaatxr,  prxr- 
yhetia  ^anrti. 

CAP.  x.  jflL.LIO  in  tempore,  supramemoratum  Colgium,  apud  se  in 
4  loua  commorantem  insula,  Sanctus  de  sua  interrogat  genitrice, 
si  esset  religiosa,  an  non.  Cui  ipse  inquiens  ait,  Bene  moratam, 
et  bonse  famse,  meam  novi  matrem.  Sanctus  turn  sic  prophetice 
profatur,  Mox,  Deo  volente,  ad  5Scotiam  profectus,  matrem  dili- 
gentius  de  quodam  suo  pergrandi  peccato  interroga  occulto, 
quod  nulli  hominum  confiteri  vult.  Qui,  hsec  audiens,  obsecu- 
tus,  ad  6  Hiberniam  emigravit.  Proinde  mater,  ab  eo  studiose 
interrogata,  quamlibet  primule  infitiens,  tamen  suum  confessa 
est  peccatum,  et  juxta  Sancti 7  judicationem,  pcenitudinem  agens, 
sanata,  de  se  quod  Sancto  manifestation  est  valde  mirata  est. 

8  om.  B.  l  titul  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll. 

2  cap.  vL  continuatur  C.  D.  F.  S.         3  om.  C.  4  plebeii  F.  S. 
6  columbam  add.  D.                     6  iona  B.  C.  D.  7  veniunt  D. 

8  ineUanus  D.  9  om.  D.  10-n  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 

11  A.  glasdercis  B.  12  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 

1  omnia  ad  cap.  19  om.  C.  B.  F.  S.  2  colgio  B. 

3  A.  B.  4  ioua  B.  5  scociam  B. 

6  B.  everniam  A.  7  A.  B.  indicatiouem  Boll. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^E.      LIBERT.  125 

vero,  ad  Sanctum  reversus,  per  aliquot  dies  apud  CAP-  XI- 
eum  commoratus,  de  fine  sui  interrogans  temporis,  hoc  a  Sancto 
audit  responsum  :  In  tua,  quam  amas,  patria  primarius  alicujus 
ecclesise  per  multos  eris  annos  ;  et  si  forte  aliquando  tuum 
videris  pincernam  in  crena  8amicorum  ludentem,  9hauritorium- 
que  in  gyro  per  collum  torquentem,  scito  te  mox  in  brevi 
moriturum.  Quid  plura  ?  Hsec  eadem  beati  viri  prophetatio 
sic  per  omnia  est  adimpleta,  quemadmodum  de  Colgio  eodem  est 
prophetata. 


2hxrrittlaricr, 

"^ii  IR  beatus  quemdam  de  suis  monachum  nomine  Trenanum,  CAP.  XII. 
gente  Mocuruntir,  legatum  ad  Scotiam  exire  quadam  prsecipit 
die.  Qui,  hominis  Dei  obsecutus  jussioni,  navigationem  parat 
festinus  ;  unumque  sibi  deesse  navigatorem  coram  Sancto  queri- 
tur.  Sanctus  haec  consequenter,  eidem  respondens,  sacro  pro- 
mit  de  pec  tore  verba,  dicens,  3Nautam,  quern  tibi  non  adhuc 
suppetisse  dicis,  nunc  invenire  non  possum.  Yade  in  pace  :  us- 
quequo  ad  4Hiberniam  pervenias  prosperos  et  secundos  habebis 
flatus.  Quemdamque  obvium  videbis  hominem  eminus  occur- 
surum,  qui  primus  prse  ceteris  navis  proram  tuse  tenebit  in 
Scotia,  hie  erit  comes  tui  5itineris  per  aliquot  in  6Hibernia  dies  ; 
teque  inde  revertentem  ad  nos  usque  comitabitur,  vir  a  Deo 
electus,  qui  in  hoc  meo  monasterio  per  omne  reliquum  tempus 
bene  conversabitur.  Quid  plura  ?  Trenanus,  accipiens  a  Sancto 
benedictionem,  plenis  velis  per  omnia  transmeavit  maria  :  et, 
ecce,  appropinquanti  ad  portum  naviculae  Laisranus  Mocumoie, 
citior  ceteris,  occurrit,  tenetque  proram.  Nautae  recognoscunt 
ipsum  esse  de  quo  Sanctus  prsedixerat. 


iixerat. 

die,  cum  vir  3venerabilis  in  4Ioua  demoraretur  CAP.  XIII. 
5insula,  quidam  frater,  Berachus  nomine,  ad  Ethicam  proponens 
insulam  navigare,  ad  Sanctum  mane  accedens,  ab  eo  benedici 
6postulat.    Quern  Sanctus  7intuitus,  inquit,  0  fili  hodie  intentius 
prsecaveto  ne  Ethicam  cursu  ad  terram  directo  per  latius  coneris 

8  amico  cum  vitiose  Pinkert.  9  auritoriumque  A.  B. 

1  capitul.  totum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.     titul.  om.  Boll.          2  ortholano  B. 

3  nauta  A.  B.  4  eberniam  A.  5  iteris  A.  6  ebernia  A. 

1  capitul.  totum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.    titul.  om.  Boll. 

2  quo  B.  3  columba  add.  D.  *  iona  B.  D. 

4  sua  add.  D.  6  postulavit  D.  7  intuens  D. 


120  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^E.      LIBER  I. 

transmeare  pelagus;  sed  potius,  circumiens,  minores  secus 
naviges  insulas ;  ne  videlicet,  8aliquo  monstruoso  perterritus 
prodigio,  vix  inde  possis  evadere.  Qui,  a  Sancto  accepta  bene- 
dictione,  secessit,  et  navem  9coriscendens,  Sancti  verbum  quasi 
parvipendens,  10transgreditur ;  majora  nproinde  12Ethici  trans- 
means  spatia  pelagi,  ipse  et  qui  ibi  13inerant  nautae  vident,  et 
ecce  cetus  mirae  et  immensae  magnitudinis,  14se  instar  mentis 
erigens,  ora  aperuit  patula  nimis  dentosa,  supernatans.  15Tum 
proinde  remiges,  deposito  velo,  valde  perterriti,  16retro  17reversi, 
illam  obortam  ex  belluino  motu  fluctuationem  vix  evadere 
potuerunt,  Sanctique  verbum  recognoscentes  propheticum,  ad- 
mirabantur.  Eadem  quoque  die  18Sanctus  19Baitheneo,  ad  supra 
memoratam  insulam  navigaturo,  mane  de  eodem  intimavit  ceto, 
inquiens,  Hac  praeterita  nocte  media,  cetus  magnus  de  profundo 
maris  se  20sublevavit,  et  inter  21Iouam  et  Ethicam  insulam  se 
hodie  in  superficiem  22eriget  aequoris.  Cui  ^Baitheneus  respon- 
dens  infit,  Ego  et  ilia  bellua  sub  Dei  potestate  sumus.  Sanc- 
tus,  Vade,  ait,  in  pace,  fides  tua  in  Christo  te  ab  hoc  defendet 
periculo.  23Baitheneus  24tum  deinde,  a  Sancto  benedictione 
accepta,  a  portu  25enavigat :  transcursisque  non  parvis  ponti 
spatiis,  ipse  et  socii  cetum  aspiciunt ;  perterritisque  omnibus, 
ipse  solus  sequor  et  cetum,  26ambabus  manibus  elevatis,  benedicit 
intrepidus.  Eodemque  momento  bellua  magna,  ^se  sub  28fluctus 
immergens,  nusquam  deinceps  eis  apparuit. 


1  ib  qtuxbam  ^aitan0,  rjtti  rum  tdmz  IbtsMinm  marinum 
«y^ten0  enabigato^rat,  sandi  ptxryh^tia  toiri, 

CAP.  xiv.  JStLIO  in  tempore  quidam  Baitanus,  gente  Nepos  2Math 
Taloirc,  benedici  a  Sancto  petivit,  cum  ceteris  in  mari  eremum 
quiesiturus.  Cui  valedicens  Sanctus  hoc  de  ipso  propheticum 
protulit  verbum,  Hie  homo,  qui  ad  quaerendum  in  oceano 
desertum  pergit,  non  in  deserto  conditus  jacebit;  sed  illo  in 
loco  sepelietur  ubi  oves  femina  trans  sepulcrum  ejus  minabit. 
Idem  itaque  Baitanus,  post  longos  per  ventosa  circuitus  sequora, 
eremo  non  reperta,  ad  patriam  re  versus,  multis  ibidem  annis 


8  alio  C. 

9  ascendens  C.  D. 

10  ingreditnr  D. 

11  deinde  D. 

12  aethici  A. 

13  erant  D. 

14  am.  D. 

15  cum  D. 

16-17  retroversi  C. 

18  sancto  F. 

19  baitheno  S. 

20  sullivavit  B. 

21  ionam  B.  D. 

22  erigit  B. 

23  baithenus  F. 

24  tune  beatus  D. 

25  enavigavit  C. 

26  ambis  A.  F.  S. 

27  om.  D. 

28  fluctibus  C.  D.  F. 

1  capitulum  totmn  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.     titulum  om.  Boll.  2  mathaloire  B. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^:.      LIBER  I.  127 

cujusdam  cellulse  dominus  3permansit,  quse  Scotice  Lathre- 
ginden  dicitur.  4Iisdemque  diebus  accidit,  6quibus,  post  aliqua 
mortuus  tempora,  sepultus  est  in  Eoboreto  6  Calgachi,  ut  propter 
hostilitatis  incursum  vicina  ad  ejusdem  loci  ecclesiam  plebecula 
cum  mulieribus  et  parvulis  confugeret.  Unde  contigit  ut  qua- 
darn  die  mulier  deprehenderetur  aliqua,  quae  suas  per  ejusdem 
viri  sepulcrum  nuper  sepulti  oviculas  minabat.  Et  umis  ex  his 
qui  viderant  sanctus  sacerdos  dixit,  Nunc  prophetia  sancti  Col- 
umbae  expleta  est,  multis  prius  divulgata  annis.  Qui  utique 
supra  memoratus  presbyter  mihi  haec  de  Baitano  enarrans 
retulit,  Mailodranus  nomine,  Christi  miles,  gente  7Mocurin. 


8  Jle  Jfrmatwr  xptofoam  #  do  pxmitete  0andi  ptoyh^tattxr  btri 


in  tempore  Sanctus  ad  Hinbinam  insulam  pervenit,  CAP-  xv- 
eademque  die  ut  etiam  poenitentibus  aliqua  praecipit  cibi  con- 
solatio  indulgeretur.  Erat  autem  ibi  inter  poenitentes  quidam 
Nemanus,  filius  Cathir,  qui,  a  Sancto  jussus,  renuit  oblatam 
accipere  consolatiunculam.  Quern  Sanctus  his  compellat  verbis, 
0  Nemane,  a  me  et  Baitheneo  indultam  non  recipis  aliquam 
refectionis  indulgentiam  ?  Erit  tempus  quo  cum  9  furacibus 
furtive  carnem  in  sylva  manducabis  equae.  Hie  idem  itaque, 
postea  ad  saeculum  reversus,  in  saltu  cum  furibus  talem  come- 
dens  carnem,  juxta  verbum  Sancti,  de  10craticula  sumptam 
lignea,  inventus  est. 


ini  did  qtuxbam  xjui  cum  0tia  b0rmibit 

2in  tempore  fratres  3intempesta  nocte  4suscitat  Sanctus,  CAr-  XVL 
ad  quos  in  ecclesia  congregates  dicit,  Nunc  Dominum  intentius 
precemur ;  nam  hac  in  hora  aliquod  inauditum  in  mundo  pec- 
catum  perpetratum  est,  pro  quo  valde  5  timenda  judicialis  est 
vindicta.  De  quo  peccato  crastino  die,  aliquibus  paucis  per- 
cunctantibus,  intimavit  6inquiens,  Post  paucos  menses  cum 
7  Lugaido  nesciente  infelix  ille  homuncio  ad  8  louam  perveniet 
insulam.  9Alia  itaque  die  Sanctus  ad  10Diormitium,  interjectis 

3  remansit  B.  4  hisdemque  A.                       6  qui  B. 

<!  B.     calcagi  A.  7  mocucurin  B. 

8  capitulum  totum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.     titulum  om.  Boll      9  furantibus  B. 

10  graticula  A.  1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.      2  qnoque  D. 

3  in  tempesta  B.  4  suscitavit  D.                        5  tremenda  C. 

6  dicens  C.  D.  *  lugido  D.                      8  A.  C.  F.  S.     ionam  B. 

alio  C.  10  A.  B.  F.  S.     diarmatum  D.     iormitium  C. 


128  VITA  SAXCTI  COLUMB.E.      LIBER  I. 

quibusdam  mensibus,  praecipiens  nprofatur,  Surge  citius,  ecce 
12  Lugaidus  appropinquat, 13  dicque  ei  ut  miserum  quern  secum 
in  navi  habet  in  Maleam  propellat  insulam,  ne  hujus  insulae 
cespitem  calcet.  Qui,  praecepto  Sancti  obsecutus,  ad  mare 
pergit.  14Lugaidoque  adventanti  omnia  Sancti  prosequitur  de 
infelici  viro  verba.  Quibus  auditis  ille  infelix  juravit  nunquam 
se  cibum  cum  aliis  accepturum  nisi  prius  sanctum  videret 
Columbam,  15.eumque  alloqueretur.  Quae  infelicis  verba  16Dior- 
mitius,  ad  Sanctum  reversus,  retulit.  Quibus  compertis 
Sanctus  ad  portum  perrexit,  Baitheneoque,  prolatis  sacrae  Scrip- 
turae  testimoniis,  17suggerenti  ut  miseri  pcenitudo  susciperetur, 
Sanctus  consequenter  inquit,  0  18Baithenee,  hie  homo  19fra- 
tricidium  in  modum  perpetravit  20Cain,  et  cum  sua  matre 
moechatus  est.  Turn  21deiride  miser  in  litore  flexis  genibus 
leges  poenitentiae  expleturum  se  promisit,  juxta  Sancti  22judi- 
cationem.  Cui  Sanctus  ait,  Si  duodecim  annis  inter  Brittones 
cum  fletu  et  lacrymis  poenitentiam  egeris,  nee  ad  23Scotiam 
usque  ad  mortem  reversus  fueris,  24forsan  Deus  peccato  ignoscat 
tuo.  Haec  dicens  Sanctus,  ad  suos  25conversus,  26dicit,  Hie 
homo  films  est  perditionis,  qui  quam  promisit  pcenitentiam  non 
explebit;  sed  mox  ad  27Scotiam  revertetur,  ibique  in  brevi  ab 
inimicis  interficiendus  peribit.  Quae  omnia  secundum  Sancti 
prophetiam  ita  contigerunt:  nam  miser  28iisdem  diebus  ad 
29Hiberniam  reversus,  in  30regione  quae  31vocitatur  32Lea,  in 
manus  incidens  inimicorum  trucidatus  est.  33Hic  de  Nepotibus 
Turtrei  34erat. 


»5c  I  toxrrali  litera. 

CAP.  xvil.  (§^UADAM  die  Baitheneus,  ad  Sanctum  accedens,  ait,  Necesse 
habeo  ut  aliquis  de  fratribus  mecum  Psalterium  quod  scripsi 
percurrens  emendet.  Quo  audito,  Sanctus  sic  profatur,  Cur 
hanc  super  nos  infers  sine  causa  molestiam  ?  nam  in  tuo  hoc, 
de  quo  dicis,  Psalterio  nee  una  superflua  reperietur  litera,  nee 
alia  deesse,  excepta  I  vocali,  quae  sola  deest.  Et  sic,  toto  2per- 

11  prsefatur  C.  12  lugidus  D.  13  dicitque  C. 

14  lugido  D.         15  eique  D.        16  diermitius  A.  dormitius  B.  diarmatius  D. 

17  suggerente  D.  18  baithine  D.  19  patricidium  D. 

20  chain  B.  21  A.  B.  F.  S.     deimim  C. 

22  A.  B.  D.  F.  S.     indicationem  C.  23  hiberniam  D. 

24  forsitan  D.  F.  25  om.  D.  26  ait  D. 

27  hiberniam  D.  28  hisdem  A.  B.  29  everniam  A. 

30  regionem  D.  31  vocatur  D.  Boll.  32  14a  B.     leo  D. 

s3-34  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 

1  capitulum  totum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  titulum  om.  Boll.  2  perfecto  B. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^E.      LIBER  I.  129 

lecto  Psalterio,  sicuti  Sanctus  praedixerat  repertum  exploratum 

est. 


l*§t  iibnr  in  Jtxjuaiittm  Ito  &mctw  siciiti 
cwbmtz. 

CSitTADAM  itidem  die,  ad  focum  in  monasterio  sedens,  videt  rcrAP- 
Lugbeum,  gente  Mocumin,  eminus  librum  legentem,  cui  repente 
ait,  Praecave,  fili,  praecave,  sestimo  enim  quod  quern  lectitas  liber 
in  aquae  plenum  sit  casurus  vasculum.  Quod  mox  ita  contigit : 
nam  ille  supra  memoratus  juvenis,  post  aliquod  breve  inter- 
vallum,  ad  aliquam  consurgeus  in  monasterio  ministrationem, 
verbi  oblitus  beati  viri,  libellus,  quern  sub  2ascella  negligentius 
inclusit,  subito  in  3hydriam  aqua  repletam  cecidit. 


ijle  dteraatlxr  atrautentt  inaniter  fceftt&cr. 

inter  haec  die  ultra  fretum  2Iouae  insulaa  clamatum  CAP.  xix. 
est :  quern  Sanctus  sedens  in  3tuguriolo  tabulis  suffulto  audiens 
clamoreni  dicit,  Homo  qui  ultra  clamitat  fretum  non  est  subtilis 
sensus,  nam  hodie  mei  corniculum  atramenti  inclinans  effundet. 
Quod  verbum  ejus  minis trat or  Diormitius  audiens,  paulisper 
ante  januam  stans,  4gravem  expectabat  5superventurum  hos- 
pitem,  ut  corniculum  defenderet.  Sed  alia  mox  faciente  causa, 
inde  recessit;  etpost  ejus  recessum  hospes  molestus  supervenit, 
Sanctumque  osculandum  appetens,  ora  vestimenti  inclinatum 
effudit  atramenti  corniculum. 


J3LLIO  itidem  tempore  Sanctus  2die  tertiae  feriae  fratribus  sic  CAP.  xx. 
profatus  est,  Crastina  quarta  feria  jejunare  proponimus,  sed 
tamen,  superveniente  quodam  molesto  hospite,  consuetudin- 
arium  solvetur  jejunium.  Quod  ita  ut  Sancto  praeostensum  est 
3accidit :  nam  mane  eadem  quarta  feria,  alius  ultra  fretum 
clamitabat  proselytus,  Aidanus  nomine,  filius  Fergnoi,  qui,  ut 

1  capitulum  Mum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.     titulum  om.  Boll. 

2  axilla  Boll.  3  ydriam  A.  et  capitulationibus  p.  10  supra  ;  fossam  B. 

1  capitulum  totum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.     titulus  deest  in  Boll. 

2  A.    ione  B.         3  tegoriolo  A.     tugurriolo  B.  4  gravamen  B. 
5  super  venturum  B. 

1  capitulum  totum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.     titulum  om.  Boll. 

2  om.  Colg.  Boll.  ;J  accedit  A. 

I 


130  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMN.      LIBER  I. 

fertur,  duodecim  annis  Brendeno  ministravit  Mocualti;  vir 
valde  religiosus,  qui,  ut  advenit,  ejusdem  diei,  juxta  verbum 
Sancti,  jejunationem  solvit. 


^e  aliquxr  mt0erabiU  toinr  .qm  ttltra  sttpraMrttim  damitabat 

Jfr^tum. 

CAP.  xxi.  dfilJADAM  quoque  die,  quemdam  ultra  fretum  audiens 
clamitantem,  Sanctus  hoc  profatur  modo:  Valde  miserandus 
est  ille  clamitans  homo,  qui,  aliqua  ad  carnalia  medicamenta 
petiturus  pertinentia,  ad  nos  venit  :  cui  opportunius  erat  veram 
de  peccatis  hodie  poenitudinem  gerere  ;  nam  in  hujus  fine  hebdo- 
madis  morietur.  Quod  verbum  qui  inerant  prsesentes  advenienti 
misero  intimavere.  Sed  ille  parvipendens,  acceptis  quse  popos- 
cerat,  citius  recessit  ;  et,  secundum  Sancti  propheticum  verbum, 
ante  fin  em  ejusdem  septimanse  mortuus  est. 


dbitate  ignt  #ntteta  oelito  prcrla;p0.a 
irmnbttsta  0andi  toiri  :prxrpltetia. 

CAP.  xxn.  J^L~LIO  itidem  in  tempore,  2Lugbeus  3gente  4Mocumin,  cujus 
supra  mentionem  fecimus,  quadam  ad  Sanctum  die  post  frugum 
veniens  triturationem,  nullo  modo  ejus  faciem  intueri  potuit, 
miro  superfusam  rubore  ;  valdeque  pertimescens  cito  aufugit. 
Quern  Sanctus  complosis  5paulum  manibus  6revocat.  Qui 
reversus,  a  Sancto  statim  interrogatus  cur  ocius  aufugisset, 
hoc  dedit  responsum,  Ideo  fugi  quia  nimis  pertimui.  Et  post 
aliquod  modicum  intervallum,  fiducialius  agens,  audet  Sanctum 
interrogare,  inquiens,  Numquid  hac  in  hora  tibi  aliqua  formid- 
abilis  ostensa  visio  7est?  Cui  Sanctus  8talem  dedit  9respon- 
sionem  :  Tarn  terrifica  ultio  nunc  in  remota  orbis  parte  peracta 
est.  Qualis,  ait  juvenis,  vindicta,  et  in  qua  regione  facta  ? 
Sanctus  turn  sic  profatur:  Sulfurea  de  ccelo  flamma  super 
Eomani  juris  civitatem,  intra  Italise  terminos  sitam,  hac  hora 
effusa  est;  triaque  ferme  millia  virorum,  excepto  10matrum 
puerorumque  numero  disperierunt.  Et  antequam  praesens 
11  finiatur  annus,  12  Gallici  nautae,  de  Galliarum  provinciis 
adventantes,  hsec  eadem  tibi  13enarrabunt.  Quse  verba  post 

1  capit.  totum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.     tit-til  om.  Boll. 

1  titul.  om.  C.  p.  F.  S.  Boll.        2  lugidus  D.  3-4  om>  Ci  jy  F  g 

4  B.     moccumin  A.  6  paululum  B.  C.  D.  F.  S.       6  revocavit  D 

7  erat  C.  8  A.  B.  F.  S.     tale  C.  D. 

0  A.  B.  F.  S.     responsum  C.  D.  10  mulierum  D. 

11  A.  B.  F.  12  gallice  B.  13  narrabunt  D. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^E.      LIBER  I.  131 

aliquot  menses  veridica  fttisse  sunt  comprobata.  Nam  idem 
14Lugbeus,  sinrul  cum  sancto  15viro  ad  Caput  Eegionis  pergens, 
nauclerum  et  nautas  16  adventantis  17barc8e  interrogans,  sic 
omnia  18illa  de  civitate  cum  civibus  ab  eis  19audit  enarrata, 
quemadmodum  a  prsedicabili  viro  sunt  prsedicta. 

1  Jl*  JJaitfrantf  ftiio  Jf,erafca,chi  toati  toi*icr  bin. 

{SETTADAM  brumali  et  valde  frigida  die  Sanctus,  3magno  CAP. 
molestatus  mserore,  flevit.  Quern  suns  minis  trator  4Diormitius,  xxin. 
de  causa  interrogans  msestitise,  hoc  ab  eo  responsum  5accepit, 
Non  immerito,  0  filiole,  ego  hac  in  hora  contristor,  meos  videns 
monachos,  quos  6Laisranus  nunc  gravi  fatigatos  labore  in 
alicujus  majoris  domus  fabrica  molestat  ;  7quse  mihi  valde  8dis- 
plicet.  Mirum  dictu  !  eodem  momento  horse  9Laisranus,  habi- 
tans  in  monasterio  10Eoboreti  Campi,  quodammodo  coactus,  et 
quasi  quadam  pyra  intrinsecus  succensus,  jubet  monachos 
a  labore  cessare,  aliquamque  cibationum  consolationem  nprse- 
parari  ;  et  non  solum  in  eadem  die  otiari,  sed  12et  in  ceteris 
asperse  tempestatis  diebus  requiescere.  Quse  verba  ad  fratres 
consolatoria,  a  13Laisrano  dicta,  Sanctus  in  spiritu  audiens  flere 
cessavit,  et  mirabiliter  gavisus  ipse  in  14Ioua  insula  commanens, 
fratribus,  qui  ad  prsesens  15inerant,  per  omnia  enarravit,  et 
16Laisranum  17monachorum  benedixit  consolatorem. 


bam,  ab  tobzm  pr^nundat«0,  bentt. 

3in  tempore  Sanctus,  in  cacumine  sedens  montis  qui      CAP 
nostro  4huic  monasterio  eminus  supereminet,  ad  suum  minis- 
tratorem  5Diormitium<i  conversus,  6profatus  est,  dicens,  Miror 
quare  tardius   appropinquat   qusedam  de   Scotia    navis,   quse 
quemdam  advehit  sapientem  virum,  qui  in  quodam  facinore 

14  Ingidus  D.  15  om<  D  10  adventantes  D. 

17  A.     barce  B.     parce.C.     al  parce  F.  in  mary.         1S  om.  B. 
19  audivit  D.     om.  F. 

1  tilul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.  2  cap.  ix.  continuant  C.  D.  F.  S. 

3  columba  add.  D.  4  diarmatus  D.  5  accipit  A. 
6  lasreanus  D.                          7  A.  B.     quod  C.  D.  F.  S. 

8  A.  C.  D.  S.     displicent  E.  F.  Colg.  Boll.  <J  lasreanus  D. 

10  campi  roborete  D.  n  prwstare  D.  l2  om.  D. 

13  lasreano  D.  "  A.  S.     iona  B.  D.          15  erant  D. 

10  lasreanum  D.  1?  A.  B.     monachum  C.  F.  S.     om.  D. 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.         2  viro  add.  B.  3  om.  D. 

4  om.  C.  5  diarmatuin  D.  6  profatur  B. 


132  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^.      LIBERT. 

lapsus,  lacrymosam  gerens  pcenitudinem,  mox  adveniet.  Post 
7proinde  haud  7grande  intervallum  ad  austrum  prospiciens 
minister,  velum  navis  videt  ad  portum  8propinquantis.  9Quam 
cum  Sancto  adventantem  demonstraret,  cito  10surgit,  inquiens, 
Eamus  proselyto  obviam,  cujus  veram  Christus  nsuscipit 
poenitentiam.  At  vero  12Feachnaus,  de  navi  descendens,  Sancto 
ad  portum  pervenienti  obvius  occurrit ;  cum  fletu  et  lamento, 
ante  pedes  ejus  ingeniculans  flexis  genibus,  amarissime  ingemuit, 
et  coram  omnibus  qui  ibidem  13inerant  14peccantias  15confitetur 
16suas.  Sanctus  17tum,  cum  eo  pariter  illacrymatus,  ad  eum  ait, 
Surge  fili,  et  consolare ;  dimissa  sunt  tua  quse  commisisti  pecca- 
mina;  quia,  18sicut  scriptum  est,19Cor  contritum  et  humiliatum 
Deus  non  20spemit.  Qui  surgens,  gaudenter  a  Sancto  susceptus, 
ad  21Baitheneum  tune  temporis  in  Campo  22  Lunge  prsepositum 
commorantem,  post  aliquot  est  emissus  dies,  in  pace  commigrans. 


l^z  Cailtarar  .ejtt0  m0narh0  0anrti  ptxrplutattxr  bin. 

CAP.  xxv.  JpUjJO  2in  tempore  binos  mittens  monachos  ad  suum  alium 
monachum,  nomine  3  Cailtanum,  qui  eodem  tempore  prsepositus 
erat  in  cella  4quse  hodieque  ejus  fratris  Diuni  vocabulo  voci- 
tatur,  stagno  adhserens  Abse  5fluminis,  hsec  per  eosdem  nuncios 
Sanctus  commendat  verba :  Cito  euntes  ad  3  Cailtanum  prope- 
rate,  6dicitoteque  ei  ut  ad  me  sine  ulla  veniat  morula.  Qui 
verbo  Sancti  obsecuti  exeuutes,  et  ad  cellam 7  Diuni  pervenientes, 
suae  legatiunculse  qualitatem  8Cailtano  intimaverunt.  Qui 
eadem  hora,  nullo  demoratus  modo,  Sancti  prosecutus  legatos, 
ad  eum  in  9Ioua  insula  commorantem,  10eorum  itineris  comes, 
celeriter  pervenit.  Quo  viso,  Sanctus  ad  eum  taliter  locutus, 
his  compellat  verbis,  0  11Cailtane,  benefecisti  ad  me  obedienter 
festinando:  requiesce  paulisper.  Idcirco  ad  te  invitandum 
misi,  amans  amicum,  ut  hie  mecum  in  vera  finias  obedientia 
vitse  cursum  tuse.  Nam  12ante  hujus  13hebdomadis  14finem  ad 
15Dominum  in  pace  transibis.  Quibus  auditis,  gratias  agens 

7-7  om.  D.  8  appropinquantis  C.  9  quern  D. 

10  A.  C.  F.  S.     surge  B.     surrexit  D.  n  A.  D.    suscepit  B.  C.  F.  S. 

12  fechnaus  B.  C.  F.  S.     fiachna  D.  i3  erant  D. 

14  culpas  B.     peccata  D.         15-16  sua  confessns  est  D.       17  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 
18  om.  D.  19-20  deus  contritum  non  spernit  et  humiliatum  cor  .B. 

al  baythenum  D.         '22  longe  D. 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll,    tenor  cap.  x.  continuatur.  2  om.  D. 

3  calteanum  D.  4~5  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  6  dicite  C.  D.  F.  S. 

7  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  8  calteano  D.  °  A.  C.     iona  B. 

10  om.  F.  n  calteane  D.  12  om.  D. 

12  ebdomadis  A.  B.  D.  F.  S.  14  fine  D.          15  A.  B.    deum  C.  D.  F.  S. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^E.      LIBER  I.  133 

Deo,  Sanctumque  lacrymans  16exosculatus,  17ad  hospitium, 
accepta  ab  eo  benedictione,  18pergit:  eademque  subsecuta 
infirmatus  nocte,  juxta  verbum  Sancti  in  eadem  septimana 
ad  Christum  19Dominum  migravit. 


fratribu*  sandi  jnrafctba 
bin. 


CliiUADAM  Dominica  die  ultra  ssepe  memoratum  clamatum  CAP. 
est  fretum.  Quern  audiens  Sanctus  clamorem,  ad  fratres  qui  XXVI< 
ibidem  2inerant,  Ite,  ait,  celeriter,  peregrinosque  de  longinqua 
venientes  regione  ad  nos  ocius  adducite.  Qui  continuo  obsecuti, 
3transfretantes  adduxerunt  hospites  :  quos  Sanctus  4exosculatus, 
consequenter  de  causa  percontatur  itineris.  Qui  respondentes 
aiunt,  Ut  5hoc  etiam  anno  apud  te  peregrinemur,  venimus. 
Quibus  Sanctus  hanc  dedit  responsionem  :  Apud  me,  ut  dicitis, 
anni  unius  spatio  peregrinari  non  poteritis,  nisi  prius  6monachi- 
cum  promiseritis  votum.  Quod  qui  7inerant  prsesentes  valde 
mirati  sunt  8ad  hospites  eadem  hora  9adventantes  dici.  Ad 
quse  Sancti  verba  senior  respondens  frater  ait,  Hoc  in  mente 
propositum  licet  in  hanc  horam  usque  nullatenus  10habuerimus, 
tamen  tuum  sequemur  consilium,  divinitus,  ut  credimus,  in- 
spiratum.  Quid  plura?  Eodem  horae  momento  oratorium 
cum  Sancto  ingressi,  devote,  flexis  genibus,  votum  11monachiale 
voverunt.  Sanctus  turn  12deinde,  ad  fratres  conversus,  ait,  Hi 
duo  proselyti  vivam  Deo  seipsos  exhibentes  hostiam,  longaque 
13  in  13brevi  Christianas  tempera  militise  complentes,  hoc  mox 
eodem  mense  ad  Christum  Dominum  in  pace  transibunt. 
Quibus  auditis  ambo  fratres,  gratias  Deo  agentes,  ad  hospitium 
udeducti  sunt:  interjectisque  diebus  septem,  senior  frater 
ccepit  infirmari,  et,  eadem  peracta  septimana,  ad  Dominum 
emigravit.  Similiter  et  alter  post  septem  alios  dies  infirmatus, 
ejusdem  in  fine  hebdomadis,  ad  Dominum  feliciter  15  transit.  Et 
sic  secundum  Sancti  veridicam  prophetiam,  intra  ejusdem 
mensis  terminum,  ambo  prcesentem  finiunt  vitam. 


16  osculatus  est  D.  17  et  Q.  S.  18  pcrrexit  D.  10  om  B. 

1  titul  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.         2  erant  D.  3  mandatum  add.  D. 

4  exosculatos  D.  E.  *>  et  add.  D.  °  monasticum  D. 

7  crant  D.  s  em.  D.  9  advenientes  D. 

10  habuimus  D.  "  monachilc  B.  0.    12  om.  D. 

13  om.  D;  "  ducti  D.  15  emigravit  D. 


134  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB.'E.      LIBER  I. 

a§^  -Qtuxbam  Jtrtbrananxr  0artdi  :pr0;ph.etia  bin. 

CAP.  @TlJM  per  aliquot  dies  in  insula  demoraretur  2Scia  vir  beatus, 
XXVIL  3aiicujus  }ocj  terrulam  mari  vicinam  baculo  percutiens,  ad 
comites  4sic  ait,  Mirum  dictu,  0  filioli  !  hodie  in  hac  hujus  loci 
terrula  quidam  gentilis  senex,  5naturale  per  totam  bonum 
custodiens  6vitam,  7et  baptizabitur,  et  morietur,  8et  sepelietur. 
Et  ecce,  quasi  9post  unius  intervallum  horse,  navicula  ad 
eundem  supervenit  portum  ;  cujus  in  prora  10  quidam  advectus 
est  decrepitus  senex,  nGeon8e  12primarius  cohortis,  quern  bini 
juvenes,  de  navi  sublevantes,  ante  beati  conspectum  viri 
13deponunt.  Qui  statim,  verbo  Dei  a  Sancto  per  interpretem 
recepto,  credens,  ab  eodem  baptizatus  est,  et  post  expleta 
baptizationis  14ministeria,  sicuti  Sanctus  prophetizavit,  eodem 
in  loco  consequenter  obiit,  ibidemque  socii,  congesto  lapidum 
acervo,  15sepeliunt.  Qui  16thodieque  in  17ora  cernitur  maritima; 
fluviusque  ejusdem  18loci  in  quo  idem  baptisma  acceperat,  ex 
nomine  ejus,  19Dobur  19Artbranani  usque  in  hodiernum  20nomi- 
natus  diem,  ab  accolis  vocitatur. 


tran#nrotata 

xxvni  J-LIO  in  tempore  trans  Britannise  Dorsum  iter  agens,  aliquo 
in  desertis  2viculo  agellis  reperto,  ibidemque  juxta  alicujus 
marginem  3rivuli  stagnum  intrantis,  Sanctus  mansionem  faciens, 
eadem  nocte  dormientes,  seniisopore  degustato,  suscitat  comites, 
dicens,  Nunc,  nunc,  celerius  foras  exeuntes,  nostram  quam 
ultra  rivum  naviculam  posuistis  in  4domum,  hue  citius  advehite, 
et  in  viciniore  5domuncula  ponite.  Qui  continue  obedientes, 
sicut  6eis  prseceptum  est,  fecerunt  ;  ipsisque  iterum  quiescenti- 
bus,  Sanctus  post  quoddam  intervallum  silenter  Diormitium 
pulsat  inquiens,  Nunc  stans  extra  domum  aspice  quid  in  illo 
agitur  viculo  ubi  prius  7vestram  posuistis  naviculam.  Qui 
Sancti  prsecepto  obsecutus  domum  egreditur,  et  respiciens 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.  2  scotia  C.     skia  F.     om.  D.  S. 

3  columba  add.  D.  4  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 

5-6  per  totam  vitam  naturale  bonum  custadiens  D.         7  om.  D. 

8  ac  D.  9  om.  F.  10  om.  D.  u  genere  D. 

12  insulse  inserunt  Colg.  Boll.  13  deposuerunt  D. 

14  A.     misteria  B.  C.  F.  S.  15  eum  add.  T>.        16  hodie  quoque  D. 

17  hora  B.  S.     hac  hora  C.  18  om.  G.  D.  F.  S. 

19  A.  B.     om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  20  B.     Colg.  Boll,     nominatus  est  A. 

1  capitulum  totum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.     titul.  om.  Boll. 

2  B.  et  A.  inferius  vehiculo  A.  Colg.  Boll.         3  rivoli  A.  4  domo  B. 
5  domucula  A.                           6  om.  B.                             7  uostram  B. 


VJTA  SANCTI  COLUMB^E.      LIBEli  I.  135 

8videt  vicum  flamma  instante  totum  concremari.  Reversusque 
ad  Sanctum  quod  ibidem  agebatur  retulit.  Sanctus  proinde 
fratribus  de  quodam  narravit  semulo  persecutore  qui  easdem 
domus  eadem  incenderat  nocte. 


(i&Uana  ftlio  Jfaxhtni  qui  .erat  in  2M.fcce*i  CM^ixm  flit 


itidem  die  Sanctus,  in  suo  sedens  Huguriolo,      CAP. 
5Colcio  eidem,  lectitanti  juxta  se,  prophetizans  ait,  Nunc  ununi    xxix. 
tenacem  primarium  de  tuse  prsepositis  6diceceseos  dsemones  ad 
inferna  rapiunt.     At  vero  hoc  audiens  7Colcius  tempus  et  horam 
in  tabula  describens,  post  aliquot  menses  ad  patriam  reversus, 
Gallanum  filium  Fachtni   eodem   horse  momento  obiisse,  ab 
accolis  ejusdem  regionis  percunctatus,  invenit,  quo  vir  beatus 
eidem  a  dsemonibus  raptum  enarravit. 


z  Jfinbrharar 

a0terii  fmtbatar*  qurrb  gjcotice  3^rtrhain  nttnrupatur,  in 
©thtra 


in  tempore  supra  memoratus  presbyter  Findchanus, 
Christ!  miles,  Aidum  cognomento  Nigrum,  regio  genere  ortum, 
4Cruthinicum  gente,  de  Scotia  ad  Britanniam  sub  clericatus 
habitu  secum  adduxit,  ut  in  suo  apud  se  monasterio  per  aliquot 
peregrinaretur  annos.  Qui  scilicet  Aidus  Niger  valde  sanguin- 
arius  homo  et  multorum  fuerat  trucidator  ;  qui  et  Diormitiuni 
filium  Cerbulis,  totius  Scotise  regnatorem,  Deo  auctore  ordina- 
tum,  interfecerat.  Hie  itaque  idem  Aidus,  post  aliquantum  in 
peregrinatione  transactum  tempus,  accito  episcopo,  quamvis  u/ 
non  recte,  apud  supradictum  Findchanum  presbyter  ordiriatus 
est.  Episcopus  tamen  non  est  ausus  super  caput  ejus  manum 
imponere,  nisi  prius  idem  Findchanus,  Aidum  carnaliter  amans, 
suam  capiti  ejus  pro  confirmatione  imponeret  dexteram.  Quse 
talis  ordinatio  cum  postea  sancto  intimaretur  viro,  segre  tulit  : 
turn  proinde  hanc  de  illo  Findchano  et  de  Aido  ordinato  for- 
midabilem  profatur  sententiam,  inquiens,  Ilia  manus  dextra 

8  vidit  B. 

1  capitul.  totum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.     titul.  om.  BolL  2  diocisi  A.    diocesi  B. 

3  A.  cellachi  B.  4  tegoriolo  A.  6  A.  colgio  B. 

6  diociseos  A.  7  A.  colgius  B. 

1  capitul.  totum  om.  C.  B.  F.  S.     titul.  om.  Boll.          1-2  om.  B. 
3  ardcaiin  B.  4  A.  B. 


136  VITA  SAXCTI  COLUMB^E.      LIBER  I. 

quam  Findcharms,  contra  fas,  et  jus  ecclesiasticum,  super  caput 
filii  perditionis  imposuit,  mox  computrescet,  et  post  magnos 
dolorum  cruciatus  ipsum  in  5terram  6sepelienda  prsecedet;  et 
ipse  post  suam  humatam  manum  per  multos  superstes  victurus 
est  annos.  Ordinatus  vero  indebite  Aldus,  sicuti  canis,  ad 
vomitum  revertetur  suum,  et  ipse  rursum  sanguilentus  truci- 
dator  exist  et,  et  ad  ultimum  lancea  7jugulatus,  de  ligno  in 
aquam  cadens,  submersus  morietur.  Talem  multo  prius  ter- 
minum  promeruit  vitse,  qui  totius  regem  trucidavit  Scotise. 
Quse  beati  viri  prophetia  de  utroque  adimpleta  est ;  nam  pres- 
byteri  Findchani  8dexter  9per  9pugnum  10putrefactus  in  terram 
eum  prsecessit,  in  ilia  11sepultus  insula  quse  120mmon  nuncu- 
patur:  ipse  vero,  juxta  verbum  Sancti  Columbae  per  multos 
post  vixit  annos.  Aidus  vero  Niger,  solummodo  nomine  pres 
byter,  ad  sua  priora  reversus  scelera,  dolo  lancea  transfixus,  de 
prora  ratis  in  aquam  lapsus  stagneam,  disperiit. 


sxrlamine  0pirittt0  <Jtt0na.cKt0  in  bia 
Iab.ori00i0  mwso. 

has  prsedicabiles  prophetici  spiritus  prophetationes 
non  ab  re  videtur  etiam  de  quadam  spiritali  consolatione  nostris 
commemorare  literulis,  quam  aliquando  sancti  Columbse  mon- 
achi,  spiritu  ejus  ipsis  in  via  obviante,  sentiebant.  Alio  nam- 
que  in  tempore,  fratres,  post  messionis  opera,  vespere  ad  nionas- 
terium  redeuntes,  et  ad  ilium  pervenientes  locum  qui  Scotice 
nuncupatur  2Cuuleilne,  qui  utique  locus  inter  occidentalem 
3Iou9e  insulae  campulum  et  nostrum  monasterium  medius  esse 
dicitur,  mirum  quid  et  inconsuetum  singuli  sibi  sentire  vide- 
bantur :  quod  tamen  alius  4alii  intimare  nullo  modo  audebat. 
Et  sic  per  aliquot  dies  eodem  in  loco,  eademque  vespertina 
sentiebant  hora.  Fuit  autem  5iisdem  6in  diebus  sanctus  Baitlie- 
neus  inter  eos  operum  dispensator,  qui  sic  ad  ipsos  alia  die  est 
prolocutus,  inquiens,  Nunc,  fratres,  confiteri  debetis  singuli  si 
aliquod  in  hoc  medio  loco  inter  messem  et  monasterium  incon 
suetum  et  inopinatum  sentitis  miraculum.  Unus  turn  ex  eis 
senior,  Juxta  tuam,  ait,  7jussionem,  quod  mihi  hoc  in  loco 

5  A.  terra  B.  °  sepeliendam  A. 

7  B.  jugnlentus  A.     jugulandus  Colg.  Boll.  8  A.  B. 

!)  per  pugnus  A.     prepugnus  B.     per  pugnum  Colg.  Boll. 
10  A.  B.  n  A.  B.  12  omon  B. 

1  capital,  totum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.     titul.  om.  Boll.          2  B.  cuul  eilne  A. 
3  A.  ione  B.  4  alio  A.  r>  hisdem  A.  B. 

**  om.  B.  7  jusionem  A.     uieionem  err  ore  voccdium  B. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB/E.      LIBER  I.  137 

ostensum  est  dicam ;  nam  et  in  his  praetereuntibus  dieculis,  et 
nunc  etiam,  quandam  miri  odoris  8fragrantiam  ac  si  universoruni 
florum  in  unum  sentio  collectorum ;  quendam  quoque  quasi 
ignis  ardorem,  non  pcenalem,  sed  quodammodo  suavem :  sed  et 
quandam  in  corde  insuetam  et  incomparabilem  infusam  laetifi- 
cationem,  quae  me  subito  mirabiliter  consolatur,  et  in  tantum 
laetificat  ut  nullius  maeroris,  nullius  laboris,  meminisse  possim. 
Sed  et  onus  quod  meo,  quamvis  grave,  porto  in  dorso,  ab  hoc 
loco  usque  quo  ad  monasterium  perveniatur,  quomodo  nescio, 
in  tantum  relevatur,  ut  me  oneratum  non  sentiam.  Quid 
plura  ?  Sic  omnes  illi  messores  operarii  de  se  singillatim  pro- 
fitentur  per  omnia  sensisse,  sicuti  unus  ex  eis  coram  9enarra- 
verat,  singulique  simul  flexis  genibus  a  sancto  postularunt 
Baitheneo  ut  ejusdem  miri  solaminis  causam  et  originem,  quod 
et  ipse,  sicut  et  ceteri  10sentiebant,  illis  ignorantibus,  intimare 
procuraret.  Quibus  consequenter  hoc  dedit  responsum,  Scitis, 
inquiens,  quod  noster  senior  Columba  de  nobis  anxie  cogitet,  et 
nos  ad  se  tardius  pervenientes  gegre  ferat  nostri  memor  laboris, 
et  idcirco  quia  corporaliter  obviam  nobis  non  venit,  spiritus 
ejus  nostris  obviat  gressibus,  qui  taliter  nos  consolans  laetificat. 
Quibus  auditis  verbis,  ingeniculantes,  cum  ingenti  gratulatione, 
expansis  ad  coelum  manibus,  Christum  in  sancto  venerantur  et 
beato  viro. 

11Sed  et  hoc  silere  non  debemus  quod  ab  expertis  quibusdam 
de  voce  beati  psalmodiae  viri  indubitanter  traditum  est.  Quae 
scilicet  vox  venerabilis  viri  in  ecclesia  cum  fratribus  decantan- 
tis,  aliquando  per  quatuor  stadia,  hoc  est,  quingentos  passus, 
aliquando  vero  per  octo,  hoc  est,  mille  passus,  incomparabili 
elevata  modo  audiebatur.  Mirum  dictu!  Nee  in  auribus 
eorum  qui  secum  in  ecclesia  stabant  vox  ejus  modum  humanae 
vocis  in  clamoris  granditate  excedebat.  Sed  tamen  eadem  hora 
qui  ultra  mille  passuum  longinquitatem  stabant,  sic  clare 
eandem  audiebant  vocem,  ut  illos  quos  canebat  versiculos  etiam 
per  singulas  possent  distinguere  syllabas :  similiter  12enim  ejus 
vox  in  auribus  prope  et  longe  audientium  personabat.  Sed  hoc 
de  voce  miraculum  beati  viri  non  semper,  sed  raro,  accidisse 
comprobatur;  quod  tamen  sine  Divini  Spiritus  gratia  nullo 
modo  fieri  potuisset. 

13  Sed  et  illud  non  est  tacendum  quod  aliquando  de  tali  et 


8  flagrantiam  A.  B.  «  A.  enarravit  B.  10  sentiebat  B. 

11  litera  S.  majuscula,  minio  scripta,  paragraphum  novum  designat  in  B. 
Pinkertonus  capit.  xxxviii.  inchoat,  et  tituliim  proprio  jure  suppeditat,  refra- 
f/antibus  codd.  12  B.  Con.  A.,  ut  passim  pro  voce  enim  in  Libro  Armacano. 

13  litera  S.  majuscula,  ccerulca,  B. 


138  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^E.      LIBER  I. 

incomparabili  vocis  ejus  sublevatione  juxta  Brudei  regis  muni- 
tionem  accidisse  traditur.  Nam  ipse  Sanctus  cum  paucis 
fratribus  extra  regis  munitionem  dum  vespertinales  Dei  laudes 
ex  more  celebraret,  quidam  Magi,  ad  eos  propius  accedentes,  in  . 
quantum  poterant,  prohibere  conabantur,  ne  de  ore  ipsorum 
divinse  laudis  sonus  inter  Gentiles  audiretur  populos.  Quo 
comperto  Sanctus  quadragesimum  et  quartum  psalmum  decan- 
tare  ccepit,  mirumque  in  modum  ita  vox  ejus  in  aere  eodem 
momento  instar  alicujus  formidabilis  tonitrui  elevata  est,  ut  et 
rex  et  populus  intolerabili  essent  pavore  perterriti. 


1  Jle  xjujxbam  Ipibite  xjm  ^ttgttbitt*  dobtt*  toxrdt  abate. 

CAP.  jj^tLIO  in  tempore,  cum  in  Scotia  per  aliquot  Sanctus  demo- 
xxx.  raretur  dies,  alium  currui  insidentem  videns  clericum,  qui 
gaudenter  peragrabat  Campum  Breg  ;  primo  interrogans  de  eo 
quis  esset,  hoc  ab  amicis  ejusdem  viri  de  eo  accipit  responsum, 
Hie  est  Lugudius  Clodus,  homo  dives  et  honoratus  in  plebe. 
Sanctus  consequenter  respondens  inquit,  Non  ita  2  video  ;  sed 
homuncio  miser  et  pauper,  in  die  qua  morietur,  tria  apud  se 
vicinorum  prsetersoria  in  una  retentabit  3maceria,  unamque 
electam  de  vaccis  4pr8etersoriorum  occidi  jubebit  5sibi,  de  6cujus 
cocta  carne  postulabit  aliquam  sibi  parteni  dari,  cum  meretrice 
in  eodern  lectulo  cubanti.  De  qua  utique  particula  morsum 
accipiens,  statim  ibidem  strangulabitur  et  morietur.  Quse 
omnia,  sicuti  ab  expertis  traditur,  juxta  Sancti  7propheticum 
adimpleta  sunt  8verbum. 


l*j$t  JJemanrr  fU0  2dntthrtch;e  smidi  3prxrph.etia. 

CAP.  4  jSlUNC  5enim  cum  Sanctus  de  malis  suis  corriperet,  parvi- 
xxxi.  pen(jens  Sanctum  subsannabat.  Cui  respondens  vir  beatus  ait, 
In  nomine  Domini,  Nemane,  aliqua  de  te  veridica  loquar  verba. 
Inimici  tui  6reperient  te  in  eodem  cum  meretrice  cubantem 
cubiculo,  ibidemque  trucidaberis.  Dsemones  quoque  ad  loca 
pcenarum  tuam  rapient  animam.  Hie  idem  Nemanus,  post 
aliquot  annos,  in  uno  cum  meretrice  lectulo  repertus  in  regione 
Cainle,  juxta  7verbum  Sancti,  8ab  inimicis  decapitatus,  disperiit. 

1  capitul.  totum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.     titul.  om.  BoU.         2  A.  vides  B. 
3  A.  B.  maneria  suo  jure  Boll.         4  prsetersoriuin  B.  6  om.  B. 

6  unius  B.  7  prophetiam  B.  8  om.  B. 

1  capitul.  totum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.     titul.  om.  Boll.         2  gluteriche  B. 

3  prophetise  verbum  B.  4-5  nemanuin  filium  grutricae  Boll. 

6  periment  B.  7  om.  B.  8  vaticiniuin  add.  B. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB/E.      LIBER  I.  139 


20andi  bin 

4in  tempore   Sanctus,  cum  in  5Scotiensium  paulo     'CAP. 
superius  moraretur  memorata  regione,  casu  Dominica  die  ad    xxxn. 
quoddam  devenit  vicinum  monasteriolum  quod  Scotice  6Trioit 
vocitatur.     Eadem  7proinde  die  quendam  audiens  presbyterum 
sacra  eucharistise  mysteria  conficientem,  quem  ideo  fratres,  qui 
ibidem  commanebant,  ad  missarum  elegerant  peragenda  sol- 
lemnia,  quia  valde  religiosum  8  sestimabant,  repente  hanc  for- 
midabilem  de  ore  profert  vocem,  Munda  et  immunda  pariter 
nunc  9permisceri  cernuntur,  hoc  est,  munda  sacrce  oblationis 

10  mysteria  per  immundum   hominem  ministrata,  qui  in   sua 

11  interim  conscientia  12aliquod  grande  occultat  facinus.     Heec 
qui  13inerant  audientes  tremefacti  nimis  obstupuere.     Ille  vero 
de   quo  hsec   dicebantur  verba   coram  omnibus   14peccantiam 
compulsus  est  15suam  confiteri.     Christique  commilitones,  qui 
in  ecclesia   Sanctum   circumstantes   occulta   cordis  audierant 
manifestantem,  divinam  in  eo  scientiam  cum  magna  admira- 
tione  glorificarunt. 


(Srrxr  toe  ^JEtfmbruibi  qui  in  (£01000  in0ula  r^mmanebat 
0anrtt   txrh^ti^ati^  toiri. 


3in  tempore  Sanctus  4in  5Ioua  commanens  insula,      CAP. 
6accitis  ad  se  binis  7de  fratribus  7viris,  quorum  vocabula  8Lug-   xxxm. 
beus  et  9Silnanus,  eisdem  praecipiens  dixit,  Nunc  ad  Maleam 
transfretate   insulam,   et  in   campulis   mari  vicinis    10Ercum 
quserite  furacem  ;    qui  nocte  praeterita  solus  occulte  de  insula 
11Coloso  perveniens,  sub  12sua  feno  tecta  navicula  inter  aren- 
arum  cumulos  per  diem   se   occultare  conatur,  ut  noctu  ad 
parvam  transnaviget  insulam   ubi   marini  nostri  juris  vituli 
generantur  et  generant;  ut  de  illis  13furenter  occisis  edax  valde 
furax  suam  replens  naviculam,  ad  suum  repedet  habitaculum. 

1  titul  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.  2  qui  erat  in  triota  add.  B. 

3  prophetia  B.  4  owl    jy  b  hyberniencium  D. 

6  A.  F.  triota  B.     trioint  C.     treoit  D.  7  om.  D. 

8  existimabant  D.  9  misceri  B.  10  B.  C.  D.  F.  S.  ministeria  A. 
11  om.  D.                              12  adhuc  add.  D.  13  erant  D.    , 

14  peccatum  suum  B.         15  om.  B. 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.  2  A.  mocudriudi  B.  3  om.  B.  D. 

4  columba  add.  D.  5  A.  iona  B.  D.       6  accersitis  D. 

7  om.  D.  8  A.  C.  lubbeus  B.     lugidus  D. 

9  A.  C.  F.  S.  selnanus  B.     sillanus  D.  10  ertum  B. 

11  colosa  D.  12  suo  B.  C.  13  furanter  A.    furantur  F.    f  urtim  C. 


140  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB.E.      LIBER  I. 

Qui  hasc  audientes,  obsecuti,  emigrant,  furemque  in  locis  a 
Sancto  prsesignatis  absconsum  reperiunt,  et  ad  Sanctum,  sicut 
illis  praeceperat,  perduxerunt.  Quo  viso  Sanctus  ad  eum  14dicit, 
Quare  tu  res  alienas,  divinum  transgressus  mandatum,  saepe 
furaris  ?  Quando  necesse  habueris,  ad  nos  veniens  necessaria 
accipies  postulata.  Et  hsec  dicens  prsecipit  15verveces  occidi, 
et  pro  16phocis  dari  misero  furaci,  ne  vacuus  ad  sua  remearet. 
Et  post  aliquantum  tempus  Sanctus,  in  spiritu  vicinam  furis 
prsevidens  mortem,  ad  17Baitheneum  eo  18in  tempore  prsepo- 
situm  commorantem  in  Campo  19 Lunge  mittit,  ut  eidem 
furi  quoddam  pingue  pecus  et  20sex  modios  novissima 
21mittat  munera.  Quibus  a  22Baitheneo,  sicut  Sanctus  com- 
mendaverat,  transmissis,  ea  die  inventus  23est  morte  subita 
praeventus  furax  misellus,  et  in  exequiis  ejus  transmissa 
expensa  sunt  24xenia. 


1  Jb  Cnrnanxr  yotiz  zmdi  prxrplutia  bin. 

CAP.      ,J1I_LIO  2in  tempore,  Sanctus  cum  juxta  Stagnum  3Cei,  prope 
xxxiv.  fluminis  quod  latine  Bos  dicitur,  die  aliqua  cum  fratribus 


sederet,  quidam  ad  eos  4  Scoticus  poeta  devenit  ;  qui  cum  post 
aliquant  recessisset  sermocinationem,  fratres  ad  Sanctum,  Cur, 
aiunt,  5a  6nobis  regrediente  7Cronano  poeta  aliquod  ex  more 
suae  artis  canticum  non  postulasti  modulabiliter  decantari  ? 
Quibus  Sanctus,  8  Quare  9et  10vos  nunc  inutilia  profertis  verba? 
quomodo  ab  illo  misero  homuncione  carmen  postularem  IsetitiaB 
qui  nunc,  ab  inimicis  ntrucidatus,  finem  ad  iisque  ocius  per- 
venit  vitaa.  His  a  Sancto  dictis,  et  ecce  12  ultra  flumen  aliquis 
13clamitat  homo  dicens,  Ille  poeta,  qui  ua  vobis  nuper  sospes 
rediit,  hora  15in  hac  ab  inimicis  in  via  interfectus  est.  160mnes 
tune  qui  prsesentes  inerant  valde  17mirati,  se  invicem  intuentes 
obstupuere. 


11  ait  I).  15  berbices  A.  F.  S.     vervecem  Boll. 

16  focis  A.  F.  S.     furtis  C.         17  baltenum  C.     baitemim  D. 

18  om.  B.  C.  D.  S.  19  longe  D.  20  vii.  D. 

21  om.  B.  22  baltheneo  C.     baitheno  I>. 

23  om.  D.  24  A.  C.  F.  S.  exenia  B.     exennia  D. 

1  iltulum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.  2  A.  B.  F.  S.  om.  C.  D. 

3  ce  D.  4  scotticus  B.  5-°  om.  D. 

7  coronano  C.  8  ait  D.  9  ad  I).  10  nos  D. 

11  A.  C.  F.  S.     trucklandus  B.  Boll.  12  ad  I>.  13  clamabat  DJ 

11  om.  C.  15  om.  D.  1G  om.  D.  17  admirati  D. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^:.      LIBER  I.  141 


fcturJw*  ^i^rnis  0andi  imtidnatia  toiri,  qui  amb0 

btspmerant. 


itidem  2  in  tempore,  Sanctus  in  3  loua  4conversans  CAP. 
insula,  5repente  inter  6legendum  summo,  cum  ingenti  admira-  xxxv- 
tione,  gemitu  ingemuit  msesto.  Quod  videns,  qui  prsesens  inerat, 
7Lugbeus  8Mocublai  coepit  ab  eo  percunctari  subiti  causam 
9mseroris.  Cui  Sanctus  valde  meestificatus  hanc  dedit  respon- 
sionem,  Duo  quidam  10  nunc  regii  generis  viri  in  n  Scotia 
mutuis  inter  se  vulneribus  12transfixi  disperierunt  13haud  procul 
a  monasterio  quod  dicitur  14Cellrois,  in  provincia  15Maugdor- 
norum,  16octavaque  die,  hac  peracta  17hebdomade,  ultra  f  return 
18alius  clamitabit,  qui  19hsec,  de  20Hibernia  veniens,  ita  21taliter 
facta  enarrabit.  Sed  hoc,  0  filiole,  quamdiu  vixero  nemini 
22indices.  Octava  23proinde  ultra  fretum  clamatum  est  die. 
Sanctus  24tum  supra  memoratum  ad  se  25Lugbeum  vocans, 
silenter  ad  eum  ait,  Qui  nunc  clamitat  ultra  fretum  ipse  est,  de 
quo  tibi  prius  dixeram,  26long8evus  viator.  27Vade,  et  28adduc 
eum  ad  nos.  Qui  celeriter  adductus,  inter  cetera,  hoc  etiam 
retulit,  Duo,  inquiens,  29in  parte  30Maugdornorum  nobiles  viri, 
se  mutuo  vulnerantes,  mortui  sunt  ;  hoc  est,  Colman  31Canis, 
32filius  33Aileni,  et  34Konanus  35filius  36Aido  filii  Colgen,  de 
37Anteriorum  genere,  prope  fines  illorum  locorum,  ubi  illud 
monasterium  cernitur  quod  dicitur  **  Cellrois.  Post  haec 
illius  verba  39narrationis,  idem  40Lugbeus,  Christi  miles,  Sanc 
tum  seorsum  coepit  interrogare,  dicens,  Quseso  mihi  de  his 
talibus  narres  propheticis  revelationibus  quomodo,  41si  per 
visum  42tibi,  an  auditu,  analio,  hominibus  incognito,  43manifes- 
tantur  modo.  Ad  hsec  Sanctus,  De  qua  nunc,  ait,  inquiris 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.             2  om.  C.  D.  3  A.  C.  F.  S.    ionaB.  D. 

4  om.  D.                         5  conversatus  D.  6  legendo  D. 

7  lugidus  D.                  8  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  9  mesti  D. 

10  om.  D.                        1X  hybernia  D.  12  totum  D. 

13  et  est  add.  F.            14  cellros  B.     cellarois  C.  ceall  rois  D.     cellorois  F. 

15  A.  F.  S.  maugdorneorum  B.     magdenorum  C.  muganorum  D. 

16  octava  C.  D.             17  ebdomada  B.  C.  F.  S.  18  aliquis  C.  D. 

19  Con.  A.  hec  B.  C   F.  S.     hue  Colg.  Boll.     om.  D. 

20  B.  C.  D.     evernia  A.  S.         21  et  add.  D.  22  dices  D. 

23  deinde  D.  24  tune  D.                      25  lugidum  D. 

2(5  C.  D.  F.  S.     longeus  A.  vide  var.  led.  22,  lib.  ii.  c.  10  infra,     longus  B. 

27  valde  B.  2*  educ  C.                      29-30  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 

30  maugdorneorum  B.  31  cognomento  canis  B.     canus  C.  D.  F.  S. 

32-33  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  34  romanus  C.            35-38  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 

30  aidi  Boll.  37  A.  B.  Colg.  Boll.      38  cellroiss  A. 

39  A.     narratoris  B.  C.  D.  F.  S.                                     40  lugidus  D. 

41  om.  D.  42  om.  D.                        43  tibi  add.  D. 


142  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB/E.      LTBER  I. 

valde  subtili  re  nullatenus  tibi  quamlibet  aliquam  intimare 
particulam  potero,  nisi  prius,  flexis  genibus,  per  nomen  excelsi 
Dei  mihi  firmiter  promittas  hoc  te  obscurissimum  sacramentum 
nulli  unquam  hominum  cunctis  diebus  vitse  mese  enarraturum. 
Qui,  hsec  audiens,  flexit  continue  genua,  et,  prostrate  in  terram 
vultu,  juxta  Sancti  prseceptionem  plene  omnia  promisit.  Qua 
statim  perfecta  promissione,  Sanctus  ad  surgentem  sic  locutus 
inquit,  Sunt  nonnulli,  quamlibet  pauci  admodum,  quibus  divina 
hoc  contulit  gratia,  ut  etiam  totum  44totius  terrse  orbem,  cum 
ambitu  oceani  et  coeli,  uno  eodemque  momento,  quasi  sub  uno 
solis  radio,  mirabiliter  laxato  mentis  sinu,  clare  et  manifes- 
tissime  speculentur.  Hoc  miraculum  Sanctus,  quamvis  de  aliis 
electis  dicere  videatur,  vanam  utique  fugiens  gloriam,  de  seipso 
tamen  dixisse,  per  obliquum  licet,  nullus  dubitare  debet  qui 
Paulum  legit  Apostolum,  vas  electionis,  de  talibus  narrantem 
sibi  revelatis  45visionibus.  Non  enim  ita  scripsit,  Scio  me,  sed, 
Scio  hominem,  raptum  usque  ad  tertium  ccelum.  Quod  quam 
libet  de  alio  dicere  46videatur,  nemo  tamen  dubitat  sic  de 
propria,  humilitatem  custodiens,  enarrare  persona.  Quern 
47etiam  et  noster  Columba  in  spiritalium  visionum  narratione 
secutus  est  superius  memorata,  quam  ab  eo  supradictus  vir, 
quern  plurimum  Sanctus  amabat,  magnis  precibus  prasmissis,  vix 
potuit  extorquere,  sicut  48ipse  coram  aliorum  personis  sanctorum, 
post  sancti  ColumbaB  transiturn,  testatus  est:  a  quibus  hsec 
quse  de  Sancto  supra  narravimus  indubitanter  didicimus. 


l^z  toitanxr 

.JQuLIO  3in  tempore,  quidam  de  4Muminensium  provincia 
proselytus  ad  Sanctum  venit ;  qui  se  in  quantum  potuit  5occul- 
tabat  humiliter,  6ut  nullus  sciret  quod  esset  episcopus :  sed 
tamen  Sanctum  hoc  non  potuit  latere.  Nam  alia  die  Dominica 
a  Sancto  jussus  Christi  corpus  ex  more  conficere,  Sanctum 
7advocat,  ut  simul,  quasi  duo  presbyteri,  Dominicum  panem 
frangerent.  Sanctus  proinde  ad  altarium  accedens,  repente 
intuitus  faciem  ejus,  sic  eum  compellat,  Benedicat  te  Christus, 
frater ;  hunc  solus,  8episcopali  ritu,  frange  panem :  nunc  scimus 
quod  sis  episcopus.  Quare  9hucusque  te  occultare  conatus  es, 

44  licet  non  semper  add.  B.  45  om.  D.  *G  videretur  C.  D. 

47  jam  D.  48  om.  B. 

1  titul  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll. 

2  hie  sequuntur  in  C.  D.  F.  S.  ii.  29,  30,  hujus  recensionis,  et  partem  i.  15 
ejfitiunt.  3  om.  D.  4  meminensium  C.          5  om.  C. 

c  quod  C.  7  convocat  D.         8  episcopus  add.  C.         9  usquequo  D. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^.      LIBER  I.  143 

ut  tibi  a  nobis  debita  non  redderetur  veneratio  ?  Quo  audito 
Sancti  verbo,  humilis  peregrinus,  valde  stupefactus,  Christum  in 
Sancto  veneratus  est ;  et  qui  inerant  praesentes  nimis  admirati, 
glorificarunt  10Dominum. 


ia  biri 

LIO  itidem  in  tempore,  vir  venerandus  2Ernanum  presby- 
terum,  senem,  suum  avunculum,  ad  praeposituram  illius  monas- 
terii  transmisit  quod  in  3Hinba  insula  ante  plures  fundaverat 
annos.  Itaque  cum  ipsum  4Sanctus  emigrantem  exosculatus 
benediceret,  6hoc  de  eo  intulit  vaticinium,  dicens,  Hunc  meum 
nunc  6egredientem  amicum  non  me  spero  iterum  in  hoc  seculo 
viventem  visurum.  Itaque  idem  7Ernanus  post  non  multos 
dies,  quadam  molestatus  aegrimonia,  ad  Sanctum  volens 
reportatus  est :  cujus  in  perventione  valde  gavisus,  ire  obvius 
ad  portum  coepit.  Ipse  vero  7Ernanus,  quamlibet  infirmis, 
propriis  tamen,  vestigiis  a  portu  obviare  Sancto  conabatur  valde 
alacer.  Sed  cum  esset  inter  ambos  quasi  8viginti  quatuor 
|  9passuum  intervallum,  subita  morte  praeventus,  priusquam 
Sanctus  faciem  ejus  videret  viventis,  expirans  in  terram  cecidit, 
ne  verbum  Sancti  ullo  frustraretur  modo.  Unde  in  eodem  loco 
ante  januam  canabse  crux  infixa  est,  et  altera  ubi  Sanctus 
restitit,  illo  expirante,  similiter  10crux  nhodieque  infixa  stat. 

1  Jb  alicujtt0  ;jplebeii  i amiiixria  0andi  pnrphetta  totri 

J^LLIO  quoque  2in  tempore,  quidam  inter  ceteros  ad  Sanctum 
plebeius  venit  3in  loco  hospitantem  qui  4Scotice  vocitatur 
Coire  5  Salchain ;  quern  cum  Sanctus  ad  se  vespere  venientem 
vidisset,  Ubi,  6ait,  habitas  ?  Ille  inquit,  In  regione  quae  litto- 
ribus  stagni  7Crogreth  est  8contermina  ego  inhabito.  Illam 
quam  dicis  provinciolam,  ait  Sanctus,  nunc  barbari  populantur 
vastatores.  Quo  audito,  miser  plebeius  9maritam  et  filios 
deplangere  coepit.  Quern  Sanctus  valde  maerentem  videns, 
consolans  inquit,  Vade,  homuncule,  vade,  tua  familiola  tota  in 
montem  10fugiens  evasit;  tua  vero  omnia  pecuscula  secum 

10  deura  B.  C.  D.  F.  S. 

1  titul.  om.,  et  tenorem  cap.  16  continuant,  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll. 

2  hernanum  D.  3  himba  C.  D.  F.  S.          4  sanctum  C. 

5  et  add.  F.  6  ingredientem  C.  7  hernanus  D. 
8-9  vise  viginti  iv.  M.  passum  C.             10  que  B.         n  hodie  B. 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.  2  om.  D.          3-5  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 

4  scottice  B.  5  A.  salcani  B.     salcair  male,  Colg.  Boll. 

6  inquit  D.  7  crog  reth  A.     crochreth  B.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 
8  conterminata  D.                   9  maritum  C.  10  efFugiens  1). 


144  VITA  SAXCTI  COLUMB/K.      LIBER  I. 

invasores  "abegerunt,  omnemque  domus  suppellectilem  similiter 
ssevi  raptores  cum  praeda  rapuere.  Haec  audiens  plebeius,  ad 
patriam  regressus,  cuncta,  sicuti  a  Sancto  prsedicta,  12sic  invenit 
13expleta. 


nomine,  ft'U0  Jttbani,  0andi 
prxrpltetia  toiri 

J/H-LIO  2itidem  in  tempore  3quidam  4plebeius,  omnium  illius 
setatis  in  populo  5Korkureti  fortissimus  virorum,  6a  7sancto  8per- 
cunctatur  9viro  qua  morte  esset  praeveniendus.  Cui  Sanctus, 
Nee  in  bello,  ait,  nee  in  mari  morieris  :  comes  tui  itineris,  a 
quo  non  suspicaris,  causa  erit  tuae  mortis.  Fortassis,  inquit 
Goreus,  aliquis  de  meis  comitantibus  amicis  me  trucidare  cogi- 
tet,  aut  marita  ob  alicujus  junioris  viri  amorem  me  maleficio 
mortificare.  Sanctus,  Non  ita,  ait,  continget.  Quare,  Goreus 
inquit,  de  meo  interfectore  mini  nunc  intimare  non  vis  ?  Sanc 
tus,  Idcirco,  ait,  nolo  tibi  de  illo  tuo  comite  nocuo  nunc  mani- 
festius  aliquid  edicere,  ne  te  ejus  crebra  10  recogniti  recordatio 
nimis  maestificet,  donee  nilla  veniat  dies  qua  ejusdem  rei  veri- 
tatem  probabis.  Quid  12immorarnur  verbis  ?  Post  aliquot  13anno- 
rum  excursus,  idem  supra  memoratus  Goreus,  casu  14alia  die 
sub  navi  residens,  cultello  proprio  15cristiliam  de  16hastili  era- 
debat  ;  17tum  18deinde  alios  prope  inter  se  belligerantes  audiens, 
citius  19surgit  ut  eos  a  belligeratione  separaret,  eodemque  cul 
tello  ilia  subitatione  negligentius  in  terra  dimisso,  ejus  20genicula 
offenso  graviter  vulnerata  est.  Et  tali  faciente  comite,  causa  ei 
mortificationis  oborta  est  ;  quam  ipse  continuo,  secundum  sancti 
vaticinationem  viri,  mente  perculsus,  recognovit;  postque  all-. 
quantos  menses,  eodem  aggravatus  dolore,  moritur. 


etiam  u,  qwamlib^t  mtnxrre,  ynio  non  t$8t 
sancti  jumnba  yr^smntia,  d  2  jrarpketi^atixr  toiri. 

namque  in  4tempore,  5cum  Sanctus  6in7Ioua  8inhabi- 
taret  insula,  unum  de  fratribus  advocans,  sic  9compellat,  Tertia 

11  ambigerunt  B.  12  sunt  C.  13  exempla  C.  D. 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.  2  om.  D.  3-4  om.  C.  4  homo  D. 

5  KOPKYPETI  literis  majusculis  A.     corforepti  B.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 

G  goreus  nomine  D.     om.  C.  7  sanctum  columbam  C.  D. 

8  percunctatus  est  C.  D.  9  viruin  C.     om.  D.  10  om.  C. 

11  om.  C.  12  moramur  D.  13  om.  D.  14  aliqua  C. 

15  cristilia  F.  16  astili  A.  F.     castili  C.     astali  D.  17  tune  D. 

18  om.  D.  19  surrexit  D.  20  B.  C.     genucla  A.     genucula  D. 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.        ,  2  prophetica  B.  3-4  om.  D. 

5  (him  D.       °  colnmba  add  D.     7  A.  C.    iona  B.     8  habitaret  D.      9  ait  D. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB.E.      LIBER  I.  145 

ab  hac  10illucescente  die  expectare  debebis  in  occidental  hujus 
insulse  parte,  super  maris  oram  sedens :  nam  de  aquilonali 
11Hiberni0eregione  quaedam  hospita  grus,  ventis  per  longos  aeris 
agitata  circuitus,  post  nonam  diei  horam  valde  fessa  et  fatigata 
superveniet,  et  pene  consumptis  viribus,  coram  te  in  litore 
cadens  recumbet ;  quam  misericorditer  12sublevare  curabis,  et  ad 
propinquam  deportabis  domum,  13ibidemque  hospitaliter  recep- 
tam,  per  tres  dies  et  noctes  ei  ministrans,  sollicite  cibabis ;  et 
post  expleto  recreata  triduo,  nolens  ultra  apud  nos  peregrinari, 
ad  priorem  14Scotiee  dulcem,  unde  orta,  15remeabit  regionem, 
plene  resumptis  viribus  ;  quam  ideo  tibi  16sic  diligenter  com 
mendo  quia  de  nostrae  paternitatis  regione  est  oriunda.  Obse- 
cundat  frater,  tertiaque  die  post  horam  nonam,  17ut  18jussus, 
prsescitae  adventum  prsestolatur  hospitae,  adventantemofue  de 
littore  levat  lapsam,  ad  hospitium  portat  infirmam,  esurientem 
cibat.  Cui  ad  monasterium  vespere  reverso  Sanctus,  non  inter- 
rogans  sed  19narrans,  ait,  Benedicat  te  Deus,  mi  fili,  20quia  pere- 
grinae  bene  ministrasti  hospitae,  quae  in  peregrinatione  non 
demorabitur,  sed  post  ternos  soles  ad  patriam  21repedabit.  Quod 
ita  ut  Sanctus  praedixit  22et  res  etiam  probavit.  Nam  tri- 
nalibus  hospitata  diebus,  coram  hospite  ministro  de  terra  se 
primum  volando  elevans  in  23  sublime,  paulisperque  in  aere  viam 
speculata,  oceani  transvadato  aequore,  ad  24Hiberniam  recto  vola- 
tus  cursu  die  repedavit  tranquillo. 


1  Jle  $dlo  xjttxrb  in  mnnitione  Csthtrni  $0&i  mnito 
t&i  Umyom,  jet  be    qw^bam  tonticnio   tjw&tm 
b^ati  :pr#0d£ntm  toiri. 

3in  tempore  vir  beatus  4cum  5post  regum  in  Dorso 
6Cette  condictum,  Aidi  videlicet  filii  7Ainmurech,  et  Aidani  filii 
8Gabrani,  ad  campos  reverteretur  sequoreos,  ipse  et  9Comgellus 
abbas  quad  am  10serena  110estivi  temporis  die,  haud  procul  a 
supra  memorata  munitione  resident.  Turn  12proinde  aqua  de 


10  lucetenente  D. 
13  ibidem  C.     ibique  D. 
ic  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 
19  enarrans  D. 
22  om.  C. 

11  everniae  A. 
1-4  hybernie  D. 
"-is  om.  B. 
20  qui  B. 
23  sullirae  B. 

12  sullevare  B. 
15  est  add.  C.  D. 
is  jussus  fuerat  C.  D. 
21  repedavit  A. 
24  B.  C.  D.    everniam  A. 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll,  in  qaibus  cap.  xviii.  continuatur. 

2  sancti  B.  3  om.  D.  4  columba  add.  D. 
5-8  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.                  6  cete  B.  7  ammurech  B. 

9  congellus  C.    comgallus  D.          lo  secreta  C.  n  aestei  A. 

12  om.  D. 

K 


146  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMBUS.      LIBER  I. 

quodam  proximo  ad  manus  lavandas  fonticulo  13ad  14Sanctos  in 
seneo  defertur  vasculo.  Quam  cum  sanctus  Columba  aceepisset, 
ad  abbatem  15Comgellum  a  latere  sedentem  sic  profatur,  Ille 
fonticulus,  0  16Comgelle,  de  quo  haec  effusa  nobis  allata  est 
aqua,  veniet  dies  quando  nullis  usibus  humanis  aptus  erit. 
Qua  causa,  ait  17Comgellus,  ejus  fontana  corrumpetur  unda  ? 
Sanctus  turn  Columba,  Quia  humano,  inquit,  cruore  replebitur : 
nam  mei  18cognationales  amici  et  tui  secundum  carnem  cognati, 
19  hoc  est,  Nellis  Nepotes  et  Cruthini  20populi,  in  hac  vicina 
munitione  21Cethirni  belligerantes  committent  bellum.  Unde 
in  supra  memorata  fonte  aliquis  de  mea  22cognatione  trucida- 
bitur  homuncio,  23cujus  cum  cseteris  24interfecti  sanguine  ejus- 
dem  fonticuli  locus  replebitur.  25Quse  ejus  26veridica  suo  tern- 
pore  post  multos  vaticinatio  expleta  est  annos.  In  quo  bello, 
ut  multi  27norunt  populi,  28Domnallus  ^Aidi  filius  victor 
sublimatus  est,  et  in  eodem,  secundum  sancti  vaticinium  viri, 
fonticulo,  quidam  de  parentela  ejus  interfectus  30est  homo. 
Alius  mihi  31Adamnano  Christi  miles,  Finanus  nomine,  qui 
vitam  multis  anachoreticam  annis  juxta  Eoboreti  monasterium 
Campi  irreprehensibiliter  ducebat,  de  eodem  bello  se  praesente 
eommisso  aliqua  enarrans,  protestatus  est  in  supradicto  fonte 
truncum  32cadaverinum  vidisse,  eademque  die  ad  monasterium 
sancti  33Comgelli  quod  34Scotice  dicitur  35Cambas  eommisso 
reversum  bello  quia  inde  prius  venerat,  36ibidemque  duos  sancti 
37  Comgelli  senes  monachos  reperisse :  quibus  cum  de  bello 
coram  se  acto,  et  ^de  fonticulo  humano  cruore  corrupto,  ali- 
quanta  enarraret,  illi  consequenter,  Verus  39propheta  Columba, 
aiunt,  qui  hsec  omnia  quse  hodie  de  bello  et  40de  fonticulo  expleta 
41  enarras,  ante  multos  annos  futura,  nobis  audientibus,  coram 
sancto  42Comgello,  juxta  43Cethirni  sedens  munitionem,  prsenun- 
ciaverat. 

13.14  om  j)         15  congellum  C.    com  jallum  D.        1G  congelle  C.    coingalle  D.  •' 

17  congellus  C.     comgallus  D.  18  cognitionales  A.  B. 

19-20  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  21  A.  cechirni  B.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 

22  cognitione  A.  B.  23  de  add.  D.  24  interfectis  D. 

25  corrupt!  add.  D.  26  viri  dicta  D.  27  non  ignorant  D. 

28  domnalius  C.     donaldus  D.     domnaldus  F.  S.          2a  aedlia  D. 

30  om.  C.  31  B.  adomnano  A.  C.      32  cadaver  D. 

33  congelli  C.     comgalli  D.     34  scottice  B.  3~}  cammus  D. 

36  ibi  denique  C.  37  comgilli  A.     congelli  C.     comgalli  D. 

38  om.  D.  39  est  add.  C.  40  om.  C. 

41  enarrans  D.  *2  congello  C.     comgallo  D.  43  A.  F.  S.  cethirin  B. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMILE.      LIBER  I.  147 


15^  fcitoeraoram  bi0rr.etimt.e  xmiaxnm  znntto  retolata 
fomlt  gratia. 

~E§.ODEM  2in  tempore  Conallus,  episcopus  3Culerathin,  col- 
lectis  a  populo  Campi  4Eilni  pene  innumerabilibus  5xeniis, 
beato  viro  hospitium  prseparavit,  post  condictum  supra  memo- 
ratorum  regum,  turba  prosequente  multa,  revertenti:  proinde 
sancto  advenienti  viro  6xenia  populi  multa,  in  platea  monasterii 
strata,  benedicenda  7assignantur.  Quse  cum  benedicens  aspi- 
ceret,  8xenium  alicujus  opulenti  viri  specialiter  demonstrans, 
Virum,  ait,  cujus  est  hoc  8xenium,  pro  misericordiis  pauperum, 
et  ejus  largitione,  9Dei  comitatur  misericordia.  10Itemque  aliud 
discernit  inter  alia  multa  8xenium,  inquiens,  De  hoc  ego  nxenio 
viri  sapientis  et  avari  nullo  modo  gustare  possum,  nisi  prius 
veram  de  peccato  avaritiae  poenitudinem  egerit.  Quod  verbum 
cito  in  turba  divulgatum  audiens,  accurrit  Columbus  filius 
12Aidi  conscius,  et  13coram  Sancto  flexis  genibus  14pcenitentiam 
15agit,  et  de  cetero  avaritiae  abrenunciaturum  se  promittit,  et 
largitatem  cum  morum  emendatione  consecuturum.  Et  jussus 
a  Sancto  surgere,  ex  ilia  hora  est  sanatus  de  vitio  tenacitatis. 
Erat  enim  vir  sapiens,  sicuti  Sancto  in  ejus  revelatum  16erat 
17xenio.  Ille  vero  dives  largus,  Brendenus  nomine,  de  cujus 
17xenio  paulo  superius  dictum  est,  audiens  et  ipse  Sancti  verba 
de  se  dicta,  ingeniculans  ad  pedes  Sancti,  precatur  ut  pro  eo  ad 
Dominum  Sanctus  fundat  precem  :  qui,  ab  eo  primum  pro 
quibusdam  suis  objurgatus  peccatis,  pcenitudinem  gerens,  de 
cetero  se  emendaturum  promisit  ;  et  sic  uterque  de  propriis 
emendatus  et  sanatus  est  vitiis. 

18Simili  scientia  Sanctus  et  alio  tempore  xenium  alicujus 
tenacis  viri,  inter  multa  cognovit  xenia,  Diormiti  nomine,  ad 
Cellam  Magnam  19Deathrib  in  ejus  adventu  collecta. 

Haec  de  beati  viri  prophetica  gratia,  quasi  de  plurimis  pauca, 
in  hujus  libelli  textu  primi  20caraxasse  sufficiat.  Pauca  dixi, 
nam  hoc  de  venerabili  viro  non  est  dubitandum  quod  valde 
numerosiora  fuerint  quae  in  notitiam  hominum,  sacramenta 
interius  celata,  venire  nullo  modo  poterant,  quam  ea  quae,  quasi 


1  tUul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.         2  om.  D.  *-*  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 

4  elni  B  5  exeniis  B.  D.  6  exenia  B.  D. 

7  signantur  D.  8  exenium  D.  9  diu  B. 

10  item  D.  n  exenio  D.  15J  aedha  D. 

13  veram  C.  u  veram  add.  D.  15  sancto  add.  D. 

10  est  D.  "  exenio  D  18.21  mrlm  C>  D-  F>  S 

19  dethrib  B.  20  B      craxasse  A.  exarasse  Colg.  Boll. 


148  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^:.      LIBER  I. 

qusedam  parva  aliquando  stillicidia,  veluti  per  quasdam  rimulas 
alicujus  pleni  vasis  ferventissimo  novo  distillabant  vino.  Nam 
sancti  et  apostolici  viri,  vanam  evitantes  gloriam,  plerumque  in 
quantum  possunt  interna  quaedam  arcana,  sibi  intrinsecus  a 
Deo  manifestata,  celare  festinant.  Sed  Deus  nonnulla  ex  eis, 
velint  nolint  ipsi,  divulgat,  et  in  medium  quoquo  profert  modo, 
videlicet  glorificare  volens  glorificantes  se  Sanctos,  hoc  est, 
ipsum  Dominum,  cui  gloria  in  secula  21seculorum.22 

23Huic  primo  libro  24hic  imponitur  terminus ;  25nunc  sequens 
26orditur  27liber  de  virtutum  28miraculis,  29quse  plerumque  etiam 
prophetalis  prsescientia  30comitatur. 

18-21  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.      22  amen  add.  B.  23-28  rubrica  B. 

23  de  B.  24  om.  B.  25-27  capitula  secundi  libri  incipiunt  B. 

20  oritur  D.  29-30  A.  C.  D.  F.  S.  om.  B. 


Seombi  |Cibri  indpiunt, 

miraruli*. 


PEDE  vino  quod  de  aqua  factum  est. 

De  amarissimis  alicujus  arboris  pomis,  in  dulcedinem  per  Sancti 
benedictionem  versis. 

De  terra,  post  medium  aestatis  tempus  arata  et  seminata,  mensis 
Augusti  incipientis  exordio  maturam  messem  proferente. 

De  morbifera  nube,  et  languentium  sanitate. 

De  Mauguina  sancta  virgine,  et  fraetura  coxae  ejus  sanata. 

De  multorum  morbis  fimbriae  vestimenti  ejus  tactu,  in  Dorso 
Cete,  sanatis. 

De  petra  salis  a  Sancto  benedicta,  quam  ignis  absumere  non 
potuit 

De  librariis  foliis  manu  Sancti  scriptis,  quse  aqua  nullo  modo 
corrumpi  potuere. 

De  aqua,  quae,  Sancto  orante,  ex  dura  producta  est  petra. 

De  aqua  fontana,  quam  Sanctus  ultra  Britannicum  benedixit 
Dorsum,  et  sanavit. 

De  Sancti  periculo  in  mari,  et  de  magna  tempestate  in  tran- 
quillitatem  continue,  orante  ipso,  conversa. 

De  altero  ejus  periculo,  et  de  sancto  Cainnecho  pro  ipso  et  sociis 
ejus  orante. 

De  baculo  in  portu  sancti  Cainnechi  neglecto. 

De  Baitheneo  et  Columbano  filio  Beognoi,  qui  a  Sancto  secun- 

dum,  eadem  die,  sed  diversa  via,  ventum  sibi  dari  postu- 

larunt. 

De  daemonis  repulsione  qui  in  lactis  vasculo  latitabat. 

De  vasculo  quod  quidam  maleficus,  lacte  de  masculo  bove 
expresso,  diabolica  replevit  arte  ;  sed,  Sancto  orante,  ipsuin 
quod  videbatur  lac,  in  sanguinem,  hoc  est,  in  naturam 
propriam,  versum  est. 


150  VITA  SANCTI 

De  Lugneo  Mocumin,  quern  Sanctus  de  profluvio  sanguinis,  qui 
crebro  ex  naribus  ejus  profluebat,  oratione  et  digitorum 
tactu  sanavit. 

De  esoce  magDO  in  fluvio,  juxta  verbum  Sancti,  invento. 

De  duobus  piscibus,  illo  prophetante,  in  flumine  quod  vocatur 
Boo  repertis. 

De  quodam  plebeio  qui  Nesanus  Curvus  dicebatur. 
De  quodam  divite  tenacissimo,  nomine  Uigeno. 

De  Columbano  seque  plebeio  viro,  cujus  pecora  admodum  pauca 
vir  sanctus  benedixit ;  sed  post  illius  benedictionem  usque 
ad  centenarium  creverunt  numerum. 

De  interitu  Johannis  filii  Conallis,  eadem  die  qua  Sanctum 
spernens  dehonoravit. 

De  alicujus  Feradachi  morte,  fraudulent  viri,  a  Sancto  prsenun- 
ciata. 

De  alio  persecutore,  cujus  nomen  latine  Manus  Dextera  dicitur. 

De  alio  innocentium  persecutore,  qui  in  Laginensium  provincia, 
sicut  Annanias  coram  Petro,  eodem  momento,  a  Sancto 
terribiliter  objurgatus,  cecidit  mortuus. 

De  apri  mortificatione,  qui  a  Sancto  eminus  cecidit,  signo  pro- 
stratus  Dominicae  crucis. 

De  alia  aquatili  bestia,  quse,  eo  orante,  et  manum  e  contra 
levante,  retro  repulsa  est  ne  Lugneo  natanti  vicino  noceret. 

De  insulse  longe  viperinis  serpentibus,  qui,  ex  qua  die  Sanctus 
earn  benedixit,  nulli  hominum  nee  etiam  pecoribus  nocere 
potuere. 

De  hasta  ab  eo  signata,  quae  deinceps  nullo  modo,  quamlibet 
fortiter  impulsa,  alicui  potuit  nocere  animanti. 

De  Diormiti  segrotantis  sanitate. 

De  Fenteni  filii  Aido,  in  extremis  positi,  sanitate. 

De  puero  quern  mortuum,  in  nomine  Domini  Jesu  Christi,  in 
regione  Pictorum,  suscitavit. 

De  conflictu  ejus  contra  magum  Broichanum,  ob  ancillae  reten- 
tionem ;  et  de  lapide  quern  Sanctus  benedixit,  qui  in  aqua 
quasi  pomum  supernatavit. 

De  beat!  viri  contra  Broichanum  magum  refragatione,  et  venti 
contrarietate. 

De  spontanea  regiae  muuitionis  portse  subita  apertione. 
De  ecclesias  Duorum  Agri  Eivorum  simili  reclusione. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^E.  151 

De  alio  paupere,  plebeio  mendico,  cui  Sanctus,  sudem  faciens 
benedixit,  ad  ferarum  jugulationem  silvestrium. 

De  utre  lactario,  quern  unda  maris   abduxit,  et  reduxit  ad 

terrain. 

De  Librano  Harundineti  sancti  prophetatio  viri. 
De  quadam  muliercula,  magnas  et  valde  difficiliores  parturi- 

tionis  tortiones  passa,  et  sanata. 

De  conjuge  Lugnei  odiosi  gtibernatoris. 

De  Cormaco   Nepote  Lethani,  et   ejus   navigationibus,  sancti 
Columbae  prophetatio. 

De  venerabilis  viri  in  curru  evectione,  absque  currilium  obicum 
communitione. 

De  pluvia  post  aliquot  siccitatis  menses,  beati  ob  honorem  viri, 
super  sitientem,  Domino  donante,  terram  effusa. 

Miraculum   quod   mine,   Deo    propitio,   describere   incipimus, 
nostris  temporibus  factum,  propriis  inspeximus  oculis : 

De  ventorum  flatibus  contrariis,  venerabilis  viri  virtute  ora- 
tionum,  in  secundos  conversis  ventos. 

De  mortalitate. 


LIBEK  SECUNDUS.— DE  VIETUTUM  MIEACULIS. 


2  g)e  fcin0  qwrb  be  aqua  fartttm  tst. 

CAP.  I.  j^LLIO  3in  tempore,  cum  vir  venerandus  4in  5Scotia  apud 
sanctum  6Findbarrum  episcopum,  adhuc  juvenis,  sapientiam 
sacrse  Scripturse  addiscens,  commaneret,  quadam  7solenni  die 
vinum  ad  8sacrificale  mysterium  casu  aliquo  minime  invenie- 
batur :  de  cujus  defectu  cum  ministros  altaris  inter  se  conque- 
rentes  audiret,  ad  fontem  sumpto  9pergit  urceo,  ut  ad  10sacrge 
Eucharistise  "ministeria  aquam,  quasi  12diaconus,  fontanam 
"hauriret :  ipse  quippe  illis  in  diebus  erat  in  diaconatus  gradu 
administrans.  Vir  itaque  beatus  aquaticurn,  quod  de  latice 
hausit,  elementum,  invocato  nomine  13Domini  14Jesu  Christi, 
fideliter  benedixit,  qui  in  15Cana  Galilese  aquam  16in  17vinum 
convertit :  quo  etiam  18in  19hoc  operante  miraculo,  inferior,  hoc 
est  aquatica  natura,  in  gratiorem,  videlicet  vinalem,  per  manus 
prsedicabilis  viri  conversa  est  speciem.  Vir  itaque  sanctus,  a 
fonte  reversus,  et  ecclesiam  intrans,  talem  juxta  altare  urceum 
intra  se  habentem  deponit  liquorem ;  et  ad  ministros,  Habetis, 
ait,  vinum,  quod  Dominus  20Jesus  ad  sua  misit  peragenda 
mysteria.  Quo  cognito,  sanctus  cum  21ministris  22episcopus 
eximias  Deo  referunt  23grates.  Sanctus  vero  juvenis  24hoc  non 
sibimet,  sed  sancto  25Vinniano  adscribebat  episcopo.  Hoc 

1  titulus  deest  A.       incipit    secundus    liber   de    virtutum   miraculis    quae 
plenissime  plerumque  etiam  prrescientia  prophetalis  comitatur  B.      incipit 
liber  secundus  de  virtutum  miraculis  C.  F.  S.    sancti  columbe  add.  D. 

2  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.         3  om.  D.  4  columba  add.  D. 
5  scothia  C.     hybernia  D.            c  fenbarrum  B.     finbarrum  D. 

7  solemni  A.  sollenni  D.  8  sacriticii  D.  9  om.  B. 

10  sacra  D.  F.  n  mysteria  Boll.        12  diacon  A. 

13  om.  B.  C.  H  nostri  add.  D.        15  chana  B. 

16-17  om.  A.  18-19  om.  C.  19  om.  D. 

20  christus  C.  21  om.  D.  22  episcopo  D. 

23  gratia*  C.  '-'*  columba  add.  D.  25  A.  B.  F.  S.    fmbarro  D. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMByE.      LIBER  II.  153 

itaque  26protum  virtutis  documentum  Christus  Dominus  per 
suum  declaravit  discipulum,  quod  in  eadem  re,  initium  ponens 
signorum  in  27Cana  Galilese,  operatus  est  per  semetipsum. 

28Hujus,  inquam,  libelli,  quasi  qusedam  lucerna,  illustret  exor 
dium,  quod  per  nostrum  Columbam  diale  manifestatum  est 
miraculum ;  ut  deinceps  transeamus  ad  cetera,  quae  per  ipsum 
ostensa  sunt,  virtutum  29miracula. 


aliotjtt*  arbxrri^  fnirtu  amar0  jp&c  sanrti  bmebiciumim 
itt 


arbor  erat  valde  pomosa  prope  monasterium  CAP.  n. 
2Eoboris  Campi,  in  australi  ejus  parte;  de  qua  cum  incolae  loci 
3quoddam  haberent  pro  nimia  fructus  amaritudine  querimonium, 
quadam  die  Sanctus  4ad  6eam  accessit  autumnali  tempore, 
vidensque  lignum  incassum  abundos  habere  fructus  qui  ex  eis 
gustantes  plus  laederent  quam  delectarent  ;  6sancta  elevata 
manu,  benedicens  ait,  In  nomine  omnipotentis  Dei  omnis  tua 
amaritudo,  0  arbor  amara,  a  te  recedat  ;  tuaque  hue  usque 
amarissima  nunc  in  dulcissima  vertantur  poma.  Mirum  dictu, 
dicto  citius,  eodemque  momento,  ejusdem  arboris  omnia  poma, 
amissa  amaritudine,  in  miram,  secundum  verbum  Sancti,  versa 
sunt  dulcedinem. 


tt  in 
rrcante,  m^00a,  in 


5in  tempore  Sanctus  6suos  misit  monachos  ut  de  ali-  CAP.  in. 
cujus  plebeii  agellulo  virgarum  fascicules  ad  hospitium  afferrent 
construendum.  Qui  cum  ad  Sanctum,  7oneraria  repleta  navi  de 
supradictis  8virgularum  materiis,  reversi  venirent,  dicerentque 
plebeium  ejusdem  causa  dispendii  valde  contristatum  ;  Sanctus 
consequenter  prsecipiens  9dicit,  Ne  ergo  10illum  scandalizemus 
virum,  ad  ipsum  a  nobis  bis  terni  deferantur  hordei  modii, 
eosdemque  his  nin  diebus  arata  ipse  seminet  in  terra.  Quibus 

26  F.  pro  turn  A.  Colg.  Boll,     primum  C.     promptum  D. 

27  coena  male  Boll.      28  litera  H.  majuscula  ccerulea  B.       28-29  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 

1  titul.  om.,  cap.  i.  continuatur,  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.          2  diarmagh  D. 

3  quondam  C.  4-5  om.  D.  6  sanctus  D. 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F,  S.  Boll.         2  agusti  A.  3  mense  A. 

4  A.  iona  B.  5  om>  j)  o  columba  add.  D. 
7  onera  D.                                8  virgarum  D.  9  dixit  D. 

16  om.  C.  n  om.  D. 


154  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB/E.      LIBER  II. 

ad  plebeium,  12Findchanum  nomine,  juxta  Sancti  jussionem, 
missis,  et  coram  eo  cum  tali  commendatione  adsignatis,  gra- 
tanter  accipiens,  ait,  Quomodo  post  medium  138esteum  tempus 
seges  seminata,  contra  hujus  naturam  terrse,  proficiet  ?  Marita 
e  contra,  Fac,  ait,  secundum  Sancti  mandatum,  cui  Dominus 
donabit  quodcunque  ab  eo  postulaverit.  Sed  et  qui  missi  sunt 
simul  hoc  addiderunt  dicendo,  Sanctus  Columba,  qui  nos  ad  te 
cum  hoc  misit  munere,  hoc  mandatum  per  nos  de  tua  com- 
mendavit  segete,  dicens,  Homo  ille  in  omnipotentia  Dei  con- 
fid  at  :  u  seges  15ejus,  quamvis  de  mense  Junio  16duodecim 
prsemissis  diebus  seminata17,  in  18principiis  19Augusti  mensis 
metetur.  Obsequitur  plebeius  20arando  et  seminando  ;  et  mes- 
sem,  quam  supradicto  21in  tempore  22  contra  23spem  seminavit, 
cum  omnium  admiratione  vicinorum  in  exordio  19Augusti 
mensis  maturam,  juxta  verbum  Sancti,  24messuit,  25in  loco  terras 
qui  dicitur  26Delcros. 


X5^  m0rbi£era  nub*,  ,et  piurimtfrtim  sanitate. 

CAP.  iv.  JPtLIO  2itidem  3in  tempore,  cum  Sanctus  in  4Ioua  5commo- 
raretur  insula,  sedens  in  monticulo  qui  Latine  Munitio  Magna 
dicitur,  videt  ab  aquilone  nubem  densam  et  6pluvialem,  de 
7mari  8die  serena  obortam  :  qua  ascendente  visa,  Sanctus  ad 
quendam  de  suis  juxta  se  monachum  sedentem,  nomine  9Sil- 
nanum,  10filium  uNemani-don  13Mocusogin,  Hsec  nubes,  ait, 
valde  nocua  hominibus  et  pecoribus  erit  ;  hacque  die  velocius 
trans  volans  super  aliquantam  Scotiae  partem,  uhoc  est,  ab  illo 
rivulo  qui  dicitur  Ailbine  usque  ad  Vadum  15Clied,  pluviam 
vespere  distillabit  morbiferam,  16quse  gravia  17et  purulenta 
humanis  in  corporibus,  et  in  pecorum  uberibus,  18nasci  faciet 
ulcera  ;  quibus  homines  morbidi  et  pecudes,  ilia  venenosa  gravi- 
tudine  usque  ad  mortem  molestati,  laborabunt.  Sed  nos  eorum 
miserati  subvenire  languoribus,  Domino  miseraate,  debemus. 
Tu  ergo,  19Silnane,  nunc  mecum  descendens  de  monte,  naviga- 
tionem  praepara  crastina  die,  vita  comite  et  Deo  volente,  a  me 

12  findcanum  B.     frindehanum  C.     finchanum  D.        13  sestivum  C. 
14-16  om.  C.  16  A.  C.  quindecim  B.  D.  F.  17  fuerit  add.  D. 

18  principio  D.         19  tamen  add.  D.     agusti  A.  2°  or  an  do  B.. 

21  om.  D.  22-23  om.  D.  ^  viri  add.  D. 

^-^  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  26  A.  B.     deleros  Colg.  Boll. 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.          2  om.  B.  3  om.  D. 

4  A.  C.  F.  S.  iona  B.  D.  5  commaneret  D.       6  pluialem  A. 

7-8  meridie  C.  9  A.  F.  S.     siluanum  B.  C.    sillanum  D. 

10.13  (ynit  Q  D.  j\  s.  n  nemai  don  A.  n-13  nemaidonmocusogin  B. 

14-15  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  15  cleeth  B.  16  et  D.  17  om.  D. 

18  qu«  add.  D.  19  A.  F.  S.    siluane  B.  C.    sillane  D. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB.E.      LIBER  II.  155 

pane  accepto,  Dei  invocato  nomine  20benedicto,  quo  in  21aqua 
intincto,  homines  ea  conspersi,  et  pecora,  celerem  recuperabunt 
salutem.  Quid  moramur  ?  Die  crastina,  his  quae  necessaria 
erant  citius  prseparatis,  22  Silnanus,  accepto  de  manu  Sancti 
pane  benedicto,  in  pace  enavigavit.  Cui  Sanctus,  a  se  eadem 
emigranti  hora,  23addit  hoc  24consolatorium  verbum,  dicens, 
Confide,  fili,  ventos  habebis  secundos  et  prosperos  die  noctuque, 
usque  25dum  ad  illam  pervenias  regionem  26quse  dicitur  Ard 
27Ceannachte,  ut  languentibus  ibidem  celerius  cum  salubri  sub- 
venias  pane.  Quid  plura  ?  28  Silnanus,  verbo  obsecutus  Sancti, 
prospera  et  29celeri  30navigatione,  auxiliante  Domino,  ad  supra 
memoratam  perveniens  partem  illius  regionis,  plebem  de  qua 
Sanctus  prsedixerat  devastatam  nubis  prsedictse  morbifera  re- 
periit  pluvia  31superpluente,  citius  32prsecurrentis.  Inprimisque 
bis  terni  viri  in  eadem  mari  vicina  domo  reperti  in  extremis 
morte  positi  appropinquante,  ab  eodem  33Silnano  aqua  benedic- 
tionis  aspersi,  in  eodem  34die  opportunius  sanati  sunt.  Cujus 
subitse  sanationis  rumor,  per  totam  illam,  morbo  35pestilentiore 
vastatam,  regionem  cito  divulgatus,  onmem  morbidum  ad  sancti 
Columbse  legatum  invitavit  populum  ;  qui,  juxta  Sancti  man- 
datum,  homines  et  pecora  pane  36intincta  benedicto  aqua  con- 
spersit,  et  continuo  plenam  recuperantes  salutem,  homines,  cum 
pecudibus  salvati,  Christum  in  sancto  Columba  cum  eximia 
gratiarum  actione  laudarunt.  In  hac  37itaque  suprascripta 
narration  e,  ut  sestimo,  duo  hsec  manifeste  pariter  38comitantur  ; 
hoc  est,  gratia  prophetationis  de  nube,  et  virtutis  miraculum  in 
eegrotantium  39sanitate.  Hsec  per  omnia  esse  verissima,  supra- 
dictus  40  Silnanus,  Christi  miles,  sancti  legatus  Columbse,  coram 
41Segineo  abbate  et  ceteris  testatus  est  senioribus. 


Jlaimmi  #lia  qme  inhabitateat  in 
ffimrmn 


in  5tempore  Sanctus,6  cum  in  7Ioua   demoraretur    CAP.  v. 
insula,  prima  diei  hora,  quendam  8advocans  fratrem,9Lugaidum 

20  ad  scotiam  transfretato  add.  S.  21  aquam  C. 

22  A.  B.  F.  S.    siluanus  C.    sillanus  D.  23  addidit  D. 

24  etiam  add.  C.  2*  om.  A.  26-27  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 

27  cenacte  B.  2§  A.  B.  F.  S.  siluanus  C.     sillanus  D. 

29  sceleri  B.  so  enavigatione  D.  3l  superfluente  C. 

32  prsecurrens  F.  33  A.  B.  F.  S.     siluano  C.     sillano  D. 

34  om.  B.  35  pestilencie  B.  36  A.  B.  F.    intincto  C.  D. 

37  equidem  D.  3«  comittuntur  B.  39  sanctitate  C. 

40  A.  B.  F.  S.    siluanus  C.    sillanus  D.  41  segeneo  C.  D. 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.  2  mauguina  B. 

3  loco  qui  scottice  dicitur  add.  B.    clocher  B.  4-5  om.  D. 

6  columba  add.  D.         7  A.  C.  F.  S.      iona  B.  D.          8  advocat  F. 

9  lugaidium  B.     lugidum  D. 


156  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMI3/E.      LIBEK  II. 

nomine,  10cujus  cognomentmn  Scotice  Lathir  ndicitur;  et 
taliter  eum  compellat,  dicens,  Praepara  cito  ad  12Scotiam  cele- 
rem  navigationem,  nam  mihi  valde  est  necesse  te  usque  ad 
13  Clocherum  14filiorum  15Daimeni  destinare  legatum.  In  hac 
enim  praeterita  nocte,  casu  aliquo,  16Maugina,  sancta  virgo, 
17filia  18Daimeni,  ab  oratorio  post  missam  domum  reversa,  titu-. 
bavit,  coxaque  ejus  in  duas  confracta  est  partes.  Haec  saepius 
meum,  inclamitans,  nomen  commemorat,  a  Domino  sperans  se 
accepturam  per  me  consolationem.  19Quidplura?  20Lugaido 
obsecundanti,  et  consequenter  emigranti,  Sanctus  pineam  tradit 
cum  benedictione  21capsellam,  dicens,  Benedictio,  quae  in  hac 
22capsellula  continetur,  quando  ad  23Mauginam  pervenies  visi- 
tandam,  in  24  aquae  vasculum  intingatur,  eademque  benedic- 
tionis  aqua  super  ejus  infundatur  coxam ;  et  statim,  invocato 
Dei  nomine,  coxale  conjungetur  os,  et  densabitur;  et  sancta 
virgo  plenam  recuperabit  salutem.  Et  hoc  Sanctus  25addit,  En 
ego  26coram  in  27hujus  28capsae  operculo  numerum  viginti  trium 
annorum  29describo,  quibus  sacra  virgo  in  hac  prsesenti,  30post 
eandem  31  salutem,  victura  est  vita.  32Quse  omnia  sic  plene 
expleta  sunt,  sicuti  a  Sancto  praedicta :  nam  statim  ut  33Lu- 
gaidus  ad  sanctam  pervenit  virginem,  aqua  benedicta,  sicut 
Sanctus  commendavit,  perfusa  coxa,  sine  ulla  morula  conden- 
sato  osse,  plene  sanata  est ;  et  in  adventu  ^legati  sancti  Col- 
umbae  cum  ingenti  gratiarum  actione  gavisa,  viginti  tribus  annis, 
secundum  Sancti  prophetiam,  post  sanitatem,  in  bonis  actibus 
permanens,  vixit. 


l.e  his  qnx  in  glxrrsxr  2dtate  8jttraxt«  znnt  btb.er0.anim 


CAP.  vi.  ^SIIE  vitas  praedicabilis,  4  sicuti  nobis  ab  expertis  traditumi 
est,  diversorum  languores  infirmorum,  invocato  Christi  nomine, 
illis  in  diebus  sanavit,  quibus,  ad  regum  pergens  condictum  in 
5Dorso  6Cette,  brevi  commoratus  est  tempore.  Nam  aut  sanctse 

10-n  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.         12  hyberniam  D,         13  chiliocherum  C.    clochor  D.  ! 

14'15  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.         16  inauguina  B.    magnia  D. 

17-18  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.         19  et  add.  D.  20  luigido  D. 

21  capsulani  D.  22  capsula  D.  23  mauguinam  B.     maguiani  D. 

21  aqua  C.  a>  addidit  D.  26  A.  B.    ponam  C.  Colg.  Boll,    dico  D.  : 

27  ejus  B.  28  capsulse  C.  29  B.  om.  A.  C.  D.  F.  S. 

30  vita  add.  S.  31  om.  S.  32  ponam  add.  S. 

33  lugidus  D.  34  om.  C. 

1  titul  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.  2  cete  B.  3  peracta  B. 

4  columba  add.  D.  5'6  colle  qui  vocatur  druim  chead  D. 

6  cete  B.     caetae  C.     cettae  F. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMILE.      LIBER  IT.  157 

manus  protensione,  ant  aqua  ab  eo  benedicta,  aegroti  plures 
aspersi,  aut  etiam  fimbriae  ejus  tactu  7amphibali,  aut  alicujus 
rei,  sails  videlicet  vel  panis,  benedictione  accepta,  et  lymphis 
intincta,  plenam  credentes  recuperarunt  salutem. 


pttra  #ali0  a  s&ndo  btntoidz,  xjuam  igni0  &b#nmer£ 
non  potttit 


itidem  in  tempore,  3Colgu  filius  Cellachi  4postulatam  CAP.  VIT. 
5  a  Sancto  6petram  7salis  8benedictam  accipit,  sorori  et  suae 
nutrici  9profuturam,  10quse  ophthalmias  laborabat  valde  gravi 
11languore.  Talem  eulogiam  eadem  soror  et  nutricia  de  mami 
fratris  accipiens,  in  pariete  super  lectum  suspendit;  casuque 
post  aliquantos  contigit  dies,  ut  idem  viculus,  cum  supradictae 
domuncula  feminae,  flamma  vastante,  totus  concremaretur. 
Mirum  dictu,  illius  parietis  particula,  ne  beati  viri  in  ea  de- 
periret  suspensa  benedictio,  post  totam  ambustam  domum,  stans 
illsesa  permansit;  nee  ignis  ausus  est  attingere  binales,  in 
quibus  12talis  pendebat  13salis  14petra,  sudes. 


$ibrarixr  folio  0an£ti  mantt  Ibtzvciyto, 
rorrumpi  non  pxrttut. 


2miraculum  asstimo  non  tacendum,  quod  aliquando  CAP.  vm. 
factum  est  per  contrarium  elementum.  Multorum  namque 
transcursis  annorum  circulis  post  beati  3ad  Dominum  transitum 
viri,  quidam  juvenis  de  equo  lapsus  in  flumine,  4quod  Scotice 
5Boend  6vocitatur,  mersus  et  mortuus,  viginti  sub  aqua  diebus 
permansit  ;  qui,  sicuti  sub  7ascella,  cadens,  libros  in  pelliceo 
reconditos  sacculo  habebat,  ita  etiam  post  supra  memoratum 
dierum  numerum  est  repertus,  sacculum  cum  libris  inter 
8  brachium  et  latus  continens  ;  cujus  etiam  ad  aridam  reportato 
cadavere,  et  aperto  sacculo,  folium  sancti  Columbae  sanctis 
scriptum  9digitulis,  inter  aliorum  folia  librorum  non  tantum 


7  C.  D.  anfibali  A.  B.  (vid.  var.  led.  12,  p.  117,  supra]  amfibali  F.    ansibali 
Colg.     ainphilabi  Boll. 

1  titul.  om.  0.  D.  F.  S.  Boll,  in  gmbus  cap.  v.  continuatur. 
>2A  om.  D.  '•>  colgiu  B.  5  quidam  homo  add.  D. 

c  columba  D.  7  sai  33  8  benedictum  D. 

9  profuturum  D.  10  oculorum  dolori  add.  D. 

11  id  est  oculorum  dolore  add.  C.  l'2  tale  D.  ir>  sal  D.  14  om.  I). 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.  2  ut  add,  p.       3  columbe  add.  D. 

4-°  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  5  bofind  B.  7  asena  C.    assella  D.    axilla  Boll. 

8  mamnn  D.  9  digitis  D. 


158  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^.      LIBEE  II. 

corrupta  sed  et  putrefacta,  inventum  est  10siccum  net  nullo 
modo  corruptum,  ac  si  in  12scriniolo  esset  reconditum. 


l^z  alixr  Jfttraotb  in  xz  0imili 

in  tempore,  hymnorum  liber  septimaniorum  sancti 
Columbse  manu  descriptus,  de  cujusdam  pueri  de  ponte  elapsi 
humeris,  cum  pelliceo  in  quo  inerat  sacculo,  in  quodam  partis 
Laginorum  fluvio  submersus  cecidit.  Qui  videlicet  libellus,  a 
Natalitio  Domini  usque  ad  Paschalium  consummationem 
dierum  in  aquis  permanens,  postea  in  ripa  fluminis  a  feminis 
quibusdam  ibidem  deambulantibus  repertus,  ad  quendam 
logenanum  presbyterum,  gente  Pictum,  cujus  prius  juris  erat,  in 
eodem,  non  solum  madefacto,  sed  etiam  putrefacto,  portatur 
sacculo.  Quern  scilicet  sacculum  idem  logenanus  aperiens, 
suum  incorruptum  libellum  invenit,  et  ita  nitidum  et  siccum, 
ac  si  in  scrinio  tanto  permansisset  tempore,  et  nunquam  in 
aquas  cecidisset.  Sed  et  alia  de  libris  manu  sancti  Columbas 
2caraxatisj3imilia  ab  expertis  indubitanter  didicimus  in  diversis 
acta  locis  :  qui  scilicet  Kbri,  in  aquis  mersi,  nullo  modo  corrumpi 
potuere.  De  3  supra  memorato  vero  4Iogenani  libro  a  viris 
quibusdam  veracibus  et  perfectis  bonique  testimonii,  sine  ulla 
ambiguitate,  relationem  accepimus  ;  qui  eundem  libellum,  post 
tot  supradictos  submersionis  dies,  candidissimum  et  lucidissi- 
mum  considerarunt. 

Hsec  duo,  quamlibet  in  rebus  parvis  peracta,  et  per  contraria 
ostensa  elementa,  ignem  scilicet  et  aquam,  beati  testantur 
honorern  viri,  et  quanti  et  qualis  meriti  apud  habeatur 
5Dominum. 


X5e  aqtta  xjw^  zzncio  xn&ntt  tx  imra  ynrbuda  t&t 

CAP.  ix.  .Ji^T  quia  paulo  superius  aquatici  facta  est  mentio  elementi, 
silere  non  debemus  3  etiam  alia  miracula,  quse  per  Sanctum 
Dominus  ejusdem  in  re,  licet  diversis  temporibus  et  locis, 
creaturse  4peregit.  6Alio  namque  6in  tempore,  cum  Sanctus  in 
sua  7conversaretur  8peregrinatione,  9infans  10ei  per  parentes  nad 

10-u  om.  C.  D.  12  scrinio  C.  D. 

1  capitid.  totum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.     titul.  om.  Boll.         2  craxatis  A. 
3  supramemorati  B.  4  eugenani  A.  5  deutu  B. 

IA  titul.  rubrica  script.  B.     om.  C.  F.  S.  1-8  om.  D. 

2  petro  A.  3  et  B.  6  incipit  cap.  vi.  0.  F.  S. 
6  om.  C.                                     7  versaretur  C.  9  quodam  die  add.  D. 

10  sancto  columbe  iter  agenti  D.  n  est  D. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMILE.      LIBER  IT.  159 

baptizandum  12offertur  13iter  13agenti ;  et  quia  in  vicinis  aqua 
non  inveniebatur  locis,  Sanctus,  ad  proximam  declinans  rupem, 
flexis  genibus  paulisper  oravit,  et  post  orationem  surgens, 
ejusdem  rupis  ufrontem  benedixit;  15de  qua  consequenter 
aqua  16abundanter  ebulliens  fluxit ;  in  17qua  continue  18infantem 
baptizavit.  De  quo  19etiam  baptizato  haec,  vaticinans,  intulit 
verba,  inquiens,  Hie  puerulus  usque  20in  extremam  21longaevus 
vivet  setatem ;  in  annis  juvenilibus  carnalibus  desideriis  satis 
serviturus,  et  deinceps  Christianas  usque  22in  exitum  militias 
mancipandus,  in  bona  senectute  ad  Dominum  emigrabit.  Quae 
omnia  eidem  viro  juxta  Sancti  contigerunt  vaticinium.  23Hic 
erat  24Lugucencalad,  cujus  parentes  fuerant  in  25Artdaib 
Muirchol,  ubi  26hodieque  27fonticulus,  ^sancti  nomine  Columbee 
^pollens,  cernitur. 


alia  tnaltjjna  fcrntana  aqua  xjwam  toir  b*at«0  in  Jlidxmttn 
regioue  bentbtxit. 


in  3tempore,  vir  beatus,  4cum  in  Pictorum  provincia  .CAP.  x. 
per  aliquot  demoraretur  dies,  audiens  in  plebe  gentili  de  alio 
fonte  divulgari  famam,  quern  quasi  5deum  stolidi  homines, 
diabolo  eorum  obcsecante  sensus,  venerabantur  ;  6nam  de  eodem 
7fonticulo  bibentes,  aut  in  eo  manus  vel  pedes  de  industria 
lavantes,  daemoniaca,  Deo  permittente,  percussi  arte,  aut 
8leprosi,  aut  lusci,  aut  etiam  debiles,  aut  quibuscunque  aliis 
infestati  infirmitatibus  9revertebantur.  Ob  quas  omnia  seducti 
gentiles  divinum  fonti  deferebant  honorem.  Quibus  compertis, 
Sanctus  alia  die  intrepidus  accessit  ad  fontem.  Quod  videntes 
magi,  quos  10S8epe  ipse  confuses  et  victos  a  se  repellebat,  valde 
gavisi  sunt,  scilicet  putantes  eum  similia  illius  nocuaa  tactu 
aquae  passurum.  Hie  vero  imprimis  elevata  manu  sancta,  cum 
invocatione  Christi  nominis,  manus  lavat  et  pedes  ;  ntum 
deinde  cum  sociis  de  eadem,  a  se  benedicta,  12bibit.  Ex  illaque 
die  dsemones  ab  eodem  recesserunt  fonte,  et  non  solum  nulli 

12  oblatus  D.  13  om.  D.  14  fontem  C. 

15  ex  qua  quidem  rupe  aqua  profluit  add.  D.  16-17  om.  D. 

18  infantuluin  D.  ly  et  C.  20  ad  C. 

21  B.     longeus  A.     vide  var.  lect.  26,  p.  141.  22  ad  B. 

23-26  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  24  ligu  cencalad  A.    lugucen  calath  B. 

25  ardaib  muircol  B.  27  et  qui  add  C.     qui  add.  D. 

28  adhuc  add.  C.  D.  F.  S.  29  ibidem  add.  C,  D.  F.  S. 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.,  cap.  vi.  continual  ur.       2'3  om.  D. 

4  columba  add.  D.  5  divinum  C.  D.  c-9  om.  Colg.  Bo]l. 

7  fonte  D.  8  lepri  A.  10  om.  D. 

11  tune  D.  12  aqua  add.  C.     aqua  manu  corratoris  suprascriptum  F. 


1  60  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB/E.      LIBER  II. 

nocere  permissus  est,  sed  etiam,  post  Sancti  benedictionem  et 
in  eo  lavationein,  multae  in  populo  infirmitates  per  eundem 
sanatse  sunt  fontem. 

l]Bt  btzti  toiri  in  mart  ymtnlo,  ti  tempwrtati*  2to  xrrante 
0ttbita  0*fo  attune. 

CAP.  xi.  3JSLLIO  in  tempore,  4vir  sanctus  5in  mari  periclitari  ccepit  ; 
totum  6namque  vas  navis,  valde  concussum,  magnis  undarum 
cumulis  fortiter  feriebatur,  grandi  undique  insistente  ventorum 
tempestate.  Nautse  7tum  forte  Sancto,  8sentinam  cum  illis 
exhaurire  conanti,  9aiunt,  Quod  nunc  agis  non  magnopere  nobis 
10proficit  periclitantibus  ;  exorare  potius  debes  pro  pereuntibus. 
Quo  audito,  aquam  cessat  amaram  exinanire,  11hininglas  ;  dul- 
cem  vero  et  intentam  precem  coepit  ad  Dominum  fundere. 
Mirum  dictu,  eodem  horse  momento,  quo  Sanctus,  in  prora 
stans,  extensis  ad  coelum  palmis,  Omnipotentem  exoravit,  tota 
aeris  tempestas  et  maris  saevitia,  dicto  citius  sedata,  cessavit,  et 
statim  serenissima  tranquillitas  12subsecuta  est.  Qui  vero 
13navi  14inerant,  obstupefacti,  cum  magna  admiratione,  referentes 
gratias,  glorificaverunt  15  Dominum  in  sancto  et  prsedicabili 
viro. 

L$t  alixr  tm  in  mari  0imili 


CAP.  xii.  ^i-LIO  4quoque  4in  tempore,  saeva  nimis  insistente  et  peri- 
culosa  tempestate,  sociis,  ut  pro  eis  Sanctus  Dominum  exoraret, 
5inclamitantibus  ;  hoc  eis  dedit  responsum,  dicens,  Hac  in  die 
non  est  meum  pro  vobis  in  hoc  periculo  constitutis  orare,  sed 
est  abbatis  6Cainnichi,  sancti  viri.  Mira  dicturus  sum.  Eadem 
hora  sanctus  7Cainnichus,  in  suo  8conversans  monasterio,  quod 
9Latine  Campulus  Bovis  dicitur,  10Scotice  vero  nAched-bou, 
Spiritu  revelante  Sancto,  supradictam  sancti  Columbae  interiore 
cordis  aure  vocem  audierat  ;  et  cum  12  forte  post  nonam  coapisset 
horam  in  13refectorio  14eulogiam  frangere,  ocius  deserit  mensu- 
lam,  15unoque  16in  pede  inhserente  calceo,  et  altero  17pro  nimia 

1  tltul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.  2  am.  B.  3-4  om.  D. 

5  columba  aliquando  add.  D.          6  que  D. 

7-9  ad  sanctum  exhaurientem  secum  aquam  adeunt  D.  8  om.  C. 

10  proficitis  D.  n  hinin  glas  A.     hinninglas  B.    om,  C.  D.  F.  S. 

12  supersecuta  C.  13'u  in  navi  eraut  C.  D.  F.  S.  15  deum  B.  D. 

1  tltul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.  2  in  vortice  brecain  add.  B. 

•5  cap.  vii.  contin.  C.  D.  F.  S.  4  om.  D.  5  clamitantibus  D. 

6  cahinnichi  C.     cainnici  D.  7  cahinnichus  C.  8  commanens  D. 
9-T1  scotice  dicitur  achadh  bo  .i.  ager  vacarum  D.        10-11  om.  C.  F.  S. 

11  A.    acbetbbou  B.  12  om.  D.  13  oratorio  C.  D. 

14  eylogiam  sic  cap.  vii.  (p.  157)  supra  (litera  Y  ex  <jra>ca  Y  efficta)  A. 

15  in  uno  C.  D.  16  om.  B.  17    ne  C. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^E.      LIBER  II.  161 

festinatione  relicto,  festinanter  18pergit  hac  cum  voce  ad 
ecclesiam,  Non  est  nobis  nunc  19temporis  prandere  quando  in 
mari  periclitatur  navis  sancti  Columbae.  Hoc  enim  momento, 
ipse  20hujus  nomen  Cainnichi  ingeminans  commemorat,  ut  pro 
eo  et  sociis  periclitantibus  21  Christum  22exoret.  Post  hsec  illius 
verba  oratorium  ingressus,  flexis  genibus  paulisper  oravit; 
ejusque  orationem  exaudiente  Domino,  illico  tempestas  cessavit, 
et  mare  valde  tranquillum  factum  est.  Turn  deinde  sanctus 
Columba,  Cainnichi  ad  ecclesiam  23properationem  in  spiritu 
videns,  quamlibet  longe  conversantis,  mirabiliter  hoc  de  puro 
pectore  profert  verbum,  dicens,  Nunc  cognovi,  0  24Cainniche, 
quod  Deus  tuam  exaudierit  precem  ;  nunc  valde  nobis  proficit 
tuus  ad  ecclesiam  velox  cum  uno  calceamento  cursus.  In  hoc 
itaque  tali  miraculo  amborum,  ut  credimus,  oratio  cooperata  est 
Sanctorum. 


r,  n 

in  tempore,  idem  supra  memoratus  Cainnichus  suum,  CAP.  xm. 
a  portu  3Iouae  insulse  ad  4Scotiam  navigare  incipiens,  baculum 
secum  portare  oblitus  5est  ;  qui  scilicet  ejus  baculus,  post  ipsius 
egressum  in  litore  repertus,  sancti  in  manum  traditus  est 
Columbse  ;  quemque,  domum  reversus,  in  oratorium  portat,  et 
ibidem  solus  in  oratione  diutius  demoratur.  Cainnichus  pro- 
inde  ad  60idecham  appropinquans  insulam,  subito  de  sua  obli- 
vione  compunctus,  interius  perculsus  est.  Sed  post  modicum 
intervallum,  de  navi  descendens,  et  in  terra  cum  oratione  genua 
flectens,  baculum,  quern  in  portu  7  louse  insulse  oblitus  post  se 
reliquit,  super  cespitem  terrulse  8Aithche  ante  se  9invenit.  De 
cujus  etiam  effecta  divinitus  evectione  valde  est  miratus  cum 
gratiarum  in  Deo  actione. 


e  jtaitkentcr  zt  Cxrlumban0  filixr 

eab^m  sibi  bu  benttim  $K0&ipmm  a  Domino  per  teti  biri  xrca- 

tixrnem  bxrnari 


quoque  in  tempore,  superius  4memorati  sancti  viri  ad  CAP.  xiv. 
5  Sanctum  venientes,  ab  eo  simul  unanimes  6postulant  ut  ipse  a 

18  pen-exit  D.  J»  tempus  C.  20  ejus  B.    ora.  C.  D. 

21  om.  C.  D.  22  oraret  D.  23  prasparationem  C. 

24  cainneche  B.     cahinniclie  C. 

1  capitul  totum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.     titul  om.  Boll.  2  cainechi  B. 

3  ione  B.  4  scociam  B.  5  om.  B. 

6  A.  ouidecham  B.      7  ione  B.         8  ouidechae  B.         9  positum  add.  B. 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.  2  beognoi  B.  3-4  aliquando  D. 

5  beatam  columbam  D.  6  postulabant  D. 

L 


162  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^E.      LIBER  II. 

Domino  7postulans  7impetraret  prosperum  crastina  die  venturn 
sibi  dari  diversa  emigraturis  via.  Quibus  Sanctus  respondens, 
hoc  dedit  responsum,  8Mane  crastina  die,  9Baitheneus,  a  portu 
10Iouae  enavigans  insulse,  flatum  uhabebit  secundum  usquequo 
ad  portum  perveniat  Campi  12Lunge.  Quod  ita,  juxta  Sancti 
verbum,  Dominus  donavit :  nam  9Baitheneus  plenis  eadem  die 
velis  magnum  totumque  pelagus  usque  ad  13Ethicam  transme- 
avit  terram.  14Hora  vero  ejusdem  diei  tertia,  vir  venerandus 
Columbanum  15advocat  presbyterum  dicens,  Nunc  Baitheneus 
prospere  optatum  pervenit  ad  portum :  ad  navigandum  te  16hodie 
17pr8epara;  mox  18  Dominus  ventum  convertet  in  aquilonem. 
Cui  sic  prolato  beati  viri  verbo  eadem  hora  auster  obsecundans 
19  ventus  se  in  aquiloneum  convertit  flatum  ;  et  ita  in  eadem  die 
uterque  vir  sanctus,  alter  ab  altero  in  pace  aversus,  Baitheneus 
mane  ad  20Ethicam  terram,  Columbanus  post  meridiem  21Hiber- 
niam  incipiens  appetere,  plenis  enavigavit  velis  et  flatibus 
secundis.  Hoc  illustris  viri  virtute  orationum,  Domino  donante, 
effectum  est  miraculum  ;  quia,  sicut  scriptum  est,  Omnia  possi- 
bilia  sunt  credenti.  Post  ilia  in  die  sancti  Columbani  egres- 
sum,  sanctus  hoc  de  illo  propheticum  Columba  protulit  verbum, 
Vir  sanctus  Columbanus,  cui  emigranti  benediximus,  22nusquam 
in  hoc  saeculo  faciem  videbit  meam.  Quod  ita  post  expletum 
est,  nam  eodem  anno  sanctus  Columba  ad  Dominum  transiit. 


rjtti  in  Ikctari0  ktitabat 

CAP.  xv.  2  j5Cuo  3^n  4tempore,  quidam  juvenis,  Columbanus  nomine, 
5Nepos  6  Briuni,  7ad  januam  8  tugurioli  subito  perveniens  res- 
titit,  in  quo  vir  beatus  9scribebat.  Hie  idem,  post  vaccarum 
reversus  mulsionem,  in  dorso  portans  vasculum  novo  plenum 
lacte,  dicit  ad  Sanctum,  ut  juxta  10morem  tale  benediceret  onus. 
Sanctus  turn  ex  adverse  eminus  in  aere  signum  salutare  manu 
elevata  depinxit,  quod  illico  valde  concussum  est,  11gergennaque 
operculi,  per  sua  bina  foramina  retrusa,  longius  projecta  est, 
12operculum  terra  tenus  cecidit,  lac  ex  13majore  rnensura  in 
solum  defusum  est.  Juvenculus  vas,  cum  parvo  quod  remans- 

7  ora.  D.  8  om.  B.              9  battheneus  C.     baithenus  D. 

10  ione  B.  D.  n  habebat  B.                      12  lugne  D. 

13  aethicam  A.  14  hie  D.                             15  om.  D. 

16  om.  D.  17  propera  D.                 18  enim  add.  D.               19  ventis  A. 

20  etheticam  A.  21  everniam  A.                   22  nunquam  E. 

i  titul  om.C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.         2-*  om.  D.  3  qu0que  add.  C. 

fi-6  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  7  qui  add.  C.  D.  8  B.  C.  D.  F.  S.  tegorioli  A.  ; 

9  colnmba  erat  D.  10  om.  D.  n  gergenaqite  D. 

12  vasque  D.  13  more  D. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB/E.      LIBEll  II.  1G3 

erat  lactis,  super  fundum  in  terra  deponit,  genua  suppliciter 
14flectit.  Ad  quem  Sanctus,  Surge,  ait,  15Columbane,  hodie  in 
tua  operatione  negligenter  egisti,  dsemonem  enim  in  fundo  vacui 
latitantem  vasculi,  impresso  Dominicee  crucis  signo,  ante  16infu- 
sionem  lactis,  non  effugasti :  cujus  videlicet  signi  nunc  virtu- 
tern  non  sustinens,  tremefactus,  toto  pariter  turbato  vase,  velo- 
citer  cum  lactis  effusione  aufugit.  17Huc  ergo  ad  me  proprius 
vasculum,  ut  illud  benedicam,  approxima.  Quo  facto,  Sanctus 
semivacuum  18quod  19benedixerat  vas,  20eodem  momento  divini- 
tus  repletum  repertum  est ;  parvumque  quod  prius  in  fundo 
vasis  remanserat,  sub  sanctse  manus  benedictione,  usque  ad 
summam  citius  excreverat. 


^zscnlo  qnob  -quifoam  maleffni*  nrrmira  <Silnmm£  Izdt 
fo  mnscnla  bobt  exyxussa  «ylcberat. 

2in  domo  alicujus  plebeii  divitis,  3qui  in  monte  Cainle  CAP.  xvi. 
commorabatur,  Foirtgirni  nomine,  factum  4traditur.  Ubi  5cum 
Sanctus  hospitaretur,  inter  rusticanos  contendentes  duos,  quo 
rum  prius  adventum  prsescivit,  recta  judicatione  judicavit : 
unusque  ex  eis,  qui  maleficus  erat,  6a  Sancto  jussus,  de  bove 
masculo,  qui  prope  erat,  lac  arte  diabolica  expressit:  quod 
Sanctus,  non  ut  ilia  confirmaret  maleficia,  fieri  jussit,  quod 
absit ;  sed  ut  ea  coram  multitudine  destrueret.  Vir  itaque 
beatus  vas,  ut  videbatur  tali  plenum  lacte,  sibi  ocius  dari  popo- 
scit ;  et  hac  cum  sententia  benedixit  dicens,  Modo  probabitur 
non  esse  hoc  verum,  quod  7putatur,  lac,  sed  dsemonum  fraude, 
ad  decipiendos  homines,  decoloratus  sanguis :  et  continue  lac- 
teus  ille  color  in  naturam  versus  8est  propriam,  hoc  est,  in 
sanguinem.  Bos  quoque,  qui  per  unius  horse  momentum,  turpi 
macie  tabidus  et  maceratus,  erat  morti  proximus,  benedicta  a 
Sancto  aqua  superfusus,  mira  9sub  celeritate  sanatus  est. 

1^e  Jin%nto  JExrmmin. 

Cl^UADAM  die  quidambonse  indolis  juvenis,Lugneus  nomine,  CAP.  xvu. 
qui  postea  senex  in  monasterio  2Elenae  insulse  prsepositus  erat, 

14  flexit  C.  D.  «  columba  C.  D.  1G  effusionem  D. 

17  hoc  C.  18  om.  C.  D.  i9  benedixit  D.        20  eodemque  C.  D. 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.  2  factnm  subsequetis  C.  D. 

3-4  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  5  om>  lx  o  et  a^  p. 

7  putabatur  B.  C.  D.  F.  8  om.  B.  C.  9  om.  D. 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.  2  A.  B.      helene  C.  D.  F.  S. 


164  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^E.      LIBER  II. 

ad  Sanctum  veniens,  3queritur  de  4profluvio  sanguinis,  qui 
crebro  per  multos  menses  de  naribus  ejus  immoderate  proflue- 
bat.  Quo  propius  accito,  Sanctus  ambas  5ipsius  nares  binis 
manus  dexterse  digitulis  constringens  benedixit.  Ex  qua  hora 
benedictionis,  nunquam  sanguis  de  naso  ejus  usque  ad  extremum 
distillavit  diem. 


bt&to  toirxr  gptti&liter  a  JBta 

xvni  JP^tJLIO  5in  tempore,  cum  praedicabilis  viri  6sociales,  strenui 
piscatores,  quinos  in  rete  pisces  cepissent  in  fluvio  Sale  7piscoso, 
Sanctus  ad  eos,  8iterato,  ait,  Kete  in  flumen  mittite,  et  statim 
invenietis  grandem,  quern  mihi  Dominus  prseparavit,  piscem. 
Qui,  verbo  Sancti  obtemperantes,  mirae  magnitudinis  traxerunt 
in  9retiaculo  10esocem  a  Deo  sibi  prseparatum. 

CAP.  xix.  J^LLIO  quoque  in  tempore,  cum  Sanctus  juxta  Cei  Stagnum 
aliquantis  demoraretur  diebus,  comites  ire  ad  piscandum 
cupientes  retardavit,  dicens,  Hodie  et  eras  nullus  in  flumine 
reperietur  piscis  :  tertia  mittam  vos  die,  et  invenietis  binos 
grandes,  in  rete  retentos,  fluminales  12esoces.  Quos  ita  post 
duas  dieculas,  rete  mittentes,  duos  rarissimse  magnitudinis,  in 
fluvio  qui  dicitur  13Bo  reperientes,  ad  terrain  traxerunt.  In  his 
duabus  memoratis  piscationibus,  miraculi  apparet  virtus  et 
prophetica  simul  praescientia  comitata,  pro  quibus  Sanctus  et 
socii  Deo  grates  eximias  14reddiderunt. 

^z  Jtoattcr  2nttbtf  xjtit  in  m  xtQiont  3rxrnber0abatur 

i  rxmtermina. 


CAP.  xx.  llJC  Nesanus,  cum  esset  valde  inops,  sanctum  alio  tempore 
gaudenter  hospitio  recepit  virum.  Cui  cum  hospitaliter 
secundum  vires,  unius  noctis  spatio  ministrasset,  Sanctus  ab  eo 

3  columbam  add.  D.  4  fluvio  D.  5  illius  F. 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  E.  S.  Boll. 

2-3  esoce  magno  in  fluvio  sale  juxta  verbum  sancti  inveiito  B. 

4  in  C.  D.  F.  S.  hoc  capUul.  post  ii.  27  subsequitur,  et  ambo  in  lib.  iii. 
amandantur.  4-5  quodam  D.  6  scotiales  C.  D.  F.  S. 

7  piscosos  D.  8  om.  D.  9  rethe  "D. 

10  essocem  A.  F.     chocem  C. 

11  capit.  novum  orditur,  cui  prcefigitur  titulus  de  duobus  piscibus  illo  pro- 
phetante  in  flumine  quod  vocitatur  boo  repertis  B. 

n-14  om.  0.  D.  F.  S.  12  essoces  A.    sic  supra.     13  boo  B. 

.     J  titul.  et  cap.  totum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  2  cervo  B.          3  conversabat  B. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB.E.      LIBER  II.  165 

4inquirit,  cujus  boculas  numeri  haberet:  ille  ait,  Quinque. 
Sanctus  consequenter,  Ad  me,  ait,  adduc,  ut  eas  benedicam. 
Quibus  adductis,  et  elevata  maim  sancta  benedictis,  Ab  hac  die 
tuse  paueulse  quinque  vacculse  crescent,  ait  Sanctus,  usque  ad 
centum  et  quinque  vaccarum  numerum.  Et  quia  idem  Nesanus 
homo  plebeius  erat,  cum  uxore  et  filiis,  hoc  etiam  ei  vir  beatus 
benedictionis  augmentum  intulit,  dicens,  Erit  semen  tuum  in 
filiis  et  nepotibus  benedictum.  Quse  omnia  plene,  juxta  ver- 
Tbum  Sancti,  sine  ulla  expleta  sunt  imminutione. 

|_5<H^E  quodam  viro  divite  tenacissimo,  nomine  6Uigenio,  qui  CAP-  XXL 
sanctum  Columbam  despexerat  nee  eum  hospitio  recepit,  hanc 
e  contrario  protulit  prophetalem  sententiam,  inquiens,  Illius 
autem  avari  divitise,  qui  Christum  in  peregrinis  hospitibus 
sprevit,  ab  hac  die  paulatim  imminuentur,  et  ad  nihilum  redi- 
gentur;  et  ipse  mendicabit;  et  filius  ejus  cum  semivacua  de 
domo  in  domum  perula  discurret;  et,  ab  aliquo  ejus  emulo 
securi  in  fossula  excussorii  percussus,  morietur.  Quse  omnia 
de  utroque,  juxta  sancti  prophetiam  viri,  plene  sunt  7expleta.] 


xqnt  ptebdxr  toirxr,  otju0  psccrra  abmxrtmm 
pamra  toir  0artjcttt#  bmebtxii  ;  &eb  pxrst  illms>  ben.ebirii.cmem 
tittle  ab  centenarmm  nrefcertmt  tmmerum. 

.J9LLIO  2quoque  8tempore,  vir  beatus  4quadam  nocte,  cum  CAP.  xxn. 
apud  5  supra  6memoratum  Columbanum  7tunc  temporis  inopem, 
bene  7hospitaretur,  mane  primo  Sanctus,  8sicuti  superius  de 
Nesano  commemoratum  9(est,  de  quantitate  et  10qualitate  sub- 
stantiae  plebeium  hospitem  >11interrogat.  Qui  interrogatus, 
Quinque,  ait,  tantummodo  habeo  12vacculas;  quse,  si  eas  bene- 
dixeris,  in  majus  crescent.  Quas  illico,  a  Sancto  jussus, 
adduxit,  13similique  modo,  ut  supra  de  Nesani  quinis  dictum 
est  14vacculis,  et  hujus  Columbani  15boculas  quinales  sequaliter 
benedicens,  inquit,  Centenas  et  quinque,  Deo  donante,  habebis 
vaccas,  et  erit  in  filiis  et  nepotibus  tuis  florida  benedictio. 
Quse  omnia,  juxta  16beati  viri  prophetationem,  in  agris  et 
pecoribus  ejus  et  prole,  plenissime  adimpleta  sunt  ;  mirumque 

4  requirit  Boll. 

5-7  om.  A.  sine  rubrica,  paragrapho,  titulo,  aut  quavls  distinctione,  tenon 
prcecedentium  adhceret  B.  6  ingenio  B.    nigeno  in  capitulat.  p.  150  supra. 

1  titul  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.         2  om.  D.  3  in  add.  B. 

4  colmnba  add.  D.  6-6  Om.  C.  D.  F.  S.      7  hospitaret  C. 

8-9  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  10  de  add.  D.  "  interrogavit  D. 

la  vaccas  D.  w.14  ow.  C.  D.  F.  S.         «  buculas  C.  D.  1°  sancti  D. 


166  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^).      LIBER  II. 

in  modum  numerus  a  Sancto  prsefinitus  supra  17memoratis 
ambobus  18viris,  in  centenario  vaccarum  et  quinario  expletus 
numero,  nullo  modo  superaddi  potuit:  nam  ilia,  quse  supra 
prasfinitum  excedebant  numerum,  diversis  prserepta  casibus, 
nusquam  comparuerant,  excepto  eo  quod  aut  in  usus  proprios 
familise,  aut  19etiam  in  opus  eleemosynee,  expendi  poterat.  In 
hac  itaque  narratione,  ut  in  ceteris,  20virtutis  miraculum  et 
prophetia  simul  aperte  ostenditur :  nam  in  magna  vaccarum 
ampliatione  benedictionis  pariter  et  orationis  virtus  apparet,  et 
in  prsefinitione  numeri  prophetalis  praescientia. 


intmtu  rj 

CAP.  ~^OL  IE  venerandus  4  supra  memoratum  Columbanum,  queni  de 
xxin.  paupere  virtus  benedictionis  5ejus  6ditem  fecit,  valde  dfligebat; 
quia  ei  multa  pietatis  officia  praebebat.  Erat  autem  illo  7in 
tempore  quidam  malefactor  homo,  bonorum  persecutor,  8nomine 
9Joan,  films  Conallis  filii  10Domnallis,  de  regio  nGabrani  ortus 
genere.  Hie  supradictum  12  Columbanum,  sancti  amicum 
Columbse,  persequebatur ;  domumque  ejus,  omnibus  in  ea 
inventis,  devastaverat,  ereptis,  non  semel,  sed  bis  inimiciter 
agens.  Unde  forte  non  immerito  eidem  maligno  accidit  viro, 
ut  tertia  vice  post  ejusdem  domus  tertiam  deprsedationem, 
beatum  virum,  quern  quasi  longius  13positum  dispexerat, 
proprius  appropinquantem,  ad  navem  revertens  prseda  onustus 
cum  sociis,  obvium  haberet.  Quern  cum  Sanctus  de  suis 
corriperet  malis,  praedamque  deponere  rogans  suaderet,  ille, 
immitis  14et  15  insuadibilis  permanens,  Sanctum  dispexit, 
navimque  cum  prasda  ascendens,  beatum  virum  subsannabat  et 
deridebat.  Quern  Sanctus  ad  mare  16  usque  17prosecutus  est, 
vitreasque  intrans  aquas  usque  ad  genua  aequoreas,  levatis  ad 
ccelum  18ambis  manibus,  Christum  intente  precatur,  qui  suos 
glorificantes  se  glorificat  electos.  19Est  vero  ille  portus,  in 
quo  post  egressum  persecutoris  stans  paulisper  Dominum 
exorabat,  in  loco  qui  Scotice  20vocitatur  21  Ait-Chambas  22  Art- 

17.18  memorato  viro  C.  D.  F.  S.  19  om,  C.  <2°  virtutibus  C. 

1  tiiul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll. 

2-3  interitu  iohannis  filii  couallis  ea<leui  die  qua  sanctum  speruens  dchono- 
ravit  B.  4  columba  add.  D.  5  om.  B. 

6  divitem  C.  D.  7  om.  D.  s-10  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 

9  iohannes  B.  10  domnalli  B.  "  om.  G.  D.  F.  S. 

12  coin  A.  13  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  H  om.  G. 

15  insuadibiliter  C.  1G  om.  D.  17  secutus  D. 

18  A.  B.  ambabus  C.  D.  S.     manu  correctors  F.  1J-22  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 

20  vocatur  B.  2L~-'2  A.  ad  cambasi  arcl  muircoll  B. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^.      LIBER  II.  167 

muirchol.  23  Turn  24proinde  Sanctus,  expleta  oratione,  ad 
aridam  reversus,  in  eminentiore  cum  comitibus  25  sedet  loco  :  ad 
quos  ilia  in  hora  formidabilia  valde  profert  verba,  dicens,  Hie 
26  miserabilis  27  humuncio,  qui  Christum  in  suis  dispexit  servis, 
ad  portum,  a  quo  nuper  coram  vobis  emigravit,  nunquam 
revertetur ;  sed  nee  ad  alias,  quas  appetit,  terras,  subita  prse- 
ventus  morte,  cum  suis  28perveniet  malis  cooperatoribus. 
Hodie.  quam  mox  videbitis,  de  nube  29a  borea  30  orta  immitis 
immissa  procella  31eum  cum  sociis  32submerget;  nee  de  eis 
etiam  unus  33remanebit  34  fabulator.  Post  aliquantum  paucu- 
larum  ^  interventum  morarum,  die  serenissima,  et  ecce  de  mari 
36oborta,  sicut  Sanctus  37  dixerat,  nubes,  cum  38  magno  fragore 
venti  emissa,  raptorem  cum  prseda  inter  Maleam  et  39  Colosum 
40  insulas  41  inveniens,  subito  turbato  42  submersit 43  medio  mari : 
nee  ex  eis,  juxta  verbum  Sancti,  qui  navi  44inerant 45  etiam  unus 
^evasit;  mirumque  in  modum,  toto  circumquaque  manente 
tranquillo  sequore,  talis  una  rapaces  ad  inferna  submersos  pro- 
stravit  procella,  misere  quidem,  sed  digne. 


Jferabarhxr  0ubita  m.arte 

quoque  4in  tempore,  vir  sanctus,5  quendam  de  nobili  CAP; 
Pictorum  genere  exulem,  6Tarainum  7  nomine,  in  manum  ali-  XXIV 
cujus  8Feradachi  ditis  viri,  9qui  in  10Ilea  insula  nhabitabat, 
diligenter  assignans  commendavit,  ut  in  ejus  comitatu,  quasi 
unus  de  amicis,  per  aliquot  menses  conversaretur.  Quern  cum 
tali  commendatione  de  sancti  manu  viri  suscepisset  commen- 
datum,  post  paucos  dies,  dolose  agens,  crudeli  eum  jussione 
trucidavit.  Quod  immane  scelus  cum  Sancto  a  commeantibus 
esset  nunciatum,  sic  respondens  profatus  est,  Non  mini  sed  Deo 
ille  infelix  homunculus  mentitus  est, 12 cujus  nomen  de  libro 
vitse  delebitur.  Haec  verba  13  sesteo  nunc  mediante  prolo- 

23  tune  D.  24  deinde  C.  D.  25  suis  add.  D.    sedit  B. 

a6  miserabHiter  C.  27  homo  D.  28  superveniat  D. 

29  om.  C.  so  ortam  B  31  quge  add,  D. 

32  emerget  D.  33  remeabit  C.  34  famulator  D. 

35  intervallum  D.  3»  aborta  A.  D.  '  37  prsedixerat  B. 

38  magna  B.  so  ^.  colosam  B.  D.     colossum  C. 

40  insulam  C.  41  veniens  C.  D.  42  mersit  D. 

43  in  add.  D.  44  eraut  D.             45  vel  C.  4C  jam  add.  D. 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll. 

2-3  alicujus  feradachi  morte,  fraudulent?  viri  a  sancto  prsenunciata  B. 

4  om.  D.  5  coiumba  add.  D.  ^  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 

8  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  9-u  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  10  ilia  B. 

12  ejus  C.  is  aestivo  B.  C.  D. 


1  68  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB.E.      LIBER  II. 

quimur  tempore,  sed  autumnal!,  antequam  de  suilla  14  degustet 
carne,  15arboreo  saginata  fructu,  subita  prseventus  morte,  ad 
16infernalia  rapietur  loca.  Haec  sancti  prophetia  viri,  cum 
misello  17  nuntiaret  homuncioni,  despiciens  irrisit  Sanctum : 
et  post  dies  aliquot  autumnalium  mensium,  eo  jubente, 18  scrofa 
nucum  impinguata  nucleis  jugulatur,  necdum  aliis  ejusdem  viri 
jugulatis  suibus;  de  qua  celeriter  exinterata  partem  sibi  in 
veru  celerius  19assari  20pr8ecipit,  ut  de  ea  impatiens  21homo 
prsegustans,  beati  viri  prophetationem  destrueret.  Qua  vide 
licet  assata,  dari  sibi  poposcit  aliquam  22prsegustandam  morsus 
particulam;  ad  quam  percipiendam  extensam  manum  prius- 
quam  ad  os  converteret,  expirans,  mortuus  retro  in  dorsum 
cecidit.  Et  qui  viderant,  et  qui  audierant,  valde  tremefacti, 
admirantes,  Christum  in  sancto  propheta  honorificantes  glori- 
ficarunt. 


X5^  alixr  2qtMrt)am  tufatto 

atjns  nomm  Ratine  JEarat*  JJextera 

CAP.  xxv.  ,#H-LIO  in  tempore,  vir  beatus,  cum  alios  ecclesiarum  perse- 
cutores,  in  4Hinba  commoratus  insula,  excommunicare  coepisset, 
filios  videlicet  Conallis  filii  Domnaill,  quorum  unus  erat  5  loan, 
de  quo  supra  retulimus ;  quidam  ex  eorundem  malefactoribus 
sociis,  diaboli  instinctu,  cum  hasta  irruit,  ut  Sanctum  inter- 
ficeret.  Quod  prsecavens  unus  ex  fratribus,  6Findluganus 
nomine,  mori  paratus  pro  sancto  viro,  cuculla  ejus  indutus  in- 
tercessit.  Sed  mirum  in  modum  beati  viri  tale  vestimentum, 
quasi  qusedam  munitissima  et  impenetrabilis  lorica,  quamlibet 
fortis  viri  forti  impulsione  acutioris  hastes,  transfigi  non  potuit, 
sed  illsesum  permansit;  et  qui  eo  indutus  erat,  intactus  et 
incolumis  tali  protectus  est  munimento.  Ille  vero  sceleratus, 
qui  Manus  Dextera,  7  retro  repedavit,  aestimans  quod  sanctum 
hasta  transfixisset  virum.  Post  ex  ea  die  completum  annum, 
cum  Sanctus  in  loua  commoraretur  insula,  Usque  in  hanc  diem, 
ait,  integratus  est  annus,  ex  qua  die  Lam-dess,  in  quantum 
potuit,  Findluganum  mea  jugulavit  vice ;  sed  et  ipse,  ut 
sestimo,  hac  8in  hora  jugulatur.  Quod  juxta  Sancti  revela- 
tionem  eodem  momento  in  ilia  insula  factum  est,  quse  Latine 

14  gustet  C.  15  arborum  B.  16  inferna  D. 

17  nunciaretur  C.  D.  18  A.  B.  C.  19  praeparari  Boll. 

20  prsecepit  C.  21  om.  C.  22  prsegustandum  A. 

1  capit.  totum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  titul  om.  Boll.  2-3  om.  B. 

4  himba  B.  »  A.  iohannes  B.  6  A.  tinducanus  B. 

7  dicebatur  add.  B.     latine  nominator  wo  jure  Boll.  8  om.  B. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^E.      LIBER  II.  169 

Longa  vocitari  potest:  ubi  ipse  solus  Lam-dess,  in  aliqua 
virorum  utrinque  acta  belligeratione,  Cronani  filii  9Baithani 
jaculo  transfixus,  in  nomine,  ut  fertur,  sancti  Columbee  emisso, 
interierat ;  et  post  ejus  interitum,  belligerare  viri  cessarunt. 


J5b  alixr  2ittb*m  hmoceniutm 

vir  beatus,  adhuc  juvenis  diaconus,  in  parte  Lagen-  CAP. 
ensium,  divinam  addiscens  sapientiam,  conversaretur,  quadam  xxvi. 
accidit  die  ut  5homo  quidam  innocuorum  immitis  persecutor 
crudelis,  quandam  in  campi  planitie  filiolam  fugientem  perse- 
queretur.  Quse  cum  forte  6Gemmanum  senem,  supra  memo- 
rati  7juvenis  diaconi  magistrum,  in  campo  legentem  vidisset,  ad 
eum  recto  cursu,  quanta  valuit  velocitate,  confugit.  Qui,  tali 
perturbatus  subitatione,  Columbam  eminus  legentem  advocat, 
ut  ambo,  in  quantum  valuissent,  filiam  a  persequente  defender- 
ent.  Qui  statim  superveniens,  nulla  eis  ab  eo  data  reverentia, 
filiam  sub  vestimentis  eorum  lancea  jugulavit;  et  relinquens 
jacentem  mortuam  super  pedes  eorum,  aversus  abire  coepit. 
Senex  8tum,  valde  9tristificatus,  conversus  ad  10Columbam, 
Quanto,  ait,  sancte  puer  Columba,  hoc  scelus  cum  nostra  de- 
honoratione  temporis  spatio  inultum  fieri  Judex  Justus  patietur 
Deus  ?  Sanctus  consequenter  hanc  in  ipsum  sceleratorem  pro- 
tulit  sententiam,  dicens,  Eadem  hora  qua  interfectse  ab  eo  filise 
anima  11ascendit  ad  ccelos,  anima  ipsius  interfectoris  12descendat 
ad  inferos.  Et  dicto  citius,  cum  verbo,  sicut  Ananias  coram 
Petro,  sic  et  ille  innocentium  jugulator,  coram  oculis  sancti 
juvenis,  in  eadem  13mortuus  14cecidit  15terrula.  Cujus  rumor 
subitae  et  formidabilis  vindictse  continuo  per  multas  Scotise  pro- 
vincias,  cum  mira  sancti  diaconi  fama,  divulgatus  est. 

16  Hue  usque  de  adversariorum  terrificis  ultionibus  dixisse 
sufficiat :  nunc  de  bestiis  aliqua  narrabimus  17pauca. 

9  baetani. 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  ubi  hoc  capitulum  iii.  4  subnectitur.         2  om.  B. 
3  qui  in  laginensium  provincia  sicut  ananias  coram  petro  eodem  momento 
a  sancto  terribiliter  objurgatus  cecidit  mortuus  add.  B. 

*  dum  F.  5  bono  Q^  c  A.  B.  D.  F.  germanum  C. 

7  juvenilis  B.  8  time  "D.  9  tristiticatnr  C. 

10  sanctum  add.  B.         n  ascendet  manu  recentiore  D. 

12  descendet  C.     descendit  in  descendet  mutat.  D.     descendit  F. 

13  om.  B.  14-15  est  hora  D.  1(U7  om.  C.  D.  F.  IS. 


170 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^l.      LIBER  II. 


XXVII 


xrrati0n.em 


CAP.      4,JPi_LIO  5in  tempore,  vir  beatus,  cum  in  6Scia  insula  ali- 


quantis  demoraretur  diebus,  paulo  longius  solus,  orationis 
intuitu,  separatus  a  fratribus,  silvam  ingressus  densam,  mirse 
magnitudinis  aprum,  7  quern  forte  venatici  canes  8persequebantur, 
9obviam  habuit.  10Quo  viso  eminus,  Sanctus  aspiciens  11eum 
12restitit.  Turn  deinde,  invocato  Dei  nomine,  13sancta  elevata 
manu,  cum  intent  a  dicit  ad  eum  oratione,  Ulterius  hue  pro- 
cedere  unoles:  15in  16loco  17  ad  quern  nunc  devenisti  18morere. 
Quo  Sancti  in  silvis  personante  verbo,  non  solum  ultra  accedere 
non  valuit,  sed  ante  faciem  ipsius  terribilis  ferus,  verbi  ejus 
virtute  mortificatus,  cito  corruit. 


aquatili*  btziix  birtute  oratixrnt0 


CAP. 
XXVIII. 


bin 


O  quoque  in5tempore,  cum  vir  beatus  6in  Pictorum  pro- 
vnca  per  aliquot  moraretur  dies,  necesse  habuit  fluvium 
transire  7Nesam  :  ad  cujus  cum  accessisset  ripam,  alios  ex  accolis 
aspicit  misellum  humantes  8homunculum;  quern,  ut  9ipsi  sepul- 
tores  ferebant,  qusedam  paulo  ante  nantem  aquatilis  prseripiens 
bestia  10morsu  momordit  ssevissimo  :  cujus  miserum  cadaver, 
sero  licet,  quidam  in  alno  subvenientes  porrectis  prseripuere 
uncinis.  Vir  e  contra  11beatus,  hasc  audiens,  praecipit  ut  aliquis 
12  ex  comitibus  enatans,  13caupallum,  in  altera  stantem  ripa,  ad 
se  navigando  reducat.  Quo  sancti  audito  prsedicabilis  viri  prse- 
cepto,  Lugneus  14Mocumin,  nihil  moratus,  obsecundans,  depositis 
excepta  vestimentis  tunica,  immittit  se  in  aquas.  Sed  bellua, 
quae  prius  non  tarn  satiata,  quam  in  15pr3edam  accensa,  in  pro- 
fundo  fluminis  latitabat,  sentiens  eo  16nante  turbatam  supra 


i  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll. 

2-3  apri    mortification  e   qui   a   saucto   emitms    cecidit   signo    prostratus 
dominicse  crucis  B. 

4  capitul.  totuin  ad  lib.  iii.  c.  4  Iransfertur  In  C.  D.  F.  S. 

5  om.  D.                         6  A.  D.  sua  B.     sicia  C.  7-8  om.  B, 
9  tune  add.  B.              10-12  om.  D.  n  turn  B. 

13  om.  D.                        14  nolis  C.  15-16  nisi  D. 
17  hoc  add.  B.     quantotius  add.  B. 

1  titul.  om.  G.  D.  F.  S.  Boll. 

a-3  alia  aquatili  bestia  qua  eo  orante  et  manum  e  contra  levante  retro 

repulsa  est  ne  lugiieo  natanti  vicino  noceret  B.  4-6  om.  D. 

6  columba  add.  D.         7  nessam  B.  8  hominem  D. 
9  ipsius  C.                     10  raptu  B.  n  sanctus  S. 

12  e  C.  13  A.  B.  F.  S.    caupulum  C.     caballum  D. 

14  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.           15  preeda  C.  10  uatante  B. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^E.      LIBER  II.  l7l 

aquam,  subito  emergens,  natatilis  ad  hominem  in  medio  natantem 
alveo,  cum  ingenti  fremitu,  aperto  17cucurrit  ore.  18Vir  19tum 
beatus  videns,  omnibus  qui  inerant,  tarn  barbaris  quam  etiam 
fratribus,  nimio  terrore  20perculsis,  cum  salutare,  21sancta 
22elevata  manu,  in  vacuo  23aere  crucis  pinxisset  signum,  invocato 
Dei  nomine,  feroci  imperavit  bestise  dicens,  24Noles  ultra  pro- 
gredi,  nee  hominem  tangas ;  retro  citius  revertere.  Turn  25vero 
bestia,  hac  Sancti  audita  voce,  retrorsum,  ac  si  funibus  retra- 
heretur,  velociori  26recursu  fugit  27tremefacta :  28quse  prius 
Lugneo  nanti  eo  usque  ^appropinquavit,  ut  hominem  inter  et 
bestiam  non  amplius  esset  quam  unius  contuli  longitudo. 
Fratres  turn,  30recessisse  videntes  bestiam,  Lugneumque  com- 
militonem  ad  eos  intactum  et  incolumem  in  3lnavicula  reversum, 
cum  ingenti  admiratione  glorificaverunt  Deum  in  beato  viro. 
Sed  et  gentiles  barbari,  qui  ad  prsesens  32  inerant,  ejusdem  mira- 
culi  magnitudine,  83quod  et  ipsi  viderant,  compulsi,  Deum 
magnificaverunt  Christianorum. 


Itujtx*  in0ul#  terrttla  ne  iteittcepa  in  t& 
alktxt  itoxemit3 


die  ejusdem  4aastei  temporis  quo  ad  5Dominum  CAP. 
transiit,  ad  visitandos  fratres  Sanctus  plaustro  vectus  pergit,  xxix. 
qui  in  campulo  occidentali  6  louse  insulas  opus  materiale  exer- 
cebant.  Post  quorum  consolatoria  a  Sancto  prolata  alloquia,  in 
eminentiore  stans  loco,  sic  vaticinatur  dicens,  Ex  hac,  filioli,  die, 
scio  quod  in  hujus  campuli  locis  nunquam  poteritis  in  futurum 
videre  faciem  meam.  Quos,  hoc  audito  verbo,  valde  tristificatos 
videns,  consolari  eos  in  quantum  fieri  possit  conatus,  ambas 
manus  elevat  sanctas,  et  totam  hanc  nostram  benedicens  insu- 
lam,  ait,  Ex  hoc  hujus  horulse  momento  7  omnium  viperarum 
venenanullo  modo,  in  hujus  insulae  8terrulis,  aut  hominibus  aut 
pecoribus  nocere  poterunt,  quamdiu  Christi  mandata  ejusdem 
commorationis  incolse  observaverint. 


17  occurrit  C.  18-19  tune  vir  D.  20  percussis  D. 

21  devota  C.  22  om.  C.  23  et  in  add.  C. 

24  noli  C.         25  om.  G.  2G  cursu  C.  D.  ~7--8  retractione  factaque  B. 

29  modo  propinquavit  D.  30  recessisset  B. 

31  naviculam  B.  32  erant  D.  ^  qui  B. 

1  capitul.  totum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.     tituL  om.  Boll. 

2-3  insule  ione  viperinis  serpentibus  qui  ex  qua  die  sanctus  earn  benedixit 
nulli  hominum  iiec  etiam  pecoribus  nocere  potuere  B. 

4  aestivi  B.  5  om.  B.  °  ione  B. 

7  omnia  B.  8  terrula  B. 


172  VITA  SANCTI  COLUM1LE.      LIBER  II. 


mm  'jSominuft  anew  0ignaoii0  bmtbida. 

CAP.  xxx.  JHLLIO  3in  tempore,  quidam  frater  4  nomine  Molua,  Nepos 
5Briuni,  ad  Sanctum  eadem  scribentem  hora  veniens,  dicit  ad 
eum,  Hoc  quod  in  manu  habeo  ferrum,  quaeso  benedicas.  Qui 
paululum  extensa  manu  6sancta  cum  calamo  signans  benedixit, 
ad  librum  de  quo  scribebat  facie  conversa.  Quo  videlicet  supra- 
dicto  fratre  cum  ferro  benedicto  recedente,  Sanctus  percunctatur 
dicens,  Quod  fratri  ferrum  benedixi?  7Diormitius,  pius  ejus 
ministrator,  Pugionem,  ait,  ad  jugulandos  tauros  vel  boves  bene- 
dixisti.  Qui  e  contra  respondens  8infit,  Ferrum  quod  benedixi, 
confido  in  Domino  meo,  9quia  nee  homini  nee  pecori  nocebit. 
Quod  Sancti  firmissimum  eadem  hora  comprobatum  est  verbum. 
Nam  idem  frater,  10  vallum  egressus  monasterii,  bovem  jugulare 
volens,  tribus  firmis  vicibus,  et  forti  impulsione  conatus,  nee 
tamen  11potuit  etiam  ejus  transfigere  pellem.  Quod  monachi 
scientes  experti,  ejusdem  pugionis  12  ferrum,  ignis  resolutum 
calore,  per  omnia  monasterii  ferramenta  liquefactum  diviserunt 
illinitum  ;  nee  postea  ullam  potuere  carnem  vulnerare,  illius 
Sancti  13manente  benedictionis  fortitudine. 


1  |p£  ilixrrmitii 

CAP.  ^LLIO  2in  tempore,  3Diormitius,  Sancti  pius  4minister,  usque  ad 
xxxi.  mortem  segrotavit  :  ad  quern,  in  extremis  5constitutum,  Sanctus 
6visitans  accessit;  Christique  invocato  nomine,  infirmi  ad  7lec- 
tulum  stans,  et  pro  eo  8exorans,  dixit,  Exorabilis  mihi  fias  precor, 
Domine  9mi,  et  animam  mei  ministratoris  pii  de  hujus  carnis 
habitaculo,  me  non  auferas  superstite.  Et  hoc  dicto  aliquan- 
tisper  conticuit.  10Tum  proinde  hanc  de  sacro  ore  profert 
vocem  dicens,  Hie  meus  non  solum  hac  vice  nunc  non  morietur 
puer,  sed  etiam  post  meum  annis  vivet  multis  obitum.  Cujus 
haec  exoratio  est  exaudita  :  nam  11Diormitius,  statim  post  Sancti 
exaudibilem  precem,  plenam  recuperavit  salutem  ;  per  multos 
quoque  annos  post  Sancti  12ad  Dominum  emigrationem  super^ 
vixit. 


1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F. 
2  capital,  totum  in  i. 
4-s  om.  C.  D.  F.  S. 
8  inquit  D. 
11  poterat  D.  S. 

1  titul.  om.,  cap.  xv. 
2  om.  D. 
5  om.  D. 
8  orans  D. 
11  diarmatus  D. 

S.  Boll. 
15  relegatur.     C.  D.  F.  S. 
6  sua  add.  D. 
9  quod  C.                         10 
i*  GOT.  C. 

continuatur  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll. 
3  diarmatus  D. 
6  visitandum  D. 
9  am.  D. 
12  columbe  arfc/.  D. 

3  om.  D. 
7  diarmatus  D. 
murum  D.     nullani  S. 
13  remanente  D. 

4  •ministrator  C.  D. 
7  lectum  S. 
10  cum  D. 

VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^E.      LIBER  II.  173 

Jgb  2Jfinteni  ftlii  JUbxr  in  sxtrtmi*  pxrsiti  sanitate. 

JEClJO  quoque  in  tempore,  Sanctus  quum  trans  Britannicum  CAP. 
iter  ageret  Dorsum,  quidam  juvenis,  unus  comitum,  subita  XXXTT. 
molestatus  segrimonia,  ad  extrema  usque  perductus  3est,  nomine 
4Fintenus :  pro  quo  commilitones  Sanctum  msesti  rogitant  ut 
oraret.  Qui  statim,  eis  compatiens,  sanctas  cum  intenta  ora- 
tione  expandit  ad  coelum  manus,  58egrotumque  benedicens,  ait, 
Hie,  pro  quo  interpellatis,  juvenculus  vita  vivet  longa ;  et  post 
omnium  6 nostrum  qui  hie  adsumus  exitum  superstes  remanebit, 
in  bona  moriturus  senecta.  Quod  beati  viri  vaticinium  plene 
per  omnia  expletum  est :  nam  idem  juvenis,  illius  postea 
monasterii  fundator,  quod  dicitur  7Kailli-au-inde,  in  bona 
senectute  prsesentern  terminavit  vitam. 

1  5*  ptt*r0  qtiem  mortmtm  bit  teraranbti*  in  Chrati  Domini 
nrrmine  0tt#dtatoit 

3ELLO  in  tempore,  quo  sanctus  Columba  in  Pictorum  provin-  CAP< 
cia  per  aliquot  demorabatur  dies,  quidam  cum  tota  plebeius  xxxm. 
familia  verbum  vitse  per  interpretatorem  sancto  prsedicante  viro, 
audiens  credidit,  credensque  baptizatus  est,  maritus  cum  marita 
liberisque  et  familiaribus.  Et  post  aliquantulum  diecularum  in- 
tervallum  paucarum  unus  filiorum  patrisfamilias,  gravi  correp- 
tus  aegritudine,  usque  ad  confinia  mortis  et  vitse  perductus  est. 
Quern  cum  magi  morientem  vidissent,  parentibus  cum  magna 
exprobratione  coeperunt  illudere,  suosque,  quasi  fortiores,  magni- 
ficare  deos,  Christianorum  vero,  tanquam  infirmiori,  2Deo  dero- 
gare.  Quae  omnia  cum  beato  intimarentur  viro,  zelo  suscitatus 
Dei,  ad  domum  cum  suis  comitibus  amici  pergit  plebeii,  ubi 
parentes  nuper  defunctse  prolis  msestas  3celebrabant  exequias. 
Quos  Sanctus  valde  tristificatos  videns,  confirmans  dictis  4com- 
pellat  consolatoriis,  ut  nullo  modo  de  divina  5omnipotentia 
dubitarent.  Consequenterque  percunctatur,  dicens,  In  quo 
hospitiolo  corpus  defuncti  jacet  pueri  ?  Pater  turn  orbatus 
Sanctum  sub  msestum  6deducit  culmen,  qui  statim,  omnem  foris 
exclusam  relinquens  catervam,  solus  msestificatum  intrat  habit- 
aculum,  ubi  illico,  flexis  genibus,  faciem  ubertim  lacrymis  irri- 


1  capitul.  totum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  titul  om.  Boll. 
3  om.  B.                             4  fentenus  B. 
6  nostrorura  A.  Colg.  Boll,  nrm  B. 
7  A.    kailli  anfind  B.    kailli,  abinde  Boll. 
1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.         2  om.  C. 
4  compellavit  D.                             f>  potentia  D. 

2  fenteni  B. 
4  segroque  B. 

3  celebrant  B.  C. 
0  deduxit  D. 

174  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB.E.      LIBER  II. 

gans,  Christum  precatur  Dominum ;  et  post  ingeniculationem 
surgens,  oculos  convertit  ad  mortuum,  dicens,  In  nomine  Domini 
Jesu  Christi  resuscitare,  et  sta  super  pedes  tuos.  Cum  hac 
Sancti  honorabili  voce  anima  ad  corpus  rediit,  defunctusque 
apertis  revixit  oculis,  cujus  manum  tenens  apostolicus  homo 
erexit,  et  in  7statione  stabiliens,  secum  domum  egressus  8dedu- 
cit,  et  parentibus  redivivum  assignavit.  Clamor  turn  populi 
attollitur,  9plangor  in  10  Isetationem  convertitur,  Deus  Christian- 
orum  nglorificatur.  Hoc  noster  Columba  cum  12Elia  et 
13Eliseo  prophetis  14habeat  sibi  commune  virtutis  miraculum ; 
et  cum  Petro  et  Paulo  et  15  Joanne  apostolis  partem  honoris 
similem  in  defunctorum  resuscitatione ;  et  inter  utrosque,  hoc 
est,  prophetarum  et  apostolorum  ccetus,  honorificam  coelestis 
patrise  sedem  homo  propheticus  et  apostolicus  aeternalem  cum 
Christo,  qui  regnat  cum  Patre  in  unitate  Spiritus  Sancti  per 
omnia  saecula  16s8eculorum17. 


xrb  anriU*  2xthniiontm  inttxmzio,  ti  $w 
libzx&twnt  satmtxr. 

CAP.  [H^ODEM  3in  tempore,  vir  venerandus  quandam  a  Broichano 
xxxiv.  magO  4gco^cam  postulavit  servam  humanitatis  miseratione 
liberandam :  quam  cum  ille  5duro  valde  et  6stolido  7retentaret 
8animo,  9Sanctus  ad  eum  locutus,  hoc  10profatur  modo,  Scito, 
Broichane,  scito  quia  si  mihi  hanc  peregrinam  nliberare  12cap-  | 
tivam  nolueris,  priusquam  de  hac  13revertar  provincia,  ucitius  ; 
morieris.  Et  hoc  coram  15Brudeo  rege  dicens,  domum  egressus 
regiam,  ad  Nesam  venit  fluvium,  de  quo  videlicet  fluvio  lapidem 
attollens  candidum,  ad  comites,  Signate,  ait,  hunc  16  candidum 
lapidem,  per  quern  Dominus  in  17hoc  gentili  populo  18multas 
segrotorum  perficiet  sanitates.  Et  hoc  19effatus  verbum  conse- 
quenter  intulit,  inquiens,  Nunc  Broichanus  20fortiter  concussus 
est,  nam  angelus  de  ccelo  missus,  graviter  ilium  percutiens, 
vitream  in  manu  ejus,  de  qua  bibebat,  confregit  in  multa 
21biberam  fragmenta;  ipsum  vero  anhelantem  segra  reliquit 

7  stationem  C.         8  deduxit  D.         9  planctus  B.  D.         10  leetitiam  B.  C. 
11  gloriticatus  est  D.  12  helia  B.  D.  13  heliseo  B.     helizeo  D. 
14  habet  D.         15  iohanne  B.           10  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.          17  amen  add.  B. 

1  titul  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.         2  retcntionis  B.  3  om.  D. 

4  scotticam  B.  6  latro  B.  °  fortiter  B.  7  retardaret  D. 

8  om.  B.  9  libertati  dare  interim,  et  manu  reccntiori  D. 
10  profatus  est  D.  ll  libere  A.  D.  12  om.  B. 

13  revertaris  F.  H  dimittere  add.  D.  15  bruideo  A. 

16  om.  D.  17  om.  D.  18  om.  D. 

1!)  affatus  D.  20  om,.  D.  '*  om.  C. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB,^.      LIBER  IT.  175 

suspiria,  morti  vicinum.  Hoc  in  loco  paululum  expectemus 
binos  regis  nuncios,  ad  nos  celeriter  missos,  ut  Broichano  mori- 
enti  citius  subveniamus :  nunc  Broichanus,  formidabiliter  cor- 
reptus,  22ancillulam  liberare  est  paratus.  Adhuc  Sancto  haec 
loquente  verba,  ecce,  sicut  23praedixit,  duo  a  rege  missi  equites 
adveniunt,  24omniaque  quse  in  regis  25munitione  de  Broichano, 
juxta  Sancti  vaticinium,  sunt  acta,  enarrantes  ;  et  de  poculi  con- 
fractione,  26et  de  magi  correptione,  et  de  27servulse  parata  abso- 
lutione ;  hocque  intulerunt,  dicentes,  Eex  et  ejus  familiares  nos 
ad  te  niiserunt,  ut  nutricio  ejus  28 Broichano  subvenias,  mox 
morituro.  Quibus  auditis  legatorum  verbis,  Sanctus  binos  de 
coinitum  numero  ad  regem,  cum  lapide  a  se  benedicto,  mittit, 
dicens,  Si  in  primis  promiserit  se  29Broichanus  famulam  libera- 
turum,  turn  deinde  hie  lapillus  intingatur  in  aqua,  et  sic  de  eo 
bibat,  et  continue  salutem  recuperabit :  si  vero  renuerit  30refra- 
gans  absolvi  servam,  statim  morietur.  Duo  missi,  verbo  Sancti 
obsequentes,  ad  aulam  31deveniunt  regiam,  verba  viri  32venera- 
bilis  regi  enarrantes.  Quibus  33intimatis  regi  et  nutricio  ejus 
^Broichano,  valde  expaverunt :  35eademque  horaliberata  famula 
sancti  legatis  viri  assignatur,  lapis  in  aqua  intingitur,  mirum- 
que  in  modum,  contra  naturam,  36lithus  in  aquis  supernatat, 
quasi  pomum,  vel  nux,  nee  potuit  sancti  benedictio  viri  sub- 
mergi.  De  quo  Broichanus  natante  bibens  lapide,  statim  a 
vicina  rediit  morte,  integramque  carnis  recuperavit  salutem. 
Talis  vero  lapis,  postea,  in  thesauris  regis  reconditus,  multas 
in  populo  segritudinum  sanitates,  similiter  in  aqua  natans  in- 
tinctus,  Domino  miserante,  effecit.  Mirum  37dictu,  ab  his  segro- 
tis,  quorum  vitae  terminus  supervenerat,  requisitus  idem  lapis 
nullo  modo  reperiri  poterat.  Sic  et  in  die  obitus  Brudei  regis 
qu^erebatur,  nee  tamen  in  eodem  loco,  ubi  fuerat  prius  recondi 
tus,  inveniebatur. 


toati  bin  ttnttra  Iprxruhairom  magttm  xttx&Q&timiz,  tt 
btnti  canhznttzit. 


supra  memorata  peracta,  quadam  die  2  Broichanus  3ad 
4sanctum  proloquens  5virum  6infit,  Dicito  mihi,  Columba,  quo 

22  ancillam  C.  D.  23  prsedixerat  C.  24  omnia  C.  D. 

25  motione  C.  D.     notione  inepte  Messingliam. 

26  de  broichano  juxta  add.  C.  27  servse  D. 
28  baichano  B.     brochano  D.           29  brochanus  D.  30  om.  D. 

31  devenerunt  D.  32  venerabiliter  C.  33  auditis  B. 

34  brochano  D.         35  eadem  C.         30  lapis  C.    litatus  D.       37  que  add.  D. 
1  tltul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.      2  brochanus  D.      3-4  om.  D.       6-6  vir  inquit  D. 


176  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMBJ3.      LIBER  II. 

tempore  proponis  enavigare  ?  Sanctus,  Tertia,  ait,  die,  Deo 
volente  et  vita  comite,  navigationem  proponimus  incipere. 
6Broichanus  e  contra,  Non  poteris,  ait ;  nam  ego  ventum  tibi 
contrarium  facere,  caliginemque  umbrosam  superinducere  pos 
sum,  Sanctus,  Omnipotentia  Dei,  ait,  omnium  7dominatur,  in 
cujus  nomine  nostri  omnes  motus,  ipso  gubernante,  diriguntur. 
Quid  plura  ?  8  Sanctus  die  eadem,  sicut  9corde  proposuit,  ad 
lacum  10Nesa3  fluminis  longum,  multa  prosequente  caterva, 
venit.  Magi  vero  gaudere  turn  coepere,  magnam  videntes  super- 
inductam  caliginem,  et  contrarium  cum  tempestate  flatum. 
Nee  mirum  hsec  interdum  arte  dsemonum  posse  fieri,  Deo  per- 
mittente,  ut  etiam  venti  et  sequora  in  asperius  concitentur.  Sic 
enim  aliquando  deemoniorum  legiones  sancto  Germano  episcopo, 
de  Sinu  Gallico,  causa  humanae  salutis,  ad  Britanniam  navi- 
ganti,  medio  in  sequore  occurrerant,  et  opponentes  pericula 
procellas  concitabant,  ccelum  ndiemque  tenebrarum  caligine 
obducebant.  Quse  tamen  omnia,  sancto  orante  Germano,  dicto 
citius,  sedata  detersa  cessarunt  caligine.  Noster  itaque  Columba, 
videns  contra  se  elementa  concitari  furentia,  Christum  12invocat 
Dominum,  13cymbulamque  ascendens,  nautis  hsesitantibus,  ipse 
constantior  factus  velum  contra  ventum  jubet  subrigi.  Quo 
facto,  omni  inspectante  turba,  navigium  flatus  contra  14  ad  versos 
mira  15vectum  occurrit  velocitate.  Et  post  haud  grand  e  inter- 
vallum  venti  contrarii  ad  itineris  ministeria  cum  omnium 
admiratione  revertuntur.  Et  sic  per  totam  illam  diem  flabris 
lenibus  16secundis  17flantibus,  beati  cymba  viri  optatum  18per- 
vecta  ad  portum  19pulsa  est.  Perpendat  itaque  lector  quantus 
et  qualis  idem  vir  venerandus,  20in  quo  Deus  omnipotens,  tali- 
bus  prsescriptis  miraculorum  virtutibus,  coram  plebe  21gentilica 
illustre  suum  manifestavit  nomen. 


sttbita: 

CAP.       JfB-LIO  4in  tempore,  hoc  est,  in  prima  Sancti  fatigatione  itin- 

xxxvi.   eris  ad  regem  Brudeum,  casu  contigit  ut  idem  rex,  fas'tu  elatus 

regio,  suse  munitionis,  superbe  agens,  in  primo  beati  adventii 

viri,  non  aperiret  portas.     Quod  ut  cognovit  homo  Dei,  cum 


6  Broclianus  D.  7  dominator  D.  8  om.  D. 

9  om.  C.  10  B.  nisae  A.  C.  F.     in  se  D.  n  que  add.  C. 

12  invocaverat  D.  13  cimbalumqae  D.  14  om.  C. 

15  factum  B.  16  secundi  C.  ir  ventis  D. 

18  perfecta  B.     provecta  C.  19  appulsa  B. 

20  fuerit  C.  D.  F.  S.  21  gentili  D. 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.         2-3  om,.  B.  4  om,.  D. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMBvE.      LIBER  II.  177 

comitibus  ad  valvas  portaram  accedens,  in  primis  Dominic 
crucis  imprimens  signum,  turn  deinde  manum  pulsans  contra 
ostia  ponit ;  quee  continue  sponte,  retro  retrusis  fortiter  seris, 
cum  omni  celeritate  5aperta  6sunt.  Quibus  statim  apertis, 
Sanctus  consequenter  cum  7sociis  8intrat.  Quo  cognito,  rex 
cum  senatu  valde  pertimescens,  domum  egressus,  obviam  cum 
veneratione  beato  pergit  viro,  pacificisque  verbis  blande  sadmo- 
dum  compellat :  et  ex  ea  in  posterum  die  sanctum  et  venera- 
bilem  virum  idem  regnator,  suse  omnibus  vitse  reliquis  diebus, 
valde  magna  honoravit,  ut  decuit, 10  honorificentia. 


Jjri  3ribxrntm 

itidem  4in  tempore,  vir  beatus  5aliquantis  in  Scotia  CAP; 
diebus  6conversatus,  ad  visitandos  fratres  qui  in  monasterio 
7Duum  Ruris  commanebant  Bivulorum,  ab  eis  invitatus,  per- 
rexit.  Sed  casu  aliquo  accidit  ut  eo  8ad  ecclesiam  accedente, 
claves  non  reperirentur  oratorii.  Cum  vero  Sanctus  9de  non 
repertis  adhuc  clavibus  et  de  obseratis  foribus  inter  se  conqui- 
rentes  alios  audisset,  ipse  ad  ostium  appropinquans,  Potens  est 
10Dominus,  ait, 11  domum  suam  servis  etiam  sine  clavibus  aperire 
suis.  Cum  hac  turn  voce  subito  retro  retrusis  forti  motu  pes- 
sulis,  sponte  aperta  janua,  Sanctus  cum  omnium  admiratione 
ecclesiam  ante  omnes  ingreditur,  et  hospitaliter  a  fratribus  sus- 
ceptus,  honorabiliter  ab  omnibus  11veneratur. 


menbkrr  ad  z&ntiws  0ti!bem 
bentbixit 


in  tempore  quidam  ad   Sanctum   4plebeius  venit      CAP. 
pauperrimus,  qui  in  ea  habitabat  regione  quse  Stagni  litoribus  xxxvm. 
5Aporici  6est  contermina.     Huic  ergo  miserabili  viro,  qui  unde 
maritam  et  parvulos  cibaret  non  habebat,  vir  beatus  petenti, 
miseratus,  ut  potuit,  quandam  largitus  eleemosynam,  ait,  Miselle 
humuncio,  tolle  de  silva  contulum  vicina,  et  ad  me  7oeyus  defer. 

5-6  deposuit  D.  7  suis  add.  C.  8  intravit  C. 

8  ad  don)  urn  D.  10  reverentia  D. 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.          2  om.  B.  3  rivulorum  B. 

4  om.  D.  5  columba  add.  D.  6  versatus  C. 

7  divini  C.  8  om.  S.  9  columba  add.  D. 

10  deus  D.  n  veneratus  est  D. 

1  titul.  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.         2-3  quodam  D.  4  columbam  add.  D. 

5  aporicie  D.  6  om.  D.  7  citius  C.  D. 

M 


178 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB/E.      LIBER  II. 


Obsecundans  miser,  juxta  Sancti  jussionem,  detulit  materiam ; 
quam  Sanctus  excipiens  in  veru  exacuit;  quodque  propria 
exacuminans  manu,  8benedicens,  9et  illi  assignans  10inopi  dixit, 
Hoc  veru  diligenter  custodi,  quod,  ut  credo,  nee  homini,  nee 
alicui  pecori,  nocere  poterit,  exceptis  feris  bestiis  quoque  et 
piscibus ;  et  quamdiu  talem  habueris  sudem,  nunquam  in  domo 
tua  cervinoa  carnis  cibatio  abundans  deerit.  Quod  audiens 
miser  nmendiculus,  valde  gavisus,  domum  revertitur,  veruque 
in  remotis  iniixit  12terrulae  locis,  quae  silvestres  frequentabant 
ferse ;  et  vicina  transacta  nocte,  mane  primo  13pergit  re  visit  are 
volens  veru,  in  quo  mirse  magnitudinis  cervum  cecidisse  reperit 
utransfixum.  Quid  plura  ?  Nulla,  ut  nobis  traditum  est,  transire 
poterat  dies,  qua  non  aut  cervum,  aut  cervam,  aut  aliquam  re- 
periret  in  veru  infixo  cecidisse  bestiam.  Eepleta  quoque  tota 
de  ferinis  carnibus  domo,  vicinis  superflua  vendebat,  quse  hos- 
pitium  suae  domus  capere  non  poterat.  Sed  tamen  diaboli 
invidia  per  sociam,  ut  Adam,  et  hunc  etiam  miserum  invenit ; 
quse,  non  quasi  prudens,  sed  fatua,  taliter  ad  maritum  locuta 
est,  Tolle  de  terra  veru ;  nam  si  in  eo  homines,  aut  etiam  pecora, 
perierint,  tu  15ipse  et  ego  cum  nostris  liberis  aut  occidemur  aut 
captivi  ducemur.  Ad  haec  maritus  inquit,  Non  ita  16fiet ;  nam 
sanctus  vir  mini,  benedicens  sudem,  dixit,  quod  nunquam  homi- 
nibus  aut  etiam  pecoribus  nocebit.  Post  hsec  verba  mendicus, 
uxori  consentiens,  pergit,  et  17tollens  de  terra  veru,  intra  domum, 
quasi  18amens,  illud  secus  parietem  posuit ;  in  quo  mox  domes- 
ticus  ejus  incidens  canis  disperiit.  Quo  pereunte,  rursum  marita, 
Unus,  ait,  filiorum  tuorum  incidet  in  sudem  et  peribit.  Quo 
audito  ejus  verbo,  maritus  veru  de  pariete  removens  ad  silvam 
reportat,  et  in  densioribus  infixit  dumis,  ut  putabat  ubi  a  nullo 
posset  animante  offendi.  18Sed  postera  re  versus  die  capream  in 
eo  cecidisse  et  periisse  19 reperit.  Inde  quoque  illud  removens, 
in  20fluvio  qui  Latine  dici  potest  Nigra  21Dea,  juxta  ripam  sub 
aquis  abscondens  infixit :  quod  alia  revisitans  die,  esocem  in  eo 
mirse  magnitudinis  transfixum  et  retentum  invenit ;  quern  de 
flumine  elevans  vix  solus  ad  domum  portare  poterat,  veruque 
secum  de  aqua  simul  reportans,  extrinsecus  in  superiore  tecti 
affixit  loco;  in  quo  et  corvus  22devolatus,  impetu  lapsus  dis 
periit  jugulatus.  Quo  facto,  miser,  fatuee  conjugis  consilio 
depravatus,  veru  tollens  de  tecto,  assumpta  securi,  in  plures 


8  atque  add.  ~D. 
11  mendicus  B. 
14  transmission  C. 
17  tollit  C. 
20  fluvium  B. 


9  om.  D. 
12  terra  C. 
15  et  add.  0. 
18  amans  B.  C.  D. 
21  cleca  D. 


10  que  add.  P. 
13  perrexit  D. 
16  fiat  D. 
™-w  om.  Boll. 


22  de  volatus  C.     devolutus  F.  Boll. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB.E.      LIBER  II.  179 

concidens  particulas,  23in  ignem  projecit.  24Et  post,  quasi  suse 
paupertatis  amisso  non  mediocri  solatio,  remendicare,  ut  meritus, 
coepit.  Quod  videlicet  penurise  rerum  solamen  ssepe  superius  in 
veru  memorato  dependebat,  quod  pro  pedicis,  et  retibus,  et  omni 
venationis  et  piscationis  genere  servatum  posset  sufficere,  beati 
viri  donatum  benedictione,  quodque  amissum  miser  plebeius, 
eo  ditatus  pro  tempore,  ipse  cum  tota  familiola,  sero  licet,  omni 
bus  de  cetero  deplanxit  reliquis  diebus  25vitse. 

l*§z  lariaticr  tttre  xjmm  salaria  atatwlit  ttttba  zi  fo-enilia  ileram 
repr#0*nta:bit  in  ynaxe  loco. 


in  tempore,  beati  legatus  viri,  Lugaidus  nomine,  2cogno-  CAP. 
mento  3Laitirus,  ad  Scotiam  jussus  navigare  proponens,  inter  xxxix. 
navalia  navis  Sancti  instrumenta  utrem  lactarium  qusesitum 
inveniens,  sub  mari,  congestis  super  eum  non  parvis  lapidibus, 
madefaciendum  posuit  ;  veniensque  ad  Sanctum  quod  de  utre 
fecit  intimavit.  Qui  subridens  inquit,  Uter,  quern  ut  dicis  sub 
undis  posuisti,  hac  vice  ut  sestimo  non  te  ad  4Hiberniam  comi- 
tabitur.  Cur,  ait,  non  mecum  in  navi  comitem  eum  habere 
potero?  Sanctus,  Altera,  inquit,  die  quod  res  probabit  scies. 
Itaque  Lugaidus  mane  postera  die  ad  retrahendum  de  mari 
utrem  pergit  ;  quern  tamen  salacia  noctu  subtraxit  unda.  Quo 
non  reperto,  ad  Sanctum  reversus  tristis,  flexis  5in  6terram 
genibus,  suam  confessus  est  negligentiam.  Cui  Sanctus,  ilium 
consolatus,  ait,  Noli  frater  pro  fragilibus  contristari  rebus  :  uter 
quern  salacia  sustulit  7unda,  ad  suum  locum,  post  tuum  egres- 
sum,  reportabit  8venilia.  Eadem  die  post  Lugaidi  de  9Ioua 
insula  emigrationem,  hora  transacta  nona,  Sanctus  circum- 
stantibus  sic  profatus,  ait,  Nunc  ex  vobis  unus  ad  sequor 
pergat;  utrem,  de  quo  Lugaidus  querebatur,  et  quern  salacia 
10sustulerat  unda,  mine  venilia  retrahens,  in  loco  unde  sub- 
tractus  est  nrepr8esentavit.  Quo  Sancti  audito  verbo,  quidam 
alacer  juvenis  ad  oram  cucurrit  maris,  repertumque  utrem,  sicut 
prsedixerat  Sanctus,  cursu  reversus  concito  reportans,  valde 
gavisus,  coram  Sancto,  cum  omnium  qui  ibidem  12inerant 
admiratione,  assignavit.  In  his,  ut  ssepe  dictum  est,  binis 
narrationibus  superius  descriptis,  quamlibet  in  parvis  rebus, 

23  comminuit  et  add.  D. 

24'25  et  ipse  post  modum  iterum  factus  est  pauper  sicut  prius  et  usque  acl 
diem  mortis  sue  cum  tota  familia  sudem  lugebant  I). 

1  titul.  om.  C.  F.  S.  Boll,      omnia  usque  ad  quos  enim  deus  in  cap.  42 
inferius  desunt  in  D.  2-3  om.  C.  F.  8.  4  everniam  A. 

5-6  om.  B.  7  om.  C.  8  venalia  C. 

!)  A.  C.  F.  S.    iona  B.     10  sustulerit  F.         »  reprwsentabit  F.       12  erant  C. 


180  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^:.      LIBER  II. 

sude  videlicet  et  litre,  13prophetia  sinml  et  virtutis  miraculum 
comitari  cernuntur.    14Nunc  ad  alia  15tendamus. 


l^z  ffijibran*  23tmttbineti  prqphetatitf  mndi  torn. 

CAP  XL  JpstLIO  ID  tempore,  cum  vir  sanctus  in  3Ioua  conversaretur 
insula,  homo  quidam  plebeius  nuper  sumpto  clericatus  habitu, 
de  Scotia  transnavigans,  ad  insulanum  beati  monasterium  viri 
devenit.  Quern  cum  alia  die  Sanctus  in  hospitio  4residem  hos- 
pitantem  invenisset  solum,  primum  de  patria,  de  gente,  et  causa 
itineris,  a  Sancto  interrogatus ;  de  5Connachtarum  regione  ori- 
undum  se  professus  est ;  et  ad  delenda  in  peregrinatione  pecca- 
mina  longo  fatigatum  itinere.  Cui  cum  Sanctus,  ut  de  suse 
pcenitudinis  exploraret  qualitate,  dura  et  laboriosa  ante  oculos 
monasterialia  proposuisset  imperia ;  ipse  consequenter  ad  Sanc 
tum  respondens,  inquit,  Paratus  sum  ad  omnia  quaecunque  mihi 
jubere  volueris,  quamlibet  durissima,  quamlibet  indigna.  Quid 
plura  ?  Eadem  hora  omnia  sua  confessus  peccata,  leges  pceni- 
tentiae,  flexis  in  terrain  genibus,  se  impleturum  promisit.  Cui 
Sanctus,  Surge,  ait,  6et  reside.  Turn  deinde  residentem  sic 
compellat,  Septennem  debebis  in  Ethica  pcenitentiam  explere 
terra.  Ego  et  tu  usquequo  numerum  expleas  septennalium 
annorum,  Deo  Donante,  victuri  sumus.  Quibus  Sancti  con- 
fortatus  dictis,  grates  Deo  agens,  ad  Sanctum,  Quid  me,  ait, 
agere  oportet  de  quodam  meo  falso  juramento  ?  nam  ego 
quendam  in  patria  commanens  trucidavi  homuncionem;  post 
cujus  trucidationem,  quasi  reus  in  vinculis  retentus  sum.  Sed 
mihi  quidam  7cognationalis  homo  ejusdem  parentelae,  valde 
opibus  opulentus,  subveniens,  me  opportune  et  de  vinculis 
vinculatum  absolvit,  et  de  morte  reum  eripuit.  Cui  post  abso- 
lutionem  cum  firma  juratione  promiseram  me  eidem  omnibus 
mese  diebus  vitse  serviturum.  Sed  post  aliquot  dies  in  servitute 
peractos,  servire  homini  dedignatus,  et  Deo  potius  obsecundare 
malens,  desertor  illius  carnalis  domini,  juramentum  infringens, 
8discessi,  et  ad  te,  Domino  meum  prosperante  iter,  perveni.  Ad 
haec  Sanctus,  virum  pro  talibus  valde  angi  videns,  sicuti  prius 
prophetans,  profatur,  inquiens,  Post  septenorum,  sicut  tibi  dic 
tum  est,  expletionem  annorum,  diebus  ad  me  hue,  9quadragesi- 
malibus  venies,  ut  in  Paschali  solemnitate  ad  altarium  accedas, 

13  prophetic*  C.  14-15  om.  B. 

1  capitul.  totum  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  titul.  om.  Boll.  2  harundineti  A.  B. 

3  iona  B.  4  residenti  B.  5  conactarum  B. 

6  interim.  B.  7  cognition  alis  A.  8  decessi  A. 

9  qnadragensimalibus  A. 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^E.      LIBER  II.  181 

et  Eucharistiam  sumas.  Quid  verbis  immoramur  ?  Sancti  viri 
imperils  per  omnia  pcenitens  obsequitur  peregrinus.  10Iisdemque 
diebus  ad  monasterium  Campi  missus  u  Lunge,  ibidem  plene 
expletis  in  pcenitentia  septem  annis,  ad  Sanctum,  diebus  quadra- 
gesimse,  juxta  ejus  priorem  propheticam  jussionem,  revertitur. 
Et  post  peractam  Paschse  solemnitatem,  in  qua  jussus  ad  altare 
accessit,  ad  Sanctum  de  supra  interrogans  memorato  venit  jura- 
mento.  Cui  Sanctus  interroganti  talia  vaticinans  responsa  pro- 
fatur,  Tuus  de  quo  mini  aliquando  dixeras,  carnalis  superest 
dominus ;  paterque  et  mater  et  fratres  adhuc  vivunt.  Nunc 
ergo  prseparare  te  debes  ad  navigationem.  Et  inter  hsec  verba 
macheram  belluinis  ornatam  dolatis  protulit  dentibus,  dicens, 
Hoc  accipe  tecum  portandum  munus,  quod  domino  pro  tua 
redemptione  offeres;  sed  tamen  nullo  modo  accipiet.  Habet 
enim  bene  moratam  12conjugem,  cujus  salubri  obtemperans  con- 
silio,  te  eadem  die  gratis,  sine  pretio,  libertate  donabit,  cingulum 
ex  more  captivi  de  tuis  resolvens  lumbis.  Sed  hac  anxietate 
solutus,  aliam  a  latere  surgentem  non  effugies  sollicitudinem  : 
nam  tui  fratres  undique  13coarctabunt  te,  ut  tanto  tempore 
patri  debitam,  sed  neglectani,  redintegres  pietatem.  Tu  tamen, 
sine  ulla  hsesitatione  voluntati  eorum  obsecundans,  patrem 
14senem  pie  excipias  confovendum.  Quod  onus,  quamlibet  tibi 
videatur  grave,  contristari  non  debes,  quia  mox  depones :  nam 
ex  qua  die  incipies  patri  ministrare,  alia  in  fine  ejusdem  septi- 
manse  mortuum  sepelies.  Sed  post  patris  sepultionem,  iterum 
fratres  te  acriter  compellent,  ut  matri  etiam  debita  pietatis  im- 
pendas  obsequia.  De  qua  profecto  compulsione  tuus  junior  te 
absolvet  frater ;  qui  tua  vice  paratus  omne  pietatis  opus,  quod 
debes,  pro  te  matri  serviens  reddet.  Post  hsec  verba  supra 
memoratus  frater,  Libranus  nomine,  accepto  munere,  Sancti 
ditatus  benedictione  perrexit ;  et  ad  patriam  perveniens,  omnia, 
secundum  Sancti  vaticinium,  invenit  vere  probata.  Nam  statim, 
ut  pretium  suse  offerens  libertatis  ostendit  domino,  accipere 
volenti  refragans  uxor,  Ut  quid  nobis,  ait,  hoc  accipere  quod 
sanctus  pretium  misit  Columba  ?  Hoc  non  sumus  digni. 
Liberetur  ei  pius  hie  gratis  ministrator.  Magis  nobis  sancti 
viri  benedictio  proficiet,  quam  hoc  quod  15offertur  pretium. 
Audiens  itaque  maritus  hoc  maritse  salubre  consilium,  continuo 
gratis  liberavit  servum.  Qui  post,  juxta  prophetiam  Sancti, 
compulsus  a  fratribus,  patrem,  cui  ministrare  ccepit,  septima 
die  mortuum  sepelivit.  Quo  sepulto,  ut  et  matri  debite  deser- 
viret  compellitur.  Sed  subveniente  juniore  fratre,  sicut  Sanctus 

10  hisdemque  A.  B.  n  longe  B.  12  cojugem  A. 

13  coartabant  B.  14  tuum  add.  B.  15  offert  Colg.  Boll. 


1 82  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB.E.      LIBElt  II. 

praedixerat,  vicem  ejus  adimplente,  16absolvitur.  Qui  ad  fratres 
sic  dicebat,  Nullo  modo  nos  17oportet  fratrem  in  patria  retentare, 
18  qui  per  septem  annos  apud  sanctum  Columbam  in  19  Britannia 
salutem  exercuit  animae.  Post  quae,  ab  omnibus  quibus  moles- 
.tabatur,  absolutus,  matri  et  fratribus  valedicens,  liber  reversus, 
ad  locum  qui  Scotice  vocitatur  20Daire  21Calgaich  pervenit. 
Ibidemque  navim  sub  velo  a  portu  emigrantem  inveniens, 
clamitans  de  litore  rogitat,  ut  ipsum  nautae  cum  eis  susciperent 
navigaturum  22ad  23Britanniam.  Sed  ipsi  non  suscipientes 
refutaverunt  eum,  quia  non  24erant  de  monachis  sancti 
Columbae.  Turn  deinde  ad  eundem  venerabilem  loquens  virum, 
quamlibet  longe  absentem,  tamen  spiritu  prsesentem,  ut  mox 
res  probavit,  Placetne  tibi,  ait,  sancte  Columba,  ut  hi  nautae, 
qui  me  tuum  non  suscipiunt  socium,  plenis  velis  et  secundis 
enavigent  ventis  ?  In  hac  voce  ventus,  qui  ante  illis  erat 
secundus,  dicto  citius  versus  est  contrarius.  Inter  haec  videntes 
virum  eundem  e  regione  secus  flumen  cursitantem,  subito  inter 
se  inito  consilio,  ad  ipsum  de  navi  inclamitantes  dicunt  nautici, 
Fortassis  idcirco  citius  in  contrarium  nobis  conversus  est 
ventus  25quia  te  suscipere  renuerimus.  Quod  si  etiam  nunc  te 
ad  nos  in  navim  invitaverimus,  contraries  nunc  nobis  flatus  in 
secundos  convertere  poteris  ?  His  auditis,  viator  ad  eos  dixit, 
Sanctus  Columba,  ad  quern  vado,  et  cui  hue  usque  per  septem 
annos  obsecundavi,  si  me  susceperitis,  prosperum,  vobis  ventum 
a  Domino  suo,  virtute  orationum,  impetrare  potent.  Quibus 
auditis,  navim  terrae  approximant,  ipsumque  ad  eos  in  earn 
invitant.  Qui  statim,  rate  ascensa,  In  nomine  Omnipotentis, 
ait,  cui  sanctus  Columba  inculpabiliter  servit,  tensis  rudentibus 
levate  velum.  Quo  facto,  continue  contraria  venti  flamina  in 
secunda  vertuntur,  prosperaque  usque  ad  26Britanniam  plenis 
successit  navigatio  velis.  Libranusque,  postquam  ad  loca  per- 
ventum  est  27Britannica,  illam  deserens  navim,  et  nautis  bene- 
dicens,  ad  sanctum  devenit  Columbam  in  28Ioua  commorantem 
insula.  Qui  videlicet  vir  beatus,  gaudenter  suscipiens  eum, 
omnia  quae  de  eo  in  itinere  acta  sunt,  nullo  alio  intimante,  plene 
narravit,  et  de  domino,  et  uxoris  ejus  salubri  consilio,  quomodo 
ejusdem  suasu  liberatus  est;  de  fratribus  quoque;  de  morte 
patris,  et  ejus,  finita  septimana,  sepultione ;  de  matre,  et  de  fratris 
opportuna  junioris  subventione  ;  de  his  quae  in  29regressu  acta 


16  sed  junior  add.  B.  17  om.  B.  18  oportet  add.  B. 

19  brittannia  A.  B. 

20  claire  Colg.  Boll,  liter  a  d,  quce  in  cod.  A.formam  el  prce  sefert,  minus 
observata.  21  B.  calcig  A.     calig  male  Colg.  Boll. 

22  in  B.  23  brittanniam  A.  B.          24  A.  B.  erat  Boll.  25  quod  B. 

20  brittanniam  A.  B.        27  brittannica  A.  B.        2S  ioua  B.        29  ingrcssu  B, 


VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^E.      LIBEll  II.  183 

sunt ;  de  vento  contrario,  et  secundo ;  de  verbis  nautarum  qui 
primo  eum  suscipere  recusarunt,  de  promissione  prosper!  flatus ; 
et  de  prospera,  eo  suscepto  in  navi,  venti  conversione.  Quid 
plura  ?  Omnia,  quae  Sanctus  adimplenda  prophetavit,  expleta 
enarravit.  Post  haec  verba  viator  pretium  suse  quod  a  Sancto 
30accepit  redemptionis  assignavit.  Cui  Sanctus  eadem  hora 
vocabulum  indidit,  inquiens,  Tu  Libranus  vocaberis  eo  quod  sis 
liber.  Qui  videlicet  31Libran  32iisdem  in  diebus  votum  mon- 
achicum  devotus  vovit.  Et  cum  a  sancto  viro  ad  monasterium, 
in  quo  prius  septem  annis  poanitens  Domino  servivit,  remittere- 
tur,  hsdc  ab  eo  ^prophetica  de  se  prolata  34accepit  verba 
35valedicente,  Vita  vives  longa,  et  in  bona  senectute  vitam 
terminabis  prsesentem.  Attamen  non  in  36  Britannia,  sed  in 
Scotia,  resurges.  Quod  verbum  audiens,  flexis  genibus,  amare 
fievit.  Quem  Sanctus  valde  msestum  videns,  consolari  crepit 
dicens,  Surge,  et  noles  tristificari.  In  uno  meorum  morieris 
monasteriorum,  et  cum  electis  erit  pars  tua  meis  in  regno 
monachis  ;  cum  quibus  in  resurrectionem  vitse  de  somno  mortis 
evigilabis.  37  Qui,  a  Sancto  accepta  non  mediocri  consolatione, 
valde  leetatus  38est,  et  Sancti  benedictione  ditatus,  in  pace 
perrexit.  Quse  Sancti  de  eodem  viro  verax  postea  est  adim- 
pleta  prophetatio.  Nam  cum  per  multos  annales  cyclos  in 
inonasterio  Campi  89  Lunge  post  sancti  Columbse  de  mundo 
transitum,  obedienter  Domino  deserviret,  40monachus,  pro 
quadam  monasteriali  utilitate  ad  Scotiam  missus,  valde  senex, 
statim  ut  de  navi  descendit,  pergens  per  Campum  Breg,  ad 
monasterium  devenit  Eoborei  Campi;  ibidemque,  hospes  re- 
ceptus  hospitio,  quadam  molestatus  infirmitate,  septima 
segrotationis  die  in  pace  ad  Dominum  perrexit,  et  inter  sancti 
Columbse  electos  humatus  est  monachos,  secundum  ejus  vati- 
cinium,  in  vitam  resurrecturus  seternam.  Has  de  Librano 
41Arundineti  sancti  veridicas  Columbse  vaticinationes  scripsisse 
sufficiat.  Qui  videlicet  Libranus  ideo  41Arundineti  est 
42vocitatus,  quia  in  43arundineto  multis  annis  44arundines 
colligendo  laboraverat. 


30  B.  accipit  A. 
33  valedicens  add.  Boll. 
3(5  brittannia  A.  B. 
39  lugne  male  Colg.  Boll. 
42  vocatus  B. 

31  A.  libranus  B. 
34  B.  accipit  A. 
37  qua  B. 
40  monachis  B. 
43  harundineto  A.  B. 

32  liisdein  A.  B. 
35  om.  Boll. 
38  om.  B. 
41  harundineti  A.  B. 
44  harundiiies  A.  B. 

184  VITA  SANCTI  COLUMB^.      LIBER  II. 

15^  xjuabam  trndierotht  mannas  zt  2fcalbe  Mfffctlior.e£  parturi- 
iianiz,  nt  (£:b$  #Ua,  tortioue* 


CAP.  XLI.  TTADAM  die,  Sanctus  in  3Ioua  4commanens  insula,  a 
lectione  5surgit,  et  subridens  dicit,  Nunc  ad  6oratorium  mihi 
properandum,  ut  pro  quadam  misellula  7Dominum  deprecer 
femina,  quaa  nunc  in  8Hibernia  nomen  hujus  inclamitans 
commemorat  Columbse,  in  magnis  parturitionis  difncillimse 
9torta  punitionibus,  et  ideo  per  me  a  Domino  de  angustia 
absolutionem  dari  sibi  sperat,  quia  et  mihi  est  10cognationalis; 
de  mese  matris  parentela  genitorem  habens  progenitum.  Hsec 
dicens  Sanctus,  illius  mulierculas  motus  miseratione,  ad 
ecclesiam  currit,  flexisque  genibus  pro  ea  Christum  de  nomine 
natum  exorat.  Et  post  precationem  oratorium  egressus,  ad 
fratres  profatur  occurrentes,  inquiens,  Nunc  propitius  Dominus 
lesus,  de  muliere  progenitus,  opportune  miserae  subveniens, 
earn  de  angustiis  liberavit,  et  prospere  prolem  peperit  ;  nee  hac 
morietur  vice.  Eadem  hora,  sicuti  Sanctus  prophetizavit, 
misella  femina,  nomen  ejus  invocans,  absoluta  salutem  recup- 
eravit.  Ita  ab  aliquibus  postea  de  Scotia,  et  de  eadem  regione 
ubi  mulier  inhabitabat,  transmeantibus,  intimatum  est. 


conjnx  olbia  habuerat  b^fxrrmem  ;  xjui  in  ^rhr^a  rxrmmxrra- 
batur 


CAP.  XLII.  ^LIO  in  tempore,  cum  vir  sanctus  in  Eechrea  hospitaretur 
insula,  quidam  plebeius  ad  eum  veniens,  de  sua  querebatur 
uxore,  quas,  ut  ipse  dicebat,  4odio  habens,  eum  ad  5maritalem 
nullo  rnodo  admittebat  concubitum  accedere.  Quibus  auditis, 
Sanctus,  maritam  advocans,  in  quantum  potuit,  earn  hac  de 
causa  corripere  coepit,  inquiens,  Quare,  mulier,  tuam  a  te  carnem 
abdicare  conaris,  Domino  dicente,  Erunt  duo  in  carne  una  ? 
itaque  caro  tui  conjugis  tua  caro  est.  Quaa  respondens,  Omnia, 
inquit,  qusecunque  mihi  prseceperis,  sum  parata,  quamlibet  sint 
valde  laboriosa,  adimplere,  excepto  uno,  ut  me  nullo  compellas 
modo  in  uno  lecto  dormire  cum  Lugneo.  Omnem  domus 

1  titul  om.  C.  D.  F.  S.  Boll.  2  om.  B.  3  A.  C.  F.  S.     iona  B. 

4  commorans  C.  5  surgens  C.  c  orationem  C. 

7  deum  C.  8  B.  C.  F.  S.  evernia  A.         9  om.  F. 
10  C.  F.  S.  cognitionalis  A.  B. 

1  capitul.  totum  om.  C.  F.  S.  titul.  om.  Boll.  2  A.  gubernatore  B. 

3  t